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Stumps to be removed for specific payment will be measured by taking the average diameter at the cutoff. When the bid schedule provides for payment for individual tree removals on the square foot basis, the quantity to be paid for will be the summation of the number of square feet contained in the trunk areas of trees removed, measured at a height of 24 inches above the average ground line.

Basis of Payment

201.07 The accepted quantities of clearing and grubbing determined as provided above will be paid for at the contract unit prices as follows:

(a) Area basis.—The quantities determined will be paid for at the contract unit price bid per acre respectively for each of the particular pay items listed that appear in the bid schedule.

(b) Lump-sum basis.- When the bid schedule contains a lump sum item, the lump sum price so bid will be paid and will be full compensation for the estimated quantities shown in the contract. Any change from estimated quantities will be adjusted for total compensation on a pro rata basis consistent with areas requiring comparable work that have been added or deleted.

(c) Linear basis.—When linear quantities are shown in the bid schedule, the quantities will be paid for at the contract unit price bid for such items.

(d) Individual unit basis.—When individual unit quantities are shown on the bid schedule, the accepted quantities will be paid for at the contract price for the respective items. No direct payment will be made for removal of trees less than 4 inches in diameter.

(e) Exclusions. When the bid schedule does not contain an estimated quantity or a lump sum item for clearing and grubbing, scalping, or hedge rows, the work will not be paid for directly, but will be considered as a subsidiary obligation of the Contractor under other contract items.

No added payment will be made for debris rehandled for delayed burning as directed under the provisions of subsection 201.03.

No payment will be made for clearing and grubbing borrow pits, case 2, as set out in subsection 203.06.

Payment will be made under: Pay item

Pay unit 201( ) Clearing

Acre, station, mile,

lump sum.

Pay item

Pay unit 201() Grubbing

Acre, station, mile,

lump sum. 201( ) Clearing and grubbing Acre, station, mile,

lump sum. 201( ) Hedge row removal

Station.
201( ) Scalping

Acre.
201( ) Individual removal of trees,
-inch size

Each. 201( ) Individual removal of trees Square foot. Each pay item from the list above that is shown in the bid schedule will have a number placed within the parentheses for identification and differentiation between the items to be bid on.

Section 202.-REMOVAL OF STRUCTURES AND

OBSTRUCTIONS

Description

202.01 This work shall consist of the removal, wholly or in part, and satisfactory disposal of all buildings, fences, structures, old pavements, abandoned pipe lines, and any other obstructions which are not designated or permitted to remain, except for the obstructions to be removed and disposed of under other items in the contract. It shall also include the salvaging of designated materials and backfilling the resulting trenches, holes, and pits.

Construction Requirements

202.02 General. The Contractor shall perform the work described above, within and adjacent to the roadway, on Government land or easement, as hown on the plans or as directed by the Engineer. All designated salvable material shall be removed, without unnecessary damage, in sections or pieces which may be readily transported, and shall be stored by the Contractor at specified places on the project or as otherwise shown in the special provisions. Perishable material shall be handled as designated in subsection 201.03. Nonperishable material may be disposed of outside the limits of view from the project with written permission of the property owner on whose property the material is placed. Copies of all agreements with property owners are to be furnished the Engineer. Basements or cavities left by structure removal shall be filled with acceptable material to the level of the surrounding ground and, if within the prism of construction, shall be compacted in accordance with subsection 203.10.

202.03 Removal of Bridges, Culverts, and Other Drainage Structures. Bridges, culverts, and other drainage structures in use by traffic shall not be removed until satisfactory arrangements have been made to accommodate traffic.

Unless otherwise directed, the substructures of existing structures shall be removed down to the natural stream bottom and those parts outside of a stream shall be removed down to at least one foot below natural ground surface. Where such portions of existing structures lie wholly or in part within the limits for a new structure, they shall be removed as necessary to accommodate the construction of the proposed structure.

Steel bridges and wood bridges when specified to be salvaged shall be carefully dismantled without damage. Steel members shall be match marked, unless such match marking is waived by the Engineer. All salvaged material shall be stored as specified in subsection 202.02.

Blasting or other operations necessary for the removal of an existing structure or obstruction, which may damage new construction, shall be completed prior to placing the new work, unless otherwise provided in the special provisions.

Unless waived in writing by the Engineer, all concrete removed which is of suitable size for riprap and not needed for such use on the project, shall be stockpiled at locations shown on the plans or in the special provisions, for use by the Government.

202.04 Removal of Pipe. Unless otherwise provided, all pipe shall be carefully removed and every precaution taken to avoid breaking or damaging the pipe. Pipes to be relaid shall be removed and stored when necessary so that there will be no loss or damage before relaying. The Contractor shall replace sections lost from storage or damaged by negligence, at his own expense.

202.05 Removal of Pavement, Sidewalks, Curbs, etc. All concrete pavement, base course, sidewalks, curbs, gutters, etc., designated for removal, shall be:

(a) Broken into pieces and used for riprap on the project,

or

(b) Broken into pieces, the volume of which shall not exceed 1 cubic foot and stockpiled at designated locations on the project for use by the Government, or:

(c) Otherwise disposal of as directed.

When specified, ballast, gravel, bituminous material or other surfacing or pavement materials shall be removed and stockpiled as required in subsection 202.02; otherwise such materials shall be disposed of as directed.

There will be no separate payment for excavating for removal of structures and obstructions or for backfilling and compacting the remaining cavity.

Method of Measurement

202.06 When the contract stipulates that payment will be made for removal of obstructions on a lump sum basis, the pay item will include all structures and obstructions encountered within the roadway in accordance with the provisions of this section. Where the proposal stipulates that payment will be made for the removal of specific items on a unit basis, measurement will be made by the unit stipulated in the contract.

The length of pipe removed will be measured in linear feet, computed by multiplying the number of pipe units removed by the commercial lengths of each pipe unit (exclusive of end connections) or by measuring in place prior to removal, if specified.

Whenever the bid schedule does not contain an item for any aforementioned removals, the work will not be paid for directly, but will be considered as a subsidiary obligation of the Contractor under other contract items.

Basis of Payment

202.07 The accepted quantities of removal of structures and obstructions, determined as provided above, will be paid for at the contract lump sum price bid, which price will be full compensation for removing and disposing of the obstructions in accordance with the contract.

Specific obstruction items, including pipe removal, stipulated for removal and disposal under unit price pay items will be paid for at the contract unit price bid per unit specified in the proposal, which price will be full compensation for removal and disposal of such items, excavation and subsequent backfill incidental to their removal. The price will also include salvage of materials removed, their custody, preservation, storage on the right of way, and disposal as provided herein.

When the proposal does not include pay items for removal of structures and obstructions as set out in this section, such work shall be performed under Section 203—Excavation and Embankment.

Payment will be made under: Pay item

Pay unit 202( ) Removal of structures and obstructions

Lump sum. 202( ) Removal of

Each, linear foot,

square yard,

lump sum. Each pay item from the list above that is shown in the bid schedule will have a number placed within the parentheses, for identification and differentiation between the items to be bid upon.

Section 203.—EXCAVATION AND

EMBANKMENT

Description

203.01 General. This work shall consist of excavation, disposal or compaction of all material not being removed under some other item which is encountered within the limits of the work and which is necessary for the construction of the roadway in accordance with the specifications and in reasonably close conformity with the lines, grades, thicknesses and typical cross sections shown on the plans or established by the Engineer. All major excavation will be classified as common excavation," "rock excavation," "unclassified excavation,” “muck excavation," or "borrow" as hereinafter described.

All suitable material removed from the excavation shall be used as far as practicable in the formation of the embankment, subgrade, shoulders, slopes, bedding, and backfill for structures, and for other purposes shown on the plans or as directed.

203.02 Common Excavation. Common excavation shall consist of all excavation not included as rock excavation or excavation which is otherwise classified and paid for.

203.03 Rock Excavation. Rock excavation shall consist of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rock which cannot be excavated without blasting or the use of rippers, and all

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