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WALSH (Peter), an Irish catholic of great learning and liberality, was born at Moortown, in the county of Kildare, in the early part of the seventeenth century. He was a friar of the Franciscan order, and was professor of divinity at Louvain, where he probably was educated. Returning to Ireland, he went to Kilkenny at the time the pope's nuncio was there, but was not of his party. On the contrary, he made many endeavours to persuade the Irish Roman catholics to the same loyal sentiments as he himself held ; and after the restoration of Charles II. when he was procurator of the Romish clergy of Ireland, he persuaded many of them to subscribe a recognition or remonstrance, not only of their loyalty to the king, but of their disclaiming the pope's supremacy in temporals. This drew upon him the resentment of many of his brethren, and particularly of the court of Rome. Such hopes, however, were entertained of this important change in the sentiments of the Irish catholics, that in 1666 the court thought pros per to permit their clergy to meet openly in synod at Dublin, in order, as was expected, to authorize the above remonstrance by a general act of the whole body. But this assembly broke up without coming to any decision, and the duke of Ormond, then lord lieutenant, considered it necessary to proceed against those who refused to give any security for their allegiance. But when, in 1670, lord Berkeley succeeded bim, by some secret orders or intrigues of the popishly-affected party in England, Walsh, and those who had signed the remonstrance, were so persecuted as to be obliged to leave the country. Walsh came to London, and by the interest of the duke of Ormond, got an annuity of 100l. for life. He had lived on terms of intie macy with the duke for nearly forty years, and had never touched much on the subject of religion until the reign of James II. when he made some overtures to gain the duke over to popery ; but desisted when he found his arguments bad no effect." Dodwell took some pains, although in vain, to convert Walsh, hoping, that as they had cast him out of the communion of the church of Rome, bè might be persuaded to embrace that of the church of England. Walsh died in September 1687, and was buried in St. Dun. stan's in the West.
Burnet says of him:“He was the honestest and learnedest man I ever knew among them, and was indeed, in all points of controversy, almost wholly a protestant. But he had
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senses of his own, by which he excused bis adhering to the church of Rome, and maintained, that with these be could continue in the communion of that church without sin, &c. He was an honest and able man, much practised in intrigues, and knew well the methods of the Jesuits and other missionaries." · He wrote various controversial pamphlets, chiefly in vindication of his conduct as to the above remonstrance; and a history of it, under the title of “ The History, &c. of the Loyal Formulary, or Irish Remonstrance, in 1661," 1674, folio. He wrote also “ A Prospect of the State of Ireland from the year of the world 1756 to the year of Christ 1652," Lond. 1682, 8vo; but this he brought down no farther than 1172, his style and tedious digressions not being relished." . WALSH (WILLIAM), an English critic and poet, was the son of Joseph Walsh of Abberley in Worcestershire, esq. and born about 1663, for the precise time does not appear. According to Pope, his birth bappened in 1659; but Wood places it four years later. He became a gentleman-commoner of Wadham-college in Oxford in 1678, but left the university without a degree, and pursued his studies in London and at home. That be studied, in whatever place, is apparent from the effect; for he became, in Dryden's opinion, “the best critic in the nation.” He was not, however, merely a critic or a scholar. He was likewise a man of fashion, and, as Dennis remarks, ostentariously splendid in his dress. He was likewise a member of parliament and a courtier, knight of the shire for bis native county in several parliaments, in another the representative of Richmond in Yorkshire, and gentleman of the horse to queen Anne under the duke of Somerset. Some of his verses shew him to have been a zealous friend to the Revolution ; but his political ardour did not abate, his reverence or kindness for Dryden, to whom, Dr. Johnson says, he gave a Dissertation on Virgil's Pastorals; but this was certainly written by Dr. Chetwood, as appears by one of Dryden's letters. In 1705 he began to correspond with Pope, in whom he discovered very early the power of poetry, and advised him to study correctness, wbich the poets of his time, he said, all neglected. Theirletters are written upon the pastoral comedy of the Ita
! Harris's Ware.-Burnet's Ove Times.--Brokesby's Life of Dodwelli
lians, and those pastorals which Pope was then preparing to publish. The kindnesses which are first experienced are seldom forgotten. Pope always retained a grateful memory of Walsh's notice, and mentioned him in one of his latter pieces among those that had encouraged his juvenile studies.
Granville the polite, • " And knowing Walsh, would tell me I could write."
In his “ Essay on Criticism," he had given him more splendid praise, 'and, in the opinion of his learned commentator, sacrificed a little of his judgment to his gratitude. He died in 1708, aged forty-six years. He is known more by his familiarity with greater men than by anything done or written by himself. His works are not numerous, nor of great merit. In 1691, he published, with a preface written by his friend and advocate Dryden, " A Dialogue concerning Women, being a Defence of the Sex," in 8vo; and, the year after, “ Letters and Poems, amorous and gallant,” published in what is called “ Dryden's Miscellany." These were republished among the “Works of the Minor Poets,” printed in 1749, with other performances, consisting chiefly of elegies, epitaphs, odes, and songs, in which he discovers more elegance than vigour, and seldom rises higher than to be pretty."
WALSINGHAM (Sir Francis), an eminent statesman in the reign of queen Elizabeth, of an ancient family in Norfolk, was the third and youngest son of Wilļiam Walsingham of Scadbury, in the parish of Chislehurst, in Kent, by Joyce, daughter of Edmund Denny, of Cheshunt in Hertfordshire. He was born at Chislehurst in 1536. He spent some time at King's-college in Cambridge, but, to complete his education, travelled into foreign countries, where he acquired various languages and great accomplishments. These soon recommended him to be agent to sir William Cecil, lord Burleigh; and under his direction he came to be employed in the most important affairs of state. His first engagement was as ainbassador in France during the civil wars in that kingdom. In August 1570, he was sent a second time there in the same capacity, to treat of a marriage between queen Elizabeth and the duke of Alençon, with other matters; and continued until April
i Cibber's Lives.- Johnson's Poets. Bowles's edition of Pope's Works. See Index.Malone's Dryden, vol. I. 323. IV. 53, 363,--Sperice's Anecdotes, MS. :
1573 at the court of France, where he acquitted himself with great capacity and fidelity, sparing neither pains nor money to promote the queen's interest, who, however, did not support him with much liberality. It was even with great difficulty that he could procure such supplies as were necessary for the support of his dignified station. In a let, ter from him (Harleian MSS. No. 260), to the earl of Leicester, dated Paris, March 9, 1570, he earnestly solicits for some allowance on account of the great dearth in France; desiring lord Leicester to use his interest in his behalf, that he might not be so overburthened with the care how to live, as to be hindered from properly attending, to the business for which he was sent thither. Five days after he wrote a letter to lord Burleigh, which gives a curious account of the distresses to which Elizabeth's representative was reduced by her singular parsimony. “ Your lordship knoweth necessity hath no law, and therefore' I hope that my present request, grounded on necessity, will weigh accordingly. And surely if necessity forced me not hereto, I would forbear to do it for many respects. I do not doubt, after my lord of Buckhurst's return, but you shall understand, as well by himself, as by others of his train, the extremity of dearth that presently reigneth here; which is such as her majesty's allowance doth not, by 51, in the week, defray my ordinary charges of household. And yet neither my diet is like to any of my predecessors, nor yet the number of my horses so many as they hereto, co fore have kept, I assure your lordship, of sool. I brougbt in my purse into this country, I have not left in money and provision much above 300l.; far contrary to the account I made, who thought to have had always 500l. beforehand to have made my provisions, thinking by good husbandry somewhat to have relieved my disability otherwise,” &c. In another letter, dated June 22, 1572, he again solicits lord Burleigh for an augmentation of his allowance, alledging, that otherwise he should not be able to hold out: but notwithstanding this and other solicitations, there is much reason to believe that the queen kept him in considerable difficulties.
His negociations and dispatches during the above embassy were collected by sir Dudley Digges, and published in 1655, folio, with this title, “ The complete Ambassador; or, two Treatises of the intended Marriage of queen Elizabeth, of glorious memory; comprised in Letters of
Negotiation of sir Francis Walsingham, her resident in France. Together with the answers of the lord Burleigh, the earl of Leicester, şir Thomas Smith, and others. Wherein, as in a clear Mirrour, may be seen the faces of the two Courts of England and France, as they then stood ; with many remarkable passages of State, not at all mentioned in any history." These papers display Walsingham's acuteness, discernment, and fitness for the trust that was reposed in him.
After his return, in 1573, he was appointed one of the principal secretaries of state, and sworn a privy-counsellor, and soon after received the honour of knighthood. He now devoted himself solely to the service of his country and sovereign; and by his vigilance and address preserved her crown and life from daily attempts and conspiracies. In 1578, he was sent on an embassy to the Netherlands, and in 1581, went a third time ambassador to France, in order to treat of the proposed marriage between the queen and the duke of Anjou; and also to conclude a league offensive and defensive between both kingdoms. He resided in France from about the middle of July to the end of the year. In 1583, he was sent into Scotland on an embassy to king James, attended with a splendid retinue of one hundred and twenty horse. The particular design of this embassy is not very clearly expressed by historians. It appears to have been partly occasioned by king James hay: ing taken into his councils the earl of Arran, a nobleman very obnoxious to queen Elizabeth. Sir James Melvil, who was at this time at the Scottish court, mentions their expecting the arrival of secretary Walsingham, “a counsellor," he says, “ of worthy qualities, who had great credit with the queen of England." Sir James was sent to welcome bin, and to inform him, “ That his majesty was very glad of the coming of such a notable personage, who was known to be endued with religion and wisdom, whom hę · had ever esteemed as his special friend, being assured that his tedious travel in his long voyage (being diseased as he was) tended to more substantial points for the confirination of the amity between the queen his sister and him, than had been performed at any time before.”
Walsingham bad then an audience of the Scotch king, and after several other private conferences with him, set out again for England. But during his stay in Scotland he declined having any intercourse with the earl of Arran,