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Section 100



101.01 Abbreviations. Wherever the following abbreviations are used in these specifications or on the plans, they are to be construed the same as the respective expressions represented:

AAN-American Association of Nurserymen.
AAR-Association of American Railroads.

AASHO-American Association of State Highway Offi


AGC-Associated General Contractors of America.
AIA-American Institute of Architects.

ARA-American Railway Association.

AREA-American Railway Engineering Association.
ASCE-American Society of Civil Engineers.

ASLA-American Society of Landscape Architects.
ASME-American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASTM-American Society for Testing and Materials.
AWPA-American Wood-Preserver's Association.
AWWA-American Water Works Association.
AWS-American Welding Society.

BPR Bureau of Public Roads, The Federal Highway Ad-
ministration, Department of Transportation.
FHWA-The Federal Highway Administration.
FPR-Federal Procurement Regulations System.
FSS-Federal Specifications and Standards.
GSA-General Services Administration.

SAE-Society of Automotive Engineers.

USASI-United States of America Standards Institute. 101.02 Definitions. Wherever in these specifications or in other contract documents the following terms or pronouns in place of them are used, the intent and meaning shall be interpreted as follows:


Federal Highway Administrator, The Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation.

Advertisement. The public announcement, as required by law, inviting bids for work to be performed or materials to be furnished.

Award. The written acceptance by the Government of a bid.

Bid. The offer of a bidder, on prescribed forms to perform the work and to furnish the labor and materials at the price quoted.

Bid forms.-The approved forms on which the Government requires bids to be prepared and submitted for the work.

Bid guarantee. The security furnished with a bid to guarantee that the bidder will enter into the contract if his bid is accepted.

Bid schedule.—The prepared schedule included with the bid forms, containing the estimated quantities of pay items for which unit bid prices are invited.

Bidder.-An individual, partnership, joint venture, or corporation submitting a bid for the advertised work.

Bridge. A structure, including supports, erected over a depression or an obstruction, as water, highway, or railway, and having a track or passageway for carrying traffic or other moving loads and having a length measured along the center of roadway of more than 20 feet between undercopings of abutments or extreme ends of openings for multiple boxes.

Bridge length.-The length of a bridge structure is the over-all length measured along the line of survey stationing back to back of backwalls of abutments, if present, otherwise end to end of the bridge floor; but in no case less than the total clear opening of the structure.

Bridge roadway width.-The clear width measured at right angles to the longitudinal centerline of the bridge between the bottom of curbs or, if curbs are not used, between the inner faces of bridge parapet or railing.

Calendar day.-Every day shown on the calendar.

Change order.-A written order issued by the Engineer to the Contractor, covering changes within the scope of the contract and establishing the basis of payment and time adjustments for the work affected by the changes.

Contract. The written agreement between the Government and the Contractor setting forth the obligations of the parties thereunder, including, but not limited to, the performance of the work, the furnishing of labor and materials, and the basis of payment.

The contract includes all documents and Standard Forms included or referred to in the Invitation for Bids; also other documents issued subsequently to provide for completion of the work in an acceptable manner.

Contract item (pay item).—A specifically described unit of work for which a price is provided in the contract.

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