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beyond the common circle of practitioners in the country, and he was particularly eminent for benevolence, courtesy, penetration, and success. His native country still boasts many monuments of the application of his eminent talents to her interests. To his distinguished skill in chemistry, and his assiduous researches (in conjunction with some other chemists) to discover materials proper for the china-ware, the city of Worcester owes the establishment of its porcelain-manufacture. Besides the improvements hé suggested and put in execution for the accommodation of visitors at Malvern, it was to his zeal and diligence the county of Worcester is in no small degree indebted for the advantages of the infirmary, which he regularly attended during his whole life. His principal amusement was painting; and it has been said of him, that, if he had not been one of the best physicians, he would have been the best painter of his age. This praise is perhaps too high, yet his designs for the two frontispieces to “ Hervey's Meditations," that for Cambridge's “ Scribleriad,” and for the East window of the chapel of Oriel-college, Oxford, are very creditable specimens of his talents. He died at Bath, after a lingering disorder, June 27, 1776, and lies buried in the abbey-church. The tracts published by his son, are, 1. 6 of the extraordinary effects of Musk in convulsive disorders.” 2. “ Of the use of the Peruvian Bark in the sınall-pox." 3. “Of the cure of the putrid sore-throat." 4. “Mr. Oram's account of the Norfolk-boy.” 5. “ Observations on that case, and on the efficacy of oil in wormcases." 6. « Experiments and Observations on the Malvern-waters.” 7. “ Letters to Sir George Baker, &c. on the poison of lead, and the impregnation of cyder with that metal.” 8. “ A Letter to Dr. Heberden on the Angina Pectoris.” 9. “ Supplement; coutaining an account of the epidemic fever of 1740, 1741, and 1742." The editor bas enriched this publication with various notes, which discover an extensive acquaintance with the subjects in question, and a candid and liberal turn of mind. To the treatise on Malvern-waters Dr. Martin Wall has also subjoined an appendix of some length, containing an experimental inquiry into their nature; from which it appears, that the Holywell-water at Malvern owes its virtues principally to its extreme purity, assisted by the fixed air which it contains. 1
I Nash's Hist. of Worcestershire.-Month. Rev. vol. LXIV.-Chalmers's Ilist. of Oxford.
WALL (William), the able defender of infant-baptism, was born in 1646, but where educated, or any further par: ticulars of his early life, are not upon record. He was vicar of Shoreham in Kent, where he died in 1728, at the age of eighty-two, and was considerably advanced when he stept forth as the champion of infant. baptism, in opposition to Dr. John Gale, the ablest writer of his time on the baptist side. Mr. Wall published his “ History of Infant Baptism” in 1707; and Dr. Gale, in 1711, published “Reflections” on it (See Gale.) In 1719, a friendly conference was held on the subject between him and Mr. Wall, which ended without any change of opinion on either side. Mr. Wall, in the same year, published his “ Defence of the History of Infant Baptism,” which was accounted a performance of such ability and so decisive on the question, that the upiversity of Oxford, to mark their high opinion of the book, and of the talents of the author, conferred on him the degree of D. D. in the following year. After his death were published " Critical Notes on the Old Testament, wberein the present Hebrew text is explained, and in many places amended, from the ancient versions, more particularly from that of the LXX. To which is prefixed, a large introduction, adjustir.g the authority of the Maso. retic Bible, and vindicating it from the objections of Mr. Whiston, and the author of the Grounds and Reasons of the Christian Religion. By the late learned William Wall, D. D. author of the “ History of Infant Baptism," 1733, 2 vols. 8vo.
Dr. Wall stands confessedly at the head of those writers who have supported the practice of infant-baptism ; and his antagonists Gale, Whiston), and the baptist historian Crosby, all unite in praising his candour and piety. He was vicar of Shoreham for the long space of fifty-two years. He once had an offer of a living of 3001. a year, Chelsfield, three miles from Shoreham, which his conscience would not allow bim to accept; but he afterwards consented to take one of about one fifth the value, at twelve miles, distance, that of Milton, near Gravesend. By an only daughter, Mrs. Catherine Waring, of Rochester, he had sixteen grand-children. This lady communicated some anecdotes of her father, printed in Atterbury's Correspondence, by which it appears that he was a man of a facetious turn, and there are some of his letters to Atterbury in that correspondence. He was such a zealot for this pre
late, that he would have lighted up all Whittlebury-forest, in case of bis recall, at bis own expence.'
WALLACE (Sir WILLIAM), a celebrated warrior and patriot, was born, according to the account of his poetical biographer Henry, or Blind Harry, in 1276. He was the younger son of sir Malcolin Wallace of Ellerslie, near Paisley, in the shire of Renfrew, Scotland, and in his sixteenth year was sent io school at Dundee. In 1295, he was insulted by the son of Selby, an Englishman, constable of the port and castle of Dundee, and killed him; on which he fled, and appears to have lived a roving and irregular life, often engaged in skirmishes with the English troops which then had invaded and kept Scotland under subjection. For his adventures, until he became the subject of history, we must refer to Henry. Most of them appear fictitious, or at least are totally unsupported by any other evidence. Wallace, however, is represented by the Scotch historians as being about this time the model of a perfect hero; superior to the rest of mankind in bodily stature, strength, and activity ; in bearing cold and heat, thirst and hunger, watching and fatigue; and no less extraordinary in the qualities of his mind, being equally valiant and prudent, magnanimous and disinterested, undaunted in adversity, modest in prosperity, and animated by the most ardent and inextinguishable love of his country. Having his resentment against the English sharpened by the personal affront abovementioned, and more by the losses his family had sustained, he determined to rise in defence of his country, and being joined by many of his countrymen, their first efforts were crowned with success; but the earl of Surrey, governor of Scotland, collecting an army of 40,000 men, and entering Annandale, and marching through the South-west of Scoiland, obliged all the barons of those parts to submit, and renew the oaths of fealty. Wallace, with his followers, uuable to encounter so great a force, retired northward, and was pursued by the governor and his army.
When the English army reached Stirling they discovered the Scots encamped near the abbey of Cambuskeneth, on the opposite banks of the Forth. Cressingham, treasurer of Scotland, whose covetousness and tyranny had been one great cause of this revolt, earnestly pressed the earl of
Surrey to pass his army over the bridge of Stirling, and attack the enemy. Wallace, who observed all their motions, allowed as many of ihe English to pass as he thought he could defeat, when, rushing upon them with an irresistible impetuosity, they were all eitber killed, drowned, or taken prisoners. In the heat of the action, the bridge, which was only of wood, broke down, and many perished in the river; and the earl of Surrey, with the other part of his aroly, were melancholy spectators of the destruction of their countrymen, without being able to afford them any assistance : and this severe check, which the English received on Sept. 11, 1297, obliged them to evacuate Scotland. Wallace, who after this great victory was saluted deliverer and guardian of the kingdom by his fol. lowers, pursuing the tide of success, entered England with his army, recovered the town of Berwick, plundered the counties of Cumberland and Northumberland, and returned into his own country loaded with spoils and glory,
The news of these surprising events being carried to king Edward I, who was then in Flanders, accelerated his return, and soon after he raised a vast army of 80,000 foot and 7000 horse, wbich the Scots were now in no condition to resist. Their country, for several years, had been almost a continued scene of war, in which many of its inhabitants had perished. Some of their nobles were in the English interest, some of them in prison; and those few who had any power or inclination to defend the freedom of their country, were dispirited and divided. In particular, the ancient nobility began to view the power and popularity of Willian Wallace with a jealous eye : which was productive of very fatal consequences, and contributed to the success of Edward in the battle of Faikirl, fought July 22, 1298, in which the Scots were defeated with great slaughter.
We hear little of Wallace after this until 1303-4, when king Edward had made a complete conquest of Scotland, and, appointing John de Segrave governor of that kingdom, returned to England about the end of August. But Wallace, even after this, and although he had been excluded by the jealousy of the nobles from commanding the armies or influencing the councils of his country, still continued to assert her independency. This, together with the remembrance of many mischiefs which he had done to bis English subjects, and perhaps some apprehension that he might again rekindle the flames of war, made Edward employ various means to get possession of his person ; and at length he was betrayed into his hands by sir John Monteith, hisfriend, whom he had made acquainted with the place of his concealment. The king immediately ordered Wallace to be carried in chains to London: to be tried as a rebel and traitor, though he had never made submission, or sworn fealty to England, and to be executed on Tower-· hill, which was accordingly done, Aug. 23, 1305. This, says Hume, was the unworthy fate of a hero, who, through a course of many years, had, with signal conduct, intrepidity, and perseverance, defended, against a public and oppressive enemy, the liberties of his native country.'
WALLAEUS. See WALÆUS.
WALLER (EDMUND), an eminent English poet, was born March 3, at Colshill in Hertfordshire. His father was Robert Waller, esq. of Agrondesham, in Buckinghamshire, whose family was originally a branch of the Wallers of Spendhurst in Kent; and his mother was the daughter of John Hampden, of Hampden in the same county, and sister to the celebrated patriot Hampden. His father died while he was yet an infant, but left him a yearly income of three thousand five hundred pounds; which, rating together the value of money and the customs of life, we may reckon more than equivalent to ten thousand at the present time.
He was educated *, by the care of his mother, at Eton; and removed afterwards to King's college in Cambridge: He was sent to parliament in his eighteenth, if not in his sixteenth year, and frequented the court of James the first.. His political and poetical life began nearly together. In his eighteenth year he wrote a poem that appears first in his works, on the prince's escape at St. Andero; a piece which shewed that he attained, by a felicity like instinct, a style which perhaps will never be obsolete; and that, “ were we to judge only by the wording, we could not know what was wrote at twenty, and what at fourscore.”
* “ He had grammar learning from Bigge, of Wickham, say (who was the information of Mr. - Dobson, his schoolefellow, and of the same minister of Market Wickham, who formc) that he little thonght then he taught a private schoole there, and woulu have been so rare a poel: he was (be told me) a good schoolmaster, was wont to make his exercise for and bad been bred at Eaton coll. him.” Aubrey, in “ Letters of Emi. schoole. I have heard Mr. Tho. nent Persons," 1813, 3 vols. 8vo.
1 Henry's and Hunie's Histories of England.