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assent to the restraining and fishery bill in the usual form. In this season of public discontent, when the minds of all were agitated on one side or other, the city of London, not discouraged by the fate of all its applications: for a number of years past, once more approached the April throne, with an address, remonstrance and petition, 10. upon a subject, and in a manner, as little calculated to obtain a favorable reception as any of the preceding. In this remonstrance they recapitulated the whole catalogue of American grievances; declared their abhorrence of the measures which had been pursued, and were then pursuing; and justified the resistance to which the Americans had been driven, upon the great principles of the constitution; “ actuated by which,” they faid, “ at the glorious period of the revolution, our ancestors transferred the imperial crown of these realms to the illustrious house of Brunswick.” They beseeched his majesty immediately and for ever to dismiss from his councils, those ministers and advisers, who had been at the bottom of the preceding measures. His majesty delivered the following answer, “ It is, with the utmost astonishment, that I find any of my subjects capable of encouraging the rebellious disposition, which unhappily exists in my colonies in North America. Having entire confidence in the wisdom of my parliament, the great council of the nation, I will steadily pursue those measures which they have recommended for the support of the constitutional rights of Great Britain, and the protection of the commercial rights of my kingdom.”

The earl of Effingham has uniformly opposed the whole system of measures pursued against the Americans ; and finding that the regiment in which he served Vol. I. , K_k



consistent with his character, and beneath his dignity, to enforce measures with his sword, which he had so utterly condemned in his legislative capacity, he wrote a letter of resignation to the secretary of war. In it he deeply regretted his being necessitated to quit the military profeffion; but said, “I cannot, without reproach from my own conscience, consent to bear arms against my fellow subjects in America, in what, to my discernment, is not a clear cause.” Pity that it is not a point of honor with all military officers, to consider the merits of the cause wherein their swords are to be employed, and when they are not satisfied in their own judgments, to practise as the noble earl has done. Such a point of honor might hinder many a war.

The British ambassador at the Hague applied to the states to forbid their subjects fupplying the Americans with arms, ammunition, gunpowder, &c. and they by proclamation prohibited the exportation of all such articles, in Dutch or foreign ships, from any of their dominions, without licence, on penalty of forfeiting about gol. sterling. Judge, whether the profits of the voyage will not be so great as to make it worth the merchants while to run the risk of that sum. Let the American vessels repair to Holland, and the Dutch will furnish them with gunpowder in large glass bottles of several gallons dimension, under the notion of spirits or liquor of one kind or other *. France was also applied to, and could have crushed all assistance, by express prohibition ; but only told her subjects, that if they afforded any, it was at their own risk, tantamount to if you * This was practised.

sicer private way by a few armed individuals, than by a
lungs large body of troops that must march, for miles toge-
e te ther, under the eye of the public. i
101 The provincial stores had been hitherto deposited at
ke the Worcester and Concord. To the last of thefe places,
10:09 but half the distance of the other from Boston; the ge-
fpadi neral turned his attention ; and, being continually pef=
Mortici tered by the repeated solicitations of the American tories,
$ with whom he was surrounded, and who persuaded him

there was no danger of resistance, their whig countrymen m being too cowardly, he determined, without the advice

of the council, when and in what way to attempt the proteina seizure of the many stores fuppofed to be in the place. c . A number of officers dined together at Cambridge, April marts and toward night scattered theinfelves upon the road' Dia leading to Concord; and took their station so as to be

ready to intercept any expresses going from Boston to Hi alarm and raise the country, with intelligence of the

troops being upon their march. When the corps was
nearly ready to proceed upon the expedition, Dr. War-
ren, by a mere accident, had notice of it just in time
to send messengers over the neck and across the ferry,
on to Lexington, before the orders for preventing every
person's quitting the town were executed. The officers
intercepted several, but some being well mounted, el-
caped their vigilance; and the alarm, being once given,
spread apace, by the ringing of bells, and the firing of
signal gun's and vollies. By eleven at night, eight hun-
dred grenadiers and light infantry, the flower of the
army, embarked at the common, proceeded and landed
at Phipps's farm, from whence they marched for Con-


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cord, under the command of lieutenant colonel Smith, fic aided by major Pitcairn, who led the advanced corps. th

About two in the morning, the Lexington company d of militia, to the amount of one hundred and thirty, be repaired to the green, close in with the meeting houle. al The air being chilly, and the intelligence respecting the p regulars somewhat uncertain, the men, after the roll to call, were dismissed, with orders to appear again at beat I of drum. Some went home, others to the adjoining for public house. Word being brought between four and five, that the troops were not far off, they that were ato hand collected, to the number of about seventy, by the time the regulars made their appearance. They were mostly in a confused state, and a few only were drawn up. There were present at the time about forty spectators without arms. The militia were too few to think of beginning an attack. But major Pitcairn rode round the meeting (as the meeting-house is generally, called) and approaching them called out, Disperse you rebels, throw down your arms and disperse." An instant compliance not taking place, which he might construe into contempt, he rode a little further, fired his pistol, flourished his sword, and ordered the soldiers to fire, with which they complied, huzzaing upon the occafion. This produced an immediate dispersion; but the firing was! continued. Individuals finding they were fired upon

the fire. - Three or four were killed upon the green; the rest, making the whole number of the slain eight, were shot on the other side of the walls, and fences, over which they had fled in order to escape. During this interesting period, Messrs. S. Adams and Hancock, whose re


losti fidence was near at hand, quitted and removed to a fur

ther distance. While walking along, Mr. Adams ex10 claimed, “O! what a glorious morning is this !in the

and belief that it would eventually liberate the colony from helps all subjection to Great Britain. His companion did not la penetrate his meaning, and thought the allusion was only eru to the aspect of the fky. Let it should be said and be gebote lieved, that the meeting was crowded with militia, beHefore and during the fire, let me mention that there were an only a man and a boy in it. The detachment marched chip on to Concord. The people of the town, having re

ceived the alarm, drew up in order for defence; but ob

serving that the regulars were too numerous, retired over mail the north bridge and waited for reinforcements from the ir neighbouring towns. A party of light infantry fol. net lowed, and possessed themselves of the bridge, while the

main body entered the town, and proceeded to execute their commiffion. They disabled two twenty-four pounders, and destroyed their carriages and seven wheels for the fame, with their limbers, beside fixteen wheels for brass three pounders, and two carriages with limber and wheels for two four pounders. They threw 500lb. of ball into the river, wells, and other places; and broke in pieces about fixty barrels of flour, half of which was saved. These were all the stores that they could discover and destroy, on the account of which a civil war has commenced between the colonies and the parent ftate. The inhabitants of Britain may see reason, for many ages, to curse the memory of the man or men, who has or have been at the foundation of this fatal catastrophe, should they ever be known. The militia being reinforced, Mr. John Butterick, of Concord, major of a



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