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A foxhole and a short stump or post has been added to each firing point in order to teach the use of supported positions.
The second range is the field firing range, where the soldier is trained to hit surprise-type targets at distances of 75, 175, and 300 yards.
The third range is the proficiency course, where the soldier fires for record.
I might state here, sir, that all these projects are a remodeling of the present known distance courses, unless we don't have a known distance course at the station. This is a modernization, a tremendous improvement in the basic training of the rifleman, so he can hit the target under war conditions.
Mr. RIVERS. Have you developed any new weapons for this type of training, by way of new sights or for penetration of darkness and the like, or is that classified?
General SHULER. If I might speak off the record, Mr. Rivers—this is off the record.
Mr. KELLEHER. This is an open hearing, general.
General SHULER. Yes, sir. I can talk when we get into closed hearing on that.
Mr. BENNETT. Mr. Chairman.
May I ask, are you using the new rifle which has been developed by the Army and has been given publicity upon, or are you using the old M-1!
General SHULER. I am not certain of that, sir, but I believe we are in a transition period, either a planning one or an actual transition, from the M-1 to the new rifle. But I think we are still using the M-1. I would like to correct the record to give you the facts.
Mr. PRICE. Will you yield?
Mr. PRICE. I don't think the new rifle is in production. It is still in the development stage.
General SHULER. Then it is in a planning transition, rather than an actual.
The CHAIRMAN. Let me ask you this question: Do you think in future combat you will ever get close enough to use weapons of this type?
General SHULER. Mr. Chairman
The CHAIRMAN. If the concept of missiles is sound, why, there won't be any rifle range
Mr. RIVERS. Foot soldier.
General SHULER. Mr. Chairman, there are occurrences going on right now in the world--fortunately, not involving our riflemenwhere, I am sure, the chairman will agree rifles are being used.
The CHAIRMAN. Yes, sir. All right. (Laughter.]
Mr. BENNETT. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a few questions? I started to ask him a question.
The CHAIRMAN. Wait 1 minute. Mr. Bennett is recognized. Go ahead, Mr. Bennett.
Mr. BENNETT. With regard to that, we, of course, have the experience of the Korean war in which we had air superiority during practically all, if not all, of the time.
General SHULER. Yes, sir.
Mr. BENNETT. And my recollection is quite a few people were killed in the quite long time we were battling, and a very substantial war took place, and,
primarily, an infantry war. Is that correct? General SHULER. That is right, sir.
Mr. BENNETT. And has anybody yet designed any substitute for holding important military land and objectives, other than the infantry soldier and his organization?
General SHU'LER. It takes a man with the basic weapons to hold ground, sir.
Mr. BENNETT. So there isn't any indication at all that the foot soldier has been eliminated in the war concept at all, is there?
General SHULER. No, sir.
Mr. BENNETT. That applies not only with regard to any superior pushbutton war but also with regard to brush fire war-both kinds of wars.
General SHULER. Yes, sir; that is right.
Is there any agreement among the other services that that philosophy is accurate as of today?
General SHULER. Mr. Hardy, I cannot vouch for the Air Force and Navy. I do not know. I do know that the Army has a mission. We are training to be proficient in it. And this is a part of this training.
Mr. Hardy. How about the Secretary of Defense? Does he believe in this philosophy that you just explained?
Mr. BECKER. Oh, yes.
General SHULER. Mr. Hardy, I can't answer that question. [Laughter.]
Mr. HARDY. That is what I was afraid of, General. That is what bothers me.
The CHAIRMAN. Fort Devens.
General SHULER. Yes; I do not mean to intimate, Mr. Hardy, that he is not or that he is. I just don't
know. Mr. Hardy. Well, now, Mr. Chairman, we are on that particular point. And here you are providing for these new facilities, and frankly, I think you ought to have them. But I am disturbed when I saw in the final edition of the Star, I believe it was the night before last, the statement to the effect it didn't make any difference how much Congress appropriated, what the strength of the Army should be, that it was going to be reduced even if the funds were provided to keep your level of forces up to—what is it, eight hundred something now?
The CHAIRMAN. 870,000.
General SHULER. It is 900,000 now, I believe, sir, and I think the end planned strength is 870,000-end fiscal year 1959.
Mr. HARDY, Didn't General Taylor make the statement that he had been ordered to cut it down to that and it didn't make any difference what Congress did, he was going to do it anyhow!
General SHULER. I am not exactly sure of that full statement.
And I tell you, Mr. Chairman, I don't know whether we ought to be approving any of this stuff in here, if you are going to cut the Army down to the point where we are going to depend on the Air Force to do it all.
Mr. Rivers. You have lots of friends. Mr. HARDY. If you do that, you won't need this housing. The CHAIRMAN. I want to say this. I welcome this kind of discussion. It is indeed healthy. I hope the fire and spirit will not fade away before the item reaches the floor of the House. [Laughter] Mr. HARDY. I needn't worry about it fading from me. What bothers me is where we are going to get a little support to keep this thing on a rational basis. Mr. BENNETT. May I ask a final question, as long as I started this? The CHAIRMAN. Yes; a final question. Final. Mr. BENNETT. The final question I wanted to ask: Since the question has been raised as to this new type of rifle, and since it is my information that the rifle is already perfected and is able to be put into production right now, my question is: When does the Army expect to put this rifle into production so it can be in the hands of the infantry soldier, and what is holding us up ! General SHULER. Sir, I will have to furnish that, because I am not in that business. But I will get you the answer, sir, to put in the record. o When will units of the Army be equipped with the rifle 7.62 millimeter M14? Answer. The M14 rifle will be phased into the Active Army over a period of several years. Funding for quantity production will begin in fiscal year 1959. Deliveries from production will begin in fiscal year 1960, and some units will be equipped during fiscal year 1960. Mr. BECKER. Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask a question. The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Becker. Mr. BECKER. What are we discussing here, military construction or weapons? The CHAIRMAN. Well Mr. BECKER. The general is being asked questions with respect to military weapon development, and we are on military construction. I think the questions are proper, but we should have the proper individual to answer them. The CHAIRMAN. He answered all about the range. Go ahead, Mr. Bates. Mr. BATEs. Mr. Chairman— The CHAIRMAN. One minute. Mr. BATEs. Mr. Chairman, before we eliminate—if we are going to eliminate this one item, I would like to know—on this $171,000. I would like to know, is there anything else in here for Massachusetts? Mr. BECKER. Nothing for New York. General SHULER. I believe there is some family housing, Mr. Bates. Mr. BATEs. Yes; but there is no money for it. The CHAIRMAN. Without objection, the item is approved. Mr. GAVIN. Would the gentleman yield Mr. BATEs. I want to say that is about the usual amount. The CHAIRMAN. What? Mr. BATEs. That is about our average amount. The CHAIRMAN. Average amount, that is right. Mr. BATEs. $171,000. The CHAIRMAN. That is right. I am in that same class myself. Mr. BATEs. You are all filled up there in Georgia.
Mr. Rivers. We are too close to Georgia, that is our trouble. The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Gavin is recognized. Mr. GAviN. I want to compliment the Army. You are alert. You are sharp. And it is quite evident that you recognize the fact that ground forces are still a very active part of our defense system. So don't let anybody try to calm you down on weapons or anything else, because the old foot soldier will be in there when the trouble breaks out. [Applause.] The CHAIRMAN. The next item is Fort Dix, N. J. Mr. Rivers. Mr. Chairman, I want to say this about General Shuler. The CHAIRMAN. Let's get down to business. Mr. Rivers. He has as much information as anybody. He has quite a few decorations of his own. When he gets in executive session, he can give us any information we need. The CHAIRMAN. That is right. Fort Dix Mr. KELLEHER. There is an unfunded item at Fort Devens, a gas transmission system. They were changing over last year from coal to gas. The CHAIRMAN. Yes. Mr. KELLEHER. The Army did not get the appropriation. The amount was $2,007,000. Mr. GAVIN. How much 3 Mr. KELLEHER. $2,007,000. Mr. BATEs. They did not get the money for it? Mr. KELLEHER. They did not get the appropriations. Mr. BATEs. Are they going to ask for it this year? Mr. KELLEHER. Are you going to ask for the money this year, General? General SHULER. We did not get the money, and I do not wish to imply that the Appropriations Committee has turned us down. I believe I can give the explanation without any embarrassment to anyone in the record. This was an item that this committee indicated to us was going to be deleted from our authorization. At that particular time we had to submit our funding plan to the Appropriations Committees. Naturally, we did not want to include an item in that funding plan that we thought we were going to lose for authorization, but rather some other item that would be authorized. When your committee and the Senate Armed Services Committee met in conference, sir, the project came out in the authorization bill. Therefore, we never did take it to the Appropriations Committee. So it is authorized and not approved by the Appropriations Committees and is not in this year's funding plan to the o Committee. Mr. BATEs. Is there any prospect of getting it within the next 10 years? [Laughter.] General SHULER. May I say something off the record? The CHAIRMAN. I would like to say this: You know the reason it was deleted last time was because it was converted from coal to gas, and we were apprehensive that it would destroy the coal industry of Pennsylvania if it was deleted—if it was constructed out of gas. So
the sympathy to the situation in Pennsylvania prompted this side of the House to agree.
Mr. Bates. We are lucky we still have a lot of wood to burn up there.
The items: Enlisted men's barracks without mess, $762,000; two barracks, $1,283,000; battalion mess building, $420,000; a battalion administration and supply building, $275,000;
and administration and supply building, $116,000; a heating plant, $147,000; bachelor officers quarters and it indicates men, actually it is nurses $746,000; and 702 family quarters, Capehart, that have been cleared by the committee. There are 1,000 Wherry houses there now, 700 belonging to the Army, 300 to the Air Force, and negotiations are going on for their purchase at this time.
General SHULER. Fort Dix, N. J.: First Army; installation located 16 miles southeast of Trenton; initially occupied'in 1917; designated "permanent."
Mission: To be responsible for the command, training, and operations of, and to provide administrative logistical support of units and activities assigned or attached to Fort Dix. To provide administrative and logistical support for other units, activities, and installations as directed. To prepare plans and coordinate planning with other agencies as directed, to include air road, domestic emergency, civil defense, mobilization, and local defense plans. To provide the command and staff supervision over all activities and units assigned or attached to Fort Dix. To conduct basic training of male enlistees and inductees. To train certain specialists required by the Army.
Total cost (based on price when acquired), $66,697,444.
Line items requested for fiscal year 1959 authorization ($3,749,000 total) :
Enlisted men barracks without mess (medical detachment).
702 family quarters (Capehart). Detailed justification follows:
Enlisted men barracks without mess (medical detachment) ($762,000): The new 500-bed hospital is scheduled for completion by March 1959. There are no barrack facilities, either permanent or temporary, situated in the vicinity of the new hospital to accommodate enlisted personnel assigned to the medical company. The existing barrack facilities cannot be utilized after the activation of the new hospital, other than as a temporary expedient, because of the