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chiexousor less.bcncficial than those of other countries, nations; and ages; enjoying in the same degree the great blessings of political liberty.
..Same indeed amoug us are not so much grieved for ihe: Presentate of our affairs, as apprehensive for the future: # Fhe prowih of luxury alarms them, and they tiaink we are from that alone in the high road to ruin. They observe, -that-no revenue is sufficient without ce cononiy, and that the most plentiful income of a whole people from the natural productions of their country": may be dissipela! iii vain and needless expences, and povertybes litroduced in the place of affluence.—This may be possible. It however rarely happens: for there Seems to be in every nation a greater proportion of industry and fiugailiy, which tend to enrich, than of idleness and proci, ality, which occasion poverty ; so that upon the whole there is a continual accumulation. Reflect what Spain. Gaul, Germany, and Britain were in the time of ihe Romans, inhabited by people liule richer that our savages, and consider the wealth they' at present possess, in numerous well built cities, improved farnis, rich moveables, magazines stocked with Valuable manufactures, to say of nothing of plate, jewels, and coined money ; and all this, notwithstanding? their bad, wasteful, plundering governments, and their bad destructive wars; and yet luxury and extravagant. living has never suffered much restraint in those coun. tries. When consider the great proportion of industri.. ous frugal farmer's inhabiting the interior parts of these American stales, and of whom the body of our nation consists, and judge whether it is possible that the luxuI'y of our sca ports can be sufficient to ruin such a coun. try. If ile importation of foreign luxuries could ruin a jitople, we should probably have been ruined Jong ago); for the British pation claimed a right, and praco tised it, of importing among us not only the superfluities of their own production, but those of every nation' under i caven ; we bought and consumed them, and yet we tourished and grew rich. At present our inde.
pendent governments may do what we could not then do, discourage by heavy duties, or prevent by heavy prohibitions, such importations, and thereby grow richer if, indeed, which may admit of dispute, the desire of adorning ourselves with fine clothes, possessing fine furniture, with elegant houses, &c. is not, by strongly inciting to labour and industry, the occasio:) of producing a greater value than is consumed in the gratifica. tion of that desire.
The agriculture and fisheries of the United States are the great sources of our increasing wealth. He that puts a seed into the earth, is recompenced, perhaps by receiving forty out of it ; and he who draws a fish out of the waters, draws up a piece of silver.
Let us (and there is no doubt but we shall) be aftentive to these, and then the power of rivals with all their restraining and prohibiting acts, cannot much hurt us.' We are sons of the earth and the seas, and like Antæus in the fable, if in wrestling with a Hercules we now and then receive a fall, the touch of our parents will communicate to us fresh strength and vigor to renew the contesto
Information to those who world wish to remove
to America. Many persons in Europe having directly, or by let. ters, expressed to the writer of this, who is well acquainted with North America, their desire of transporting and establishing themselves in that country; but who appear to him to have formed, through ignosance, mistaken ideas and expectations of what is to be obtained there ; he thinks it may be useful, and prevent inconvenient, expensive, and fruitless removals and voyages of improper persons, if he gives some clearer and truer notions of that part of the world, than have hitberto prevaikdo
He finds it imagined by numbers, that the inhabi dants of North America are rich, capable of rewarding, and disposed to reward, all sorts of ingenuity ; that they are at the same time ignorant of all the sciences, and consequently that strangers, possessing talents in the belles-leures, fine arts, &c. must be highly esteem. ed, and so well paid as to become easily rich them. selves; that there are also abundance of profitable offices to be disposed of, which the natives are not . qualified to fill; and that, having few persons of family among them, strangers of birth must be greatly res. pected, and of course easily obtain the best of those offices, which will make all their fortunes;- govern. ments too, to encourage emigrations from Europe, not only pay the expence of their personal transportation, but give lands gratis to strangers, with negroes to work for them, utensils of husbandry, and stocks of cattle. These are all wild imaginations; and those who go to Anierica with expectations founded upon them, will surely find themselves disappointed.
The truth is, that though there are in that country few people so miserable as the poor of Europe, there are also few that in Europe would be called rich: it is rather a general happy mediocrity that prevails. There are few great proprietors of the soil, and few tenants ; inost people cultivate their own lands, or follow some liandicraft or merchandize; very few rich enough to Jive idly upon their rents or incomes, or to pay the high prices given in Europe for painting, statues, architecture, and the other works of art that are niore curi. ous than useful. Hence the natural geniuses that have arisen in America, with such talents, have uniformly quitted that country for Europe, where they can be more suitably rewarded. It is true that letters and mathematical knowledge are in esteem there, but they are at the same time more common than is apprehended; there being already existing nine colleges, or universities, viz. four in New-England, and one in each of the provinces of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvanía, Maryland, and Virginia, all furnished with learned professors; besides a number of smaller academies : these educate many of their youth in the languages, and those sciences that qualify men for the professions of divinity, law, or physic. Strangers indeed are by no means excluded from exercising those professions; and the quick increase of inhabitants every where gives them a chance of employ, which they have in common with the natives. Of civil offices, or employments, there are few; no superfluouis ones as in Europe ; and it is a rule established in some of the states, that ne office should be so profitable as to make it desirablerThe 36th article of the constitution of Pennsylvania runs expressly in these words: “As
every freeman, to preserve his independence, (if he has not a sufficient estate,) ought to have some profession, calling, trade, or farm, whereby he may honestly subsist, there can be no necessity for, nor use in, establishing offices of profit; the usual effects of which are dependence and servility, unbecoming freemen, in the possessors and expectants;. faction, contention, corruption, and disor: der among the people. Wherefore, whenever an office, through increase of fees or otřerwise, becomes so profitable as to occasion many to apply for it, the profits ought to be lessened by the legislature."
These ideas prevailing more or less in all the Unite ed States, it cannot be worth any man's while, who hasa means of living at home, to expatriate himself in hopes of obtaining a profitable civil office in America; and as to military offices, they are at an end with the war, the armies being disbanded: Much less is it adviseable for a person to go thicher, who has no other quality lo recommend him but his birth. In Europe, ił has indeed its value ; but it is a commodity that can-not be carried to a worse. market than in Ainerica, where people do not enquire concerning a stranger, What is hebut What can he do ? 'If he has any useful. art, he is welcome; and if he exercises it, and behaves well, he will be respected by all that know him; but as
mere man of quality, who on that account wants to live upon the public by some office or salary, will be despised and disregarded. The husbandman is in honour: there, and even the mechanic, because their employments are useful. The people have a saying, that God Almighty is himself a mechanic, the greatest in. the universe ; and he is respected and admired more for the variety, ingenuity, and utility of his handiworks, than for the antiquity of his family. They are pleased with an observation of a negro, and frequently mention it, “that Boccarorra (meaning the white man) make de black man workee, make de horse workee, make de ox workee, make ebery ting workee; only de hog. He, de hog, no workee; he eat, he drink, he walk about, he go to sleep when he please, he libb like a gentleman." According to these opinions of the Americans, one of them would think himself more obliged to a genealogist who could prove for him that his ancestors and relations for ten generations had been ploughmen, smithsgo carpenters, turners, weavers, tanners, or even shoemaa. kers, and consequently that they were useful members of society; than if he could prove that they were gena tlemen, doing nothing of value, but living idly on the labor of others, mere fruges consumere nati,* and other. wise good for nothing, till by their death their estates, like the carcase of the negro's gentleman-hog, come to be cut up.
With regard to encouragement for strangers from government, they are really only what are derived from good laws and liberty. Strangers are welcome because there is room enough for them all, and therefore the old inhabitants are not jealous of them; the laws pro tect them sufficiently, so they have no need of the pate ronage of great men; and every one will enjoy securely the profits of his industry. But if he does not bring ä. fortone with him, he must work and be industrious to.