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live. One or two years residence give him all the rights of a citizen; but the government does not at present, whatever it may have done in former times, hire people to become settlers, by paying their passages, giving land; negroes, utensils, stock or any other kind of emolument whatsoever. In short, America is the land of labour, and by no means what the English call: Lubberland, and the French Pays de Cocagne, where the streets are said to be paved, with half-peck loaves, the houses tiled with pancakes, and where the fowls fly a.. buut ready roasted, crying, Come eat me !.
Who then are the kind of persons to whom an emigration to America, would be adyantageous? And what are the advantages they may reasonably expect ?
Land being cheap in that country, from the vast for. ests still void of inhabitants, and not likely to be occupied in an age to come, insomuch that the property of an hundred, acres of fertile soil full of wood may be obtained ncar the frontiers, in many places, for eight or ten guineas; hearty young labouring men, who under.. stand the husbandry of corn and catile, which is nearly the same in that country, as in Europe, may easily. establish themselves there. A little money saved of thegood wages they receive there while they work for others, enables them to buy the land and begin their plan.. tation, in which they are assisted by the good will of their neighbors, and some credit.: Multitudes of poor people from England, Ireland, Scotland, and Germany, have by this means in a few years became wealthy: farmers, who in their own countries, where all the lands are fully occupied and the wages of labour low, could never have emerged from the mean condition wherein: they were born.
From the salubrity of the air, the healthiness of the alimate, the plenty of good provisions, and the encour. agement of early marriages, by the certainty of subsistence in cultivating the earth, the increase of inhab.. itants by natural generation is very rapid in America, . and becomes still more.so by the accession of strangers,, hence there is a continual demand for more artisans of all the necessary and useful kinds, to supply those cule tivators of the earth with houses, and with furniture. and utensils of the grosser sorts, which cannot so well be brought from Europe. Tolerably good workmen in any of those mechanic arts, are sure to find employ, and to be well paid for their work, there being no restraints preventing strangers from exercising any art they understand, nor any permission necessary. If they are poor, they begin first as servants or jour. Beymen; and if they are sober, industrious and frugal, they soon become masters, establish themselves in business, marry, raise families, and become respecta: ble citizens..
Also, persons of moderate fortues and capitals, who having a number of children to provide for, are desirous of bringing then up to industry, and to secure estates. for their posterity, have opportunities of doing it in America, which Europe does not afford. There they may be taught and practise profitable mechanic' arts, without incurring disgrace on that account; but on the contrary, acquiring respect by such abilities. There small capitals laid out in lands, which daily become more valuable by the increase of people, afford a solid prospect of ample fortunes thereafter for those children.. The writer of this has known. several instances of large tracts of land, bought on what was then the frontier of Pennsylvania, for ten pounds per hundred acres, which afier twenty years, when the settlements had been ex. tended far beyond them, .sold readily, without any im, provement made upon them, for three pounds per acre..
The acre in America. is the same. with the English acre, or the acre of Normandy..
Those, who desire to understand the state of government in America, . would do well to read the constitutions of the several states, and the articles of copfederation that bind the whole together for general purpop. ses under the direction of one assembly, called the Con, yesbehese.constitusions have been printed, by ordert
of Congress, in America ; two editions of them have also been printed in London; and a good translation of them into French, has lately been published at Paris.
Several of the princes of Europe having of late, from an opinion of advantage to arise by producing all commodities and manufactures within their own dominions so as to diminish or render useless their importations, have endeavoured to entice workmen from other countries, by high salaries, privileges, &c. Many persons pretending to be skilled in various great manufactures, imagining that America must be in want of them, and that the congress would probably be disposed to imio tate the princes above mentioned, have proposed to go over, on condition of having their passages paid, lands given, salaries appointed, exclusive privileges for terms of years, &c. Such persons, on reading the articles of confederation, will find that the Congress have no power committed to them, or money put into their hands for such purposes; and that if any encouragement is, given, it must be by the government of some particu-lar state. This, however, has rarely been done in A. merica; and when it has been done, it has rarely succeeded, so as to establish a manufacture which the coun-try was not yet so ripe for as to encourage private pers sons to set it up ; labour being generally too dear theregn and hands difficult to be kept together, every one desir: ing to be a master, and the cheapness of land inclining many to leave trades for agriculture. Some indeed have met with success, and are carried on to advan. tage ; but they are generally such as require only a few hands, or wherein great part of the work is performed by machines. Goods that are bulky, and of so small value as not well to bear the expence of freight, may often be made cheaper in the country, than they can be imported, and the manufacture of such goods will b: profitable wherever there is sufficient demand. The farmers in America produce indeed a good deal of wool and flax ; and none is exported, it is all worked up ; but it is in the way of domestic manufacture, for the
use of the family. The buying up quantities of wool and flax, with the design to employ spinners, weavers, &c. and form great establishments, producing quanti. ties of linen and woollen goods for sale, has been several times attempted in different provinces; but those projects have generally failed, goods of equal value being imported cheaper. And when the governments have been solicited to support such schemes by encouragements in money, or by imposing duties on importation of such goods, it has been generally refused on this principle, that if the country is ripe for the manui facture, it may be carried on by private persons to advantage ; and if not, it is a folly to think of forcing na. ture. Great establishments of manufacture, require great numbers of poor to do the work for small wages; those poor are to be found in Europe, but will not be found in America, till the lands are all taken up and cultivated, and the excess of people who cannot get landi want employment.
The manufacture of silk, they say, is natural in France, as that of cloth in England, because each country produces in plenty the first materi. al : but if England will have a manufacture of silk as well as that of cloth, and France of cloth as well as that of silk, these unnatural operations must be supported by mutual prohibitions, or high duties on the importation of each other's goods; by which means the workmen are enabled to tax the home consumer by greater prices, while the bigher wages they receive makes them neither happier nor richer, since they only drink more and work less. Therefore the governments of America do nothing to encourage such projects. The people, by this means, are 'not imposed on, either "by the mer.. chant or mechanic : if the merchant demands too much profit on imported shoes, they buy of the shoe-maker :and if he asks too high a price, they take them of the merchant ; thus the two professions are checks on eachother. The shoe-maker, however, has, on the whole. • a considerable profit upon his labour in America, ben yond whai he had in Europe, as he can-add to his price:
afsum nearly equal to all the expences of freight and commission, risque or insurance, &c. necessarily charged by the merchant. And it is the same with ea very other mechanic art. Hence it is, that artisans generally live better and more easily in America than in Europe ; and such as are good economists make a comfortable provision for age, and for their children.-Such may, therefore, l'emove with advantage to Ames rica.
In the old long settled country of Europe, all arts, trades, professions, farms, &c. are so full, that it is difficult for a poor man who has children to place them where thev may gain, or learn to gain, a decent livelihood. The artisans, who fear creating future rivals in busivess refuse to take apprentices, but upon condi. tions of money, maintenance, or the like, which the. parents are unable to comply with. : Hence the youth are dragged up in ignorance of every gainful art, and obliged to become soldiers; or servants or thieves, fora subsistence. In America, the rapid increase of inhábitants takes away that fear of rivalship, and artisans willingly receive apprentices from the hope of profit hy: their labour, during the remainder of the time stipula." ted, after they shall be instructed.
Hence it is easy: for families to get their chilciren instructed ; for the artisans are so desirious of apprentices that many of them will even give money to the parents, to have boys from ten to fifteen years of age bound apprentice to them, till the age of twenty one; and many poor parents have by that means, on their arrival in the country, raised money enough to buy land suficient to establish themselves, and io subsist the rest of their faniily by agriculture. These contracts for apprentices are made Before a magistrate, who regulares ilie agreement according to reason and justice ; and having in view the formation of a future useful citizen, obliges the master to engage by a written indenture, not sily that, during the time of service stipulaicei, the apprentice shall be duly provided with incal, diinky apparel, washing; and