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sider about settling the affairs of the kingdomn (See CROM-Well, p. 57), and soon after he had a private conference in the Park with the usurper, who' seemed to pay much regard to his 'advice, but, not finding him so pliable as he could wish, contrived to get him out of the way by an ap. parently honourable employment, and therefore procured him to be sent ambassador to Christina, queen of Sweden. This appointment was preceded by some singular circumstances very characteristic of the times. Whoever has looked into Whitelocke's." Memorials” will perceive the language of religion and devotion very frequently introduced. That in this he was sincere, we have no reason to doubt, but it would appear that he had not come up exactly to the standard of piety established under the usurped government. When the council of state reported to the parliament that they had fixed upon Whitelocke as a fi person for the Swedish embassy, a debate arose in the house, and one of the inembers objected, “that they knew not whether he were a godly man or not," adding, that “ though he might be otherwise qualified, yet, if he were not a godly man, it was not fit to send him ambassador.” To this another member, who was known not to be inferior in godliness to the objector, shrewdly answered," that goda liness was now in fashion, and taken up in form and words for advantage sake, more than in substance for the truth's sake; that it was difficult to judge of the trees of godliness or ungodliness, otherwise than by the fruit; that those who knew Whitelocke, and his conversation, were satisfied that he lived in practice as well as in a profession of godliness; and that it was more becoming a godly man to look into his own heart, and to censure himself, than to take upon him the attribute of God alone, to know the heart of another, and to judge him.” After this curious debate, it was voted, that the lord commissioner Whitelocke be sent ambassador extraordinary to the queen of Sweden."
Whitelocke accordingly set out from London on this embassy Nov. 2, 1653, and a very few weeks after his departure, Cromwell assumed the supreme authority under the title of lord protector. Whitelocke was received in Sweden with great respect, and supported his character with dignity. Queen Christina, who shewed him many civilities, entertained him not only with politics, but with philosophy'; and created him knight of the order of Amarantha, and hence he is sometimes styled sir Bulstrode.
er the title ociety, publicin 1772, and Sweden
He displayed great abilities for negotiation, and concludeď a firm alliance between England and Sweden about the beginning of May 1654. In 1772, Dr. Morton, secretary of the Royal Society, published the history of this embassy, under the title of " A Journal of the Swedish Ambassy, in the years 1653 and 1654. From the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Written by the ambassador the lord commissioner Whitelocke. With an Appendix of Original Papers,” 2 vols. 4to. These papers Dr. Morton received from Whitelocke's grandson, Carleton Whitelocke, of Prior's wood, near Dublin, esq. This very curious work may be considered as a necessary addition to his " Memorials," and contains a large assemblage of facts and characteristic anecdotes illustrative of the times and the principal personages, printed literally from the author's manuscript.
After his return home he received the thanks of the parliament, and had also 2000l. ordered him for the expenses of his embassy, but according to his own account these favours were not bestowed with a very good grace. He says in the conclusion of the journal of the embassy, “ The sum of all was, that, for a most difficult and dan-' gerous work, faithfully and successfully performed by Whitelocke, he had little thanks, and no recompense, from those who did employ him; but not long after was rewarded by them with an injury: they put bim out of his office of commissioner of the great seal, because he would not be. tray the rights of the people, and, contrary to his own knowledge, and the knowledge of tbose who imposed it, execute an ordinance of the Protector and bis council, as if it had been a law. But in a succeeding parliament, upon the motion of his noble friend the lord Broghill, Whitelocke had his arrears of disbursement paid him, and some recompense of his faithful service allowed unto him.” It was indeed not until 1657 that the 2000l. above-mentioned was paid, with the addition of 5001. which is probably what he means by “some recompense." The ordinance to which he alludes, was one framed by Cromwell, after the dissolution of. bis little parliament, for what he pretended was "the better regulating and limiting the jurisdiction of the high court of Chancery." Whitelocke, finding his opposition to this in vain, resigned the great-seal in June 1655. In Jan. 1656, he was chosen speaker of the House of Commons pro tempore, during the indisposition of sir
Thomas Widdrington, who had been appointed to that office. During the remainder of Oliver Cromwell's protectorate, Wbitelocke appears to have been in and out of favour with bim, as he more or less supported bis measures. The last instance of Oliver's favour to him, was bis signing a warrant for a patent to make him a viscount, but Whitelocke did not think it convenient to accept of this honour, although he had received his writ of summons as one of the lords of the “other house," by the title of Bulstrode lord Whitelocke.
Richard, the new protector, made him one of the keep-' ers of the great seal, but this ceased when the council of officers had determined to displace Richard, on which occasion Whitelocke became one of their council of state. During this confusion, he was accused of holding a correspondence with sir Edward Hyde, and other friends of Charles II. which he positively denied, and by joining in the votes for renouncing the pretended title of Charles Stuart, and the whole line of king James, and of every other person as a single person pretending to the government of these realms, as well as by other measures, he endeavoured to prove his attachment to the republican cause. In the rest of his conduct he seeins, even by his own account, to have beeu irresolute, and inconsistent, or if consistent in any thing, it was in so yielding to circumstances as not to appear very obnoxious to either party. As he had, however, attached himself so long to the enemies of the king, the utmost he could expect was to be allowed to sink into obscurity. Yet it was by a small ma.. jority only that he was included in the act of pardon and oblivion which passed after the restoration. When he had obtained this, he was admitted into the presence of Charles II. who received him very graciously, and dismissed him in these extraordinary words; “ Mr. Whitelocke, go into the country; don't trouble yourself any more about state affairs; and take care of your wife and your sixteen children." This must have mortified a man who had acted so conspicuous a part in state affairs. He took his majesty's advice, however, and spent the remaining fifteen years of his life at Chilton-park in Wiltshire, and died there January 28, 1676. He was interred in the church of Fawley in Buckinghamshire.
Mr. Whitelocke was thrice married, first to Miss Bennet, of the city of London, by whom he had a son James, who
was settled at Trumpington near Cambridge, and left two sons, both of whom died unmarried. His second wife was Frances, daughter of lord Willoughby of Parham, by whom he had nine children, His third wife was Mrs. Wilson, a widow, whose maiden name was Carleton. She survived him, and by her also he had several children. The eldest of this last marriage inherited Chilton Park. .
The editor of his-“ Memorials” gives him this character. “ He not only served the state in several stations and places of the highest trust and importance botir at home and in foreign countries, and acquitted himself with success and reputation answerable to each respective character; but · likewise conversed with books, and made himself a large
provision from his studies and contemplation. Like that noble Roman, Portius Cato, as described by Nepos, he was ‘Reipublicæ peritus, et jurisconsultus, et magous imperator, et probabilis orator, cupidissimus literarum :' a statesman and learned in the law, a great commander, an eminent speaker in parliament, and an exquisite scholar. He had all along so much business, one would not imagine he ever had leisure for books; yet who considers his studies might believe he had been always shut up with his friend Selden, and the dust of action never fallen on his gown. His relation to the public was such throughout all the re
volutions, that few mysteries of state could be to him any • secret. Nor was the felicity of his pen less considerable than his knowledge of affairs, or did less service to the cause he espoused. So we find the words apt and proper for the occasion; the style clear, easy, and without the least force or affectation of any kind, as is shewn in his speeches, his narratives, his descriptions, and in every place where the subject deserves the least care or consideration." Lord Clarendon has left this testimony in favour of White. locke : whom, numbering among his early friends in life, he calls, a man of eminent parts and great learning out of his profession, and in his profession of signal reputation. “ And though,” says the noble historian, “he did afterwards bow his koee to Baal, and so swerved from his allegiance, it was with less rancour and malice than other men. He never led, but followed; and was rather carried away with the torrent than swam with the stream ; and failed through those infirmities, which less than a general defection and a prosperous rebellion could rever have discovered." Lord Clarendou has elsewhere described him, as " from
the beginning concurring with the parliament, without any inclinations to their persons or principles; and," says he, “ he had the same reasons afterwards not to separate from them. All his estate was in their quarters; and he had a nature, that could not bear or submit to be undone : though to his friends, who were commissioners for the king, he used his old openness, and professed his detestation of all the proceedings of his party, yet could not leave them.”
The first edition of his “Memorials of the English Af. fairs," was published in 1682, and the second, with many additions and a better Index, in 1732: called “ An historical Account of what passed from the beginning of the reign of king Charles the First to king Charles the Second his happy Restauration; contaiving the public transactions civil and military, together with the private consultations and secrets of the Cabinet," in folio. Besides these memorials, he wrote also “Memorials of the English Affairs, from the supposed expedition of Brute to this island, to the end of the reign of king James the First. · Published from his original manuscript, with some account of his life and writings, by William Penn, esq. governor of Pennsylvania ; and a preface by James Welwood, M.D. 1709," folio. There are many speeches and discourses of Mr. Wbitelocke to be found in his “Memorials of English Affairs," and in other collections. Oldmixon, who stands at the head of infamous historians, has drawn a comparison between Whitelocke and Clarendon ; there is also an anonymous pamphlet entitled “ Clarendon and Whitelocke farther compared," which was written by Mr. John Davys, some time of Hartball, Oxford. It ought to be remarked that our author's “ Memorials” are his Diary, and that he occasionally entered facts in it: when they came to his knowledge : but not always on those days in which they were transacted. This has led his readers into some anachronisms. It has been remarked also that his “Memorials” would have been much more valuable, if his wife had not burnt many of his papers. As they are, they contain a vast mass of curious information, and are written with impartiality.'
Biog. Brit.His 6 Memorials" and Swedish Embassy.