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came up as a result of the Comptroller General's decision, because after you had paid for some people who had selected a home which was different from their home of record and moved, then the Comptroller General ruled that there was no authority to do that. So to make those payments legal, we had to go back and use that 1953 date. This is my memory from 1955; is that correct?

Colonel QUINLAN. That is substantially correct. The April 29, 1953, is 1 year after the executive proclamation declaring the termination of the national emergencies.

Mr. RIVERS. Does this have anything to do with the law now on maximum weights?

Colonel QUINLAN. No, sir.
Mr. RIVERS. This is still unchanged?
Colonel QUINLAN. Yes, 11,000 pounds.

Mr. BLANDFORD. I would like to say that if we had more time for discussion of this matter, that there is a question I would like to get into the record and bring to the subcommittee's attention, and that is this question of people who move to a place that they select for their home and then when they arrive at that place, perhaps for health reasons or other reasons, they decide to move to another place before their household effects are shipped, and even though that is a lesser distance for the Government to transport those household effects, they will not permit them to modify the selection once made.

Mr. GAVIx. Though they haven't moved.
Mr. BLANDFORD. Even though the goods haven't started to move.
Mr. RIVERS. Are those isolated instances ?

Mr. BLANDFORD. It has happened enough times so that it has been called to our attention. It just seems a little bit silly.

Mr. KILDAY. Would this bill cure that?
Mr. BLANDFORD. No.

Mr. Gavin. Why hasn't the Armed Services Committee taken it up with the Department and if it is a policy, have that policy changed

Mr. Kilday. We have been too busy organizing the Department of Defense.

Mr. BLANDFORD. I hope somebody will introduce it as a legislative item next year.

Mr. Kilday. Thank you, Colonel.

The next bill will be H. R. 11626, a bill to amend section 6911 of title 10, United States Code, to provide for the grade, procurement, and transfer of aviation cadets,

[H. R. 11626, 85th Cong., 2d sess.) A BILL To amend section 6911 of title 10, United States Code, to provide for the grade.

procurement, and transfer of aviation cadets Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That section 6911 of title 10, United States Code, is amended to read as follows: "§ 6911. Aviation cadets: grade, procurement; transfer

"(a) The grade of aviation cadet is a special enlisted grade in the naval service. Under such regulations as the Secretary of the Navy prescribes, male citizens in civil life may be enlisted as, and male enlisted members of the naval service with their consent may be designated as, aviation cadets.

"(b) Except in time of war or emergency declared by Congress, 20 percent of the aviation cadets procured in each fiscal year shall be procured from qualified enlisted members of the Regular Navy and the Regular Marine Corps.

"(c) No person may be enlisted or designated as an aviation cadet unless

"(1) he agrees in writing that, upon his successful completion of the course of training as an aviation cadet, he will accept a commission as an ensign in the Naval Reserve or a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps Reserve, and will serve on active duty as such for at least three years, unless sooner released ; and

“(2) if under 21 years of age, he has the consent of his parent or guardian to his agreement. "(d) Under such regulations as the Secretary prescribes, an aviation cadet may be transferred to another enlisted grade or rating in the naval service, released from active duty, or discharged."

Mr. KILDAY. I find that I am the author of the bill.
Mr. RIVERS. I move an unfavorable report.
Mr. GAVIN. Second the motion.

Mr. KILDAY. Capt. L. W. Williams of the Bureau of Naval Personnel, Deputy Assistant Chief for Plans. Will you come around, please, Captain?

The purpose of the proposed legislation is to eliminate the present requirement that a naval aviation cadet sign an agreement to serve on active duty for a continuous period, including time required for training, of not more than 4 years and to replace it with a requirement that the cadet sign an agreement to serve on active duty as a commissioned officer for at least 3 years after completion of the course of training as an aviation cadet.

Captain, do you have a statement on the bill?
Captain WILLIAMS. Yes, sir; I have a prepared statement here.
Mr. KILDAY. Will you go ahead with your statement!
Captain WILLIAMS. With your permission, I will read it here, sir.

Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I am happy to have the privilege of appearing before you in support of H. R. 11626. This legislation is considered necessary in order to improve the combat efficiency of our fleet aviation units and effect considerable savings in our flight-training program, by requiring increased tours of obligated service for persons completing flight training under the aviation cadet program. This would be accomplished by deleting the existing provision of law (art. 6911c, title 10, U. S. C.) which states that an aviation cadet must agree in writing with the consent of his parent or guardian, if he is a minor, to serve on active duty for a continuous period of not more than 4 years, unless sooner released, and replacing it with the provision that he agree in writing that, upon his successful completion of the course of flight training as an aviation cadet, he will serve on active duty as a commissioned officer for a period of at least 3 years.

The present course of flight training for aviation cadets requires approximately 18 months to complete. Upon successful completion of flight training, cadets are appointed as ensigns, United States Naval Reserve, or second lieutenants, United States Marine Corps Reserve, and concurrently designated as naval aviators, then ordered to active duty with the fleet operating aviation units.

The cost of training an aviation cadet is now about $100,000.
Mr. GAVIN. How much?
Captain WILLIAMS. $100,000.

Modern aircraft are so complex and expensive that an extremely high level of proficiency is required of a pilot before he can participate in fleet operational flight activities. The new pilot must spend

a considerable part of his first tour of duty in the fleet becoming “seasoned” and acquiring the state of combat readiness and operational proficiency necessary to make him the finished product that is so essential in the success of modern flight operational concepts. Under existing law, the naval aviation cadet acquires an obligation to serve on active duty for “not more than 4 years,” which includes the flight-training time. As a result, naval aviators who were initially procured and trained as aviation cadets, in most cases, are not able to complete more than one normal tour of training and deployment with the fleet within their period of obligated service. Under existing conditions, this creates a tremendous turnover of aviation personnel and instability in fleet operational squadrons and places a continuous strain on our procurement of new replacements and on our flight training facilities. It is an extremely costly process, but one we have had to face to meet the overall requirements of the Navy today. This bill, H. R. 11626, by changing the active duty requirement to a period of at least 3 years after completion of training, will provide a degree of flexibility in the service obligation so as to permit the employment of the new aviators on at least 2 normal tours of deployment with the fleet. This additional requirement will increase the efficiency, combat readiness, and safety of the fleet flight operations since a greater percentage of the pilots will be second-tour pilots. Experience has shown that by virtue of this experience, the second-tour pilot is the more capable pilot and has a much lower accident rate than the rela1 ively inexperienced first-tour pilot. It will improve the stability of aviation personnel and will result in considerable savings in the cost of flight training by permitting a reduction in the rate of flight training—each student pilot reduced in the training program would result in a saving of about $100,000. It is further anticipated that extension of the obligated service may influence the retention on active duty rate of pilots favorably. The young pilots probably will have been selected for promotion to the ranks of lieutentant in the Navy or captain in the Marine Corps at the time they complete their obligated service, when they must decide whether to remain on active duty or return to civil life. Under existing law these young pilots are lieutenants (junior grade) or first lieutenants and have not reached the selection point for promotion when the time arrives for this decision to be made. Increased pay and more attractive duty with increased responsibility and authority for which they will be qualified as a result of increased rank will be greater inducement for them to apply for augmentation to the regular component or to remain on extended active duty as a member of the Reserve component. Although the normal training and deployment cycles average about 18 months, they are subject to change due to variations of a great number of factors; therefore, no specific statutory period of obligated service is stated in the proposed bill. At the present time a 312 year period of obligated service on completion of flight training is considered adequate to permit a pilot to complete 2 normal tours of deployment with fleet operational units. However, future requirements cannot be accurately foreseen. This proposal, therefore, requires the aviation cadet to serve for a period of at least 3 years after completion of flight training.

The legislation proposed herein will bring the aviation cadet training program into consonance with other flight training programs in which the obligated service could be increased to appropriate lengths by administrative means. This bill also parallels the provision of law which governs the aviation cadet program in the Air Force as stated in article 8257, title 10, United States Code.

A further purpose of this proposal is to amend the grade of an aviation cadet from “a special enlisted grade in the Naval Reserve and Marine Corps Reserve” to “a special enlisted grade in the naval service.” This will authorize the grade for a regular component as well as for a Reserve component and eliminate the administrative necessity for discharging men of the regular component and enlisting them in the Reserve component when those enlisted regulars in the fleet are transferred into the naval aviation cadet program.

The Navy would like to convert to these new contracts immediately. I should therefore request that the committee favorably endorse the bill and recommend its enactment at the earliest practicable date.

Mr. KILDAY. Captain, what it does essentially as to the tour is to make it net 3 years after training, isn't that it?

Captain WILLIAMS. Yes, sir. Mr. KILDAY. Any questions by members of the committee? Mr. RIVERS. Do they have to sign a statement to that effect? Captain WILLIAMS. Yes, sir; when they initially enter the service. Mr. RIVERS. And it makes it the same as the other? Captain WILLIAMS. It will make it the same as the others; yes, sir. We can administratively do it, anything beyond 3 years.

Mr. Rivers. I can't see that aviation thing on your coat; it is covered up.

Captain WILLIAMS. It is aviation.
Mr. RIVERS. Then you know what you are talking about.
Captain WILLIAMS. Thank you, sir.

Mr. Gavin. How many do you lose now after they have completed their training--what percentage!

Captain WILLIAMS. We do not lose any of them after they have completed their training.

Mr. Gavin. You say you are trying to make it now that they stay in the service for a period of 3 years. Evidently they are not receptive to staying in for longer than the period of a year?

Captain WILLIAMS. No, sir; our present law is not more than 4 years and they complete that obligated service. That is normally about 21,2 years after completion of flight training.

Mr. RIVERs. You just want to shut the door before the horses get out?

Captain WILLIAMS. Yes, sir. We need a little additional time and we hope to get a higher incentive for them to remain on active duty.

Mr. KILDAY. Mr. Bates?

Mr. BATEs. Captain, all you are really doing is extending this for 6 months under present standards?

Captain WILLIAMS. Basically.

Mr. BATEs. As it stands today you will extend it for only 6 months, that is really what it amounts to, unless you extend the training period?

Captain WILLIAMS. Mr. Bates, what we have, the law reads now not more than 4 years.

Mr. BATEs. I understand. Captain WILLIAMs. We wish to change it to at least 3 years. Mr. BATEs. I understand. Captain WILLIAMs. Our present obligation, which we require of the aviation cadet or of all other sources, is 31% years after completion of flight training. So this law would permit us to have the naval aviation cadet entering the service obligate himself for 31% years after completion of flight training. Mr. BATEs. I see. But if you have an 18-month training program, all this essentially does is give you a man for 6 months more. Captain WILLIAMs. That is correct. Mr. BATEs. Do you intend to extend that period of training? Captain WILLIAMs. We may extend it to 31% years or what is necessary. Mr. BATEs. The training period, from 18 months? Captain WILLIAMs. No, sir. Mr. BATEs. The training period? Captain WILLIAMs. The training period we will not extend. Mr. BATEs. You will not extend that? Captain WILLIAMs. No, sir. Mr. BATEs. So if you are not going to extend that, all this bill would * give you these people for 6 months more, that is all it amounts to Captain WILLIAMs. That is correct. At least 6 months more. Mr. BLANDFord. It must be 1 year more, because 18 months plus the 21% they are required to serve now, and you are going to require 343, so it is going to be an additional 1 year. Mr. BATES. No. Captain WILLIAMs. The law will permit us— Mr. BATEs. You are going to have them for 41% years under the new bill, 3 years plus 18 months. Captain WILLIAMs. At least that; yes, sir. Mr. HUDDLESTON. At least 3 years. Mr. BATES. No. Mr. GAVIN. Let somebody clear up this situation. Mr. BATEs. Now the purpose of the proposed legislation is to eliminate the present requirement that a naval aviation cadet sign an agreement to serve on active duty for a continuous period, including time required for traianing, of not more than 4 years and to replace it with a requirement that the cadet sign an agreement to serve on active duty as a commissioned officer for at least 3 years. Captain WILLIAMs. That is correct, sir. Mr. BATEs. So that is the net difference of 6 months if you are going to have an 18-month training period. Mr. Rivers. That is 41% years. Mr. BATEs. 41% instead of the 4 you have today. Captain WILLIAMs. That is correct. Mr. BATEs. That is all I am trying to establish. Is that correct? Captain WILLIAMs. That is correct. Mr. BATEs. I have one other question, which has to do with the last paragraph in your statement about the Navy would like to convert these new contracts immediately. What does that mean?

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