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sal. The hints suggested will be sufficient this plant there are three varieties, one with to evince its general and particular impor- deep red, another with flesh-coloured, and tance, and induce some, perhaps, to follow a third with white flowers; but they are up with care and correctness, a practice not much esteemed, as the double rose-camwhich alone can enable them to give the fair pion, which is a fine Power, bas excluded results of interesting experiments, or qualify the others from most good gardens. The them to ascertain the particular causes of single rose-campions are sufficiently propasuccess or failure in general management gated by the self-sown seeds. The variety The obscurity and perplexity of conjecture with double flowers, having no seeds, is can by such means alone be changed, for propagated by parting the roots in autumn, the clearness of fact and the beauty of order; and planting them in a border of fresh unand, in short, they can thus only decide dunged earth, at the distance of about six with truth, and act with confidence. inches; they should be watered gently till

AGRIMONIA, agrimony, in botany, a they have taken root; afterwards wet, as gemus of Dodecandria Digyvia class and well as dung, is injurious to them. In spring order : the calyx is one-leafed, permanent, they should be removed into the borders of perianthium fenced with an outer calyx; the flower-garden, where they will be very tie corolla has five petals; the stamina are ornamental whilst they flower in July and capillary filaments, shorter than the corolla; August. The third species grows naturally the anthers are small; the pistillum is a on the Swiss and Piedmontese monntains, germ inferior; the style simple ; the stigmas and in the Palatinate, and was cultivated obtuse; no pericardium; there are two in 1739, by Mr. Miller. It flowers in roundish seeds. Of this genus there are July, and the seeds ripen in September. It five species: the A. parviflora grows in the will thrive best in a moist soil, and a shady borders of corn-fields, shady places, and situation. The fourth species is annual. It hedges in Great Britain, and most parts of is a native of Italy, Sicily, and the Levant, Enrope; it is perennial, and flowers in bat being a plant of little beauty, it is preJune and July. The root is sweet-scented; served in botanic gardens merely for variety. an infusion of it is used by the Canadians AGROSTIS, bent-grass, in botany, a gewith success in burning fevers, Dr. Hill nus of the Triandria Digynia class of plants, says, that an infusion of six ounces of the the calyx of which is composed of a glume, crown of the root in a quart of boiling wa consisting of two valves, and inclosing a ter, sweetened with honey, and drank to single flower; it is of an acuminated figure; the quantity of half a pint, thrice a day, is the corolla is also of an acuminated figure, a cure for the jaundice. When the plant and composed of two valves; it is scarce comes into flower, it will dye wool of a so long as the cup, and one of the valves is bright full nankeen colour ; if gathered in larger than the other, and aristated; the September, it yields a darker yellow. In corolla serves in place of a pericarpium; Prussia it is used for dressing of leather. it surrounds and every way incloses the

AGROSTEMA, the garland of the field, seed, which is single, roundish, and pointed in botany, a genus of the Decandria Penta at each end. gynia class and order: the calyx is one There are 42 species, distributed into leafed; the corolla has five petals; the sta two classes ; the aristatæ, or those with mina are ten awl-shaped filaments; the pis- awns; and the muticæ, or naked without tillum an ovate germ, with erect styles and awns. The A. spica venti, silky bent grass, simple stygmas; the pericarpium is one. 'with entire petals, the outer one having a celled; the seeds are numerous. There are stiff, straight, and very long awn, and the four species, viz. 1. A. githago, corns cam. pavicle spreading; is an annual, and compion, or cockle : 2. A. coronaria, rose mon in sandy corn-fields. It flowers in campion: 3. A. flos jovis : and 4. A cæli June and July, and is liable to be smutted. rosa, smooth campion. The first species is Horses and goats eat it, but sheep refuse a common annual weed in corn fields, and it. The A. arundicea, furnished with a flowers in June or July; the seeds are

writhed awn;

is a native of many parts of black, with a surface like shagreen, and Europe, and is a perennial. The Kalmuc appear in the mieroscope like a bedge-hog Tartars weave mats of it, and thatch their rolled up. The second species is biennial, houses with it. The alba, or white benta native of Italy, the Valais, and Siberia; grass, is perennial, and grows in ditches, but so long an inbabitant of English gar- marshes, and moist meadows : there are deps, that it is become a kind of weed. Of four varieties, some of which are found



among potatoes in light sandy soils, and some abates or enters the same day, and disposamorig wheat, fowering from July to Sep sesses the heir of his inheritance. tember,

AJOVEA, in botany, a genus of the AGUE. See Medicine.

Hexandria Monogynia class and order : the AGYNEIA, in botany, a genus of the calyx is single-leaved, the corolla has three Triandria Monogynia class and order: the petals, the stigma is divided into six segmale flowers are below the female, the ca ments, and the fruit is a roundish, singlelyx is six-leaved; no corolla; in the male, celled, monospermous berry. There is one instead of filaments, are three or four an species that grows in the forests of Guiana. thers : in the female flowers, the germ of AIR, a thin elastic fluid, surrounding the the size of the calyx; neither style nor stig. globe of the earth. It is compounded prin

There are two species, viz. A. impu- cipally of two gases, viz. oxygen and azote, bes, with leaves smooth on both sides; and together with a variety of other substances, A. pubera, with leaves downy underneath: suspended or dissolved therein. The meboth species are natives of China.

chanical and chemical effects of this extenAID de-camp, in military affairs, an offi- sive fluid mass are discussed under various cer employed to receive and carry the or heads of science. See ATMOSPHERE, CHEders of a general. He onght to be alert MISTRY, and the articles thence refer. in comprehending, and punctual and distinct red to. in delivering them. He is seldom under the Air, in music, generally speaking, is any degree of a captain, and all aids-de-camp melody, the passages of which are so conhave ten shillings a day allowed for their duty. structed as to lie within the province of vo

AIGUISCE, AIGUISSE, Eguisce, in he cal expression, or which, when sung or raldry, denotes a cross with its four ends played, forms that connected chain of sounds sharpened, but so as to terminate in obtuse which we call tune. The strict import of angles.

the word is confined to vocal music, and It differs from the cross fitchée, in as signifies a composition written for a single inuch as the latter goes tapering by de- voice, and applied to words. grees to a point, and the former only at the Air-gun, a machine for exploding balls ends.

by means of condensed air. AILANTHUS, in botany, a genus of plants Authors describe two kinds of this maof the Decandria Trigynia class and order: chine, viz. the common one, and what is it has male, female, and hermaplırodite flow- called the magazine air-gun. See PNEUers. The calyx of the male is one-leafed; the MATICS. torolla has five petals; the stamina have ten AIR-pipes, a contrivance invented by Mr. filaments, the anthers are oblong and versa Sutton, a brewer of London, for clearing tile. The calyx and corolla of the female are the holds of ships, and other close places, the same as those of the male; the pistil- of their foul air. The principle upon which Jum has from three to five germs; the styles this contrivance is founded is well known. are lateral, and the stigmas capitate ; the It is no other than the rarefying power of pericardium has as many capsules as there heat, which, by causing a diminution of the are germs; the seeds are solitary. The ca density of the air in one place, allows that lyx and corolla of the hermaphrodite is the which is in contact with it to rush in, and same with those of the male and female; to be succeeded by a constant supply from the stamina have two or three filaments; remoter parts, till the air becomes every the pistillum, pericarpium, and seed as in where equally elastic. If a tube, then, be the female. There is one species, viz. A. laid in the well-hold, or any other part of glandulosa, or tall ailanthus, which is a tree a ship, and the upper part of this tube be with a sraight trunk, 40 or 50 feet high, a sufficiently heated to rarefy the impending native of China. It grows fast in our cli column of air, the equilibrium will be mainmate, and as it rises to a considerable height tained by the putrid air from the bottom of it is proper for ornamental plantations. A the tube, which being thus drawn out, will resinous juice, which soon hardens, flows be succeeded by a supply of fresh air from from the wounded bark. The wood is hard, the other parts of the ship; and by contiheavy, glossy like satin, and susceptible of nuing the operation, the air will be changed a fine polish.

in all parts of the ship. Upon this princi. AILE, or Arel, in law, a writ which lies ple, Mr. Sutton proposed to purify the bad where a person's grandfather, or great grand- air of a ship, by means of the fire used for father, being seised of lands, &c. in fee. the coppers, or boiling places, with which simple the day that he died, and a stranger every ship' is provided. Under every suck

copper or boiler, there are two holes sepa- the improved fire-engines. The water is rated by a grate, one for the fire and the injected by the action of the pistons through other for the ashes ; and there is also a flue, two pipes, with valves, into this vessel; the communicating with the fire-place, for the air previously contained in it will be comdischarge of the smoke. The fire, after it pressed by the water, in proportion to the is lighted, is preserved by the constant quantity admitted, and by its spring force draught of air through these two holes and the water into a pipe, which will discharge the flue; and if the two holes are closed, a constant and equal stream ; whereas in the the fire is extinguished. But when these are common squirting engine the stream is disclosed, if another hole, communicating with continued between the several strokes. any other airy place, and also with the fire, Other water-engines are furnished with vesbe opened, the tire will of course continue sels of this kind. to burn. In order to clear the holds of the Air-ressels, in botany, are certain caships of the bad air, Mr. Sutton proposed nals, or ducts, whereby a kind of absorpto close the two holes above mentioned, viz. tion and respiration is effected in vegetable the fire-place and ash-place, with substan- bodies. tial iron doors, and to lay a copper or leaden Air-vessels have been distinguished from pipe, of sufficient size, from the hold into sap-vessels ; the former being supposed to the ash-place, and thus to supply a dranght correspond to the trachea and lungs of aniof air for feeding the fire; a constant dis- mals; the latter to their lacteals and bloodcharge of air from the hold will be thus ob- vessels. tained, and fresh air will be supplied down Dr. Grew, in an inquiry into the motion the hatches, and by such other communi- and cause of the air in vegetables, shews, cations as are open into the hold. If other that it enters them varions ways, not only pipes are connected with this principal pipe, by the trunk, leaves, and other parts above communicating either with the wells or ground, but at the root.

For the receplower decks, the air that serves to feed the tion, as well as expulsion of the air, the fire will be drawn from such places.

pores are so very large in the trunks of Air-shafts, among miners, are holes made some plants, as in the better sort of thick from the open air to meet the adits, and sup- walking-canes, that they are visible to a ply them with fresh air.

good eye without a glass ; but with a glass These, when the adits are long, or ex the cane seems as if it were stuck full of ceeding thirty or forty fathoms, become large pin-holes, resembling the pores of the highly necessary, as well to give vent to the skin in the ends of the fingers and ball of damps and noxious vapours, as to let in the hand. In the leaves of the pine, through fresh air.

a glass, they make an elegant shew, standAir-trunk, a simple contrivance by Dr. ing almost exactly in rank and file throughHales, for preventing the stagnation of pu- out the length of the leaves. But though trid effluvia, and purifying the air in jails the air enters in partly at the trunk, and and close rooms; which consists of a square also at other parts, especially in some plants, trunk open at both ends, one of which is yet its chief admission is at the root : much fixed in the ceiling, and the other is ex as in animals, some part of the air may contended to a considerable height above the tinually pass into the body and blood by the roof. The noxious effluvia, ascending to the pores of the skin; but the chief draught is top of the room, escape by this trunk. at the mouth. If the chief entrance of the Some of these have been nine, and others air were at the trunk, before it could be six inches in the clear ; but whatever be mixed with the sap in the root it must detheir diameter, their length should be pro- scend; and so move not only contrary to its portionable, in order to promote the ascent own nature, but in a contrary course to the of the vapour. As the pressure of fluids, sap: whereas, by its reception at the root, and consequently of the air, corresponds to and its transition from thence, it has a more their perpendicular altitude, the longer these natural and easy motion of ascent. The trunks are, so much the greater will be the same fact is farther deduced from the finedifference between columns of air pressing ness and smallness of the diametral aperat the bottom and at the top; and of course tures in the trunk, in comparison of those so much the greater will be their effect. See in the root, which nature has plainly deVENTILATOR.

signed for the separation of the air from the AIR-vessel, in hydraulics, is a name given sap, after they are both together received to those metalline cylinders, which are into them. placed between the two forcing-pumps in

Air-vessels are found in the leaves of all

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plants, and are even discoverable in many upper lip being small and bifid ; the lower
without the help of glasses; for upon break one- large and trifid: there is no pericar.
ing the stalk or chief fibres of a leaf, the pium : the seeds are contained in the cup
likeness of a fine woolly substance, or of the flower, and are four in nnmber. There
rather of corious small cobwebs, may be seen are 10 species.
to hang at both the broken ends. This is AIZOON, in botany, a genus of the Po-
taken notice of not only in some few plants, lyandria Pentagynia : the calyx is a one-
as in scabious, where it is more visible; but leafed perianthium; no corolla; the stamina
may also be seen more or less in most others, have many capillary filaments; the anthers
if the leaves be very tenderly broken. This are simple, the pistillum has a five-cornered
wool is really a skein of air-vessels, or rather germ, the seeds are several : there are ten
of the fibres of the air-vessels, loosed from species, all belonging to the hot climates.
their spiral position, and so drawn out in ALA, in botany, is used in different senses;

sometimes it denotes the hollow between
AIRA, hair-grass, in botany, a genus of the stalk of a plant and the leaves; some.
the 'Triandria Digynia class and order, and times it is applied to the two side petals of
of the natural order of Grasses. There are the papilionaceous flowers, the upper petal
twenty-five species, some of which have being called the vexillum, and the lower one
awns and others have none. The A, aqua the carina ; others use it for the slender
tica, water hair-grass, generally grows in the membranaceous parts of some seeds, thence
margin of pools and watery places, running said to be alated; and others, again, for the
into the water to a considerable distance, membranaceous expansions found on the
and is known by the purple or bluish stems of plants, thence denominated alated
colour of the panicles, and sweet taste of stalks.
the flowers. It is a perennial, and flowers ALABASTER, a well known description
in May and June. To this grass has been of stone used by statuaries and others. It
attributed the sweetness of Cottenham is the sulphate of lime. See Chemistry and
cheese, and the fineness of Cambridge but MINERALOGY.
ter. The A. cæspitosa, or turfy-hair grass, ALÆ, in anatomy, is sometimes used for
grows in moist meadows and woods, is pe the lobes of the liver, the nymphæ of the
rennial, it flowers in June and July, some female pudendum, the two cartilages wbich
times trailing on the ground to the length form the nostril, the arm-pits, young stems
of several fect, and the panicle exhibiting a or branches, &c.
beautiful silky appearance : cows, goats, and ALANGIUM, in botany, a genus of the
swine eat it, but horses are not fond of it. Decandria Monogyria class and order; the
It is the roughest and coarsest grass that characters of which are, that it has from 6
grows in pastures or meadows, and is called to 10 linear petals, from 10 to 12 stamina;
by the common people hassocks, rough-caps, the calyx dentated; the fruit a spherical ber-
and bull's faces. To get rid of it, the land ry, single-celled, containing from one to
should be first drained, and the tufts of the three seeds: there is only one species, viz,
noxious weeds pared off and burnt. The A. pungens.
ashes yield a good manure. The A. ALATED in botany, an epithet applied
flexuosa, or waved mountain grass, is the to the seed, stem, or leaf-stalk; a seed is
principal grass on Banstead Downs, and the alated, when it has an ala or membrane af-
Mendip Hills. It is difficult of cultivation, fixed to it, which, by its flying, serves to dis-

AITONIA, in botany, so called from Mr. perse it. The foot stalk of a leaf is alated, Aiton, his Majesty's late gardener at Kew, when it spreads out the sides. Alated leaves a genus of the Monadelpliia Octandria class are those made up of several pinnated ones. and order, and of the natural order of ALAUDA, lark, in ornithology, a genus Columniferæ. There is but one species, of birds of the order of Passeres; the chaviz. A. capensis, found at the Cape of racters of which are, that the beak is cylinThunberg. It has a shrubby stalk six feet drical, subulate, and straight, bending tohigh, and a fruit resembling that of the win- wards the point, the mandibles are of equal ter cherry. With as it is of slow growth, size and opening downwards at their base; and seldom exceeds three feet in height. the tongue is bifid; and the hinder claw is At a sufficient age it produces flowers and straighter and longer than the toe. Pen. fruit through the greatest part of the year. nant adds, that the nostrils are covered with

AJUGA, bugle, in botany, a genus of the feathers or bristles, and the toes divided to Didynamia Gymnospermia class of plants: their origin. There are 33 species, but we he flower is monopetalous and ringent; the shall notice only two of them. 1. A. arven.

sis, or sky-lark, the specific characters of ing the air, they ascend almost perpendicu. which are, that the two outermost quills of larly, by successive springs, and hover at a its tail are white lengthwise externally, and great height; but in descending, they make the intermediate ones are ferruginous on the an oblique sweep, unless they are pursuell inside: the length is about seven inches. by a ravenous bird, or attracted by a mate, The males of this species are somewhat in either of which cases they fall like a stone browner than the females; they have a These small birds, at the height to which black collar, and more white on the tail; they soar, are liable to be wafted by the their size is larger, aud their aspect bolder; wind; and they have been observed at sea, and they exclusively possess the faculty of clinging to the masts and cordage of ships. singing. When the female is impregnated, Sir Hans Sloane observed some of them 40. she forms her nest between two clods of miles from the coast, and Count Marsigli met earth, and lives it with herbs and dry roots, with them on the Mediterranean. It is being no less attentive to the concealment conjectured, that those wirich are found in than to the structure of it. It sometimes America have been driven thither by the builds its nest among corn and in high grass. wind. Some have supposed, that they are Each female lays four or five eggs, which birds of passage, at least in the more southern are greyish, with brown spots; and the pe- and milder climates of Europe; but they riod of her incubation is about 15 days. The are occasionally concealed under some young may be taken out of the nest when rock or sheltered cave. The lark is fonnd they are a fortnight old, and they are so in all the inhabited parts of both continents, hardy, that they may be easily brought up. as far as the Cape of Good Hope; this bird, The parent is very tender of her young; and and the wood-lark, ara the only birds which though she does not always cover them with sing whilst they fly. The higher it soars, her wings, she directs their motions, supplies the more it strains its voice, and lowers it their wants, and guards them from danger. till it quite dies away in descending. When The common food of the young sky-larks is it ascends beyond our sight, its music is disworms, caterpillars, ants-eggs, and even tinctly heard ; and its song, which is full of grasshoppers; and in maturity, they live swells and falls, and thus delightful for its chiefly on seeds, herbage, and all vegetable variety, commences before the earliest substances. Those birds, it is said, that are dawn. In a state of freedom, the lark bedestined for singing, should be caught in gins its song early in the spring, which is its October or November; the males should, season of love and pairing, and continues to as much as possible, be selected: and when warble during the whole of the sumıner. they are untractable they should be pinioned, The Honorable Daines Barrington reckons lest they injure themselves by their violence this among the best of the singing larks: against the roof of the cage. As they can- and as it copies the warble of every other not cling by the toes, it is needless to place bird, he terms it a mocking-bird. These bars across their cage; but they should have birds, which are esteemed a delicacy for the clean sand at the bottom of it, that they may table, though Linnæus thinks the food imwelter in it and be relieved from the vermin proper for gravelly complaints, are taken which torment them. In Flanders, the with us in the greatest numbers, in the young ones are fed with moistened poppy- neighbourhood of Dunstable. The season seeds and soaked crumbs of bread; and begins about the 14th of September, and when they begin to sing, with sheep's and ends the 25th of February; and during this calves' hearts, hashed with hard eggs; to time, about 4000 dozen are caught for supwhich are added, wheat, spilt-oats, millet, plying the London markets. Those caught linseed, and the seeds of poppy and hemp, in the day, are taken in clap-nets, till the steeped in milk. Their capacity of learn. 141h of November. But when the weather ing to sing is well known ; and so apt are becomes gloomy, and also in the night, the some cock larks, that, after hearing a tune larker makes use of a trammel-net, 27 or 28 whistled with the pipe, they have caught the feet long, and five broad, which is put on whole, and repeat it more agreeably than two poles 18 feet long, and carried by men any linnet or canary bird. In summer the under each arm, who pass over the fields, larks seek the highest and driest situations; and quarter the grounds as a setting dog but in winter they descend to the plains, When they see or feel a lark strike the net, and assemble in numerous flocks. In the they drop it down, and thus the birds are former season they are very lean, and in the taken. The darkest nights are the most latter very fat, as they are always on the proper for their sport; and the net will not ground, and constantly feeding. In mount- only take larks, but all other birds that roost

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