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ever settled. No less than seven hundred privateers were, it is said, commissioned in the last war! These were fitted out by merchants, to prey upon other merchants, who had never done them any injury. Is there probably any one of those privateering merchants of London, who were so ready to rob the merchants of Amsterdam, that would not as readily plunder another London merchant of the next street, if he could do it with the same impunity? The avidity, the alieni appetens is the same; it is the fear alone of the gallows that makes the difference. How then can a nation, which, among the honestest of its people, has so many thieves by inclination, and whose government encouraged and commissioned no less than seven hundred gangs of robbers ; how can such a nation have the face to condemn the crime in individuals, and to hang up twenty of them in a morning! It naturally puts one in mind of a Newgate anecd: te. Une of the prisoners complained that in the night somebody had taken bis buckles out of his shots.. What the devil!” says another, " have we then thieves amongst us? It must not be suffered. Let us search out the rogue, and pump him. to death."

There is, however, one late instance of an English merchant who will not profit by such ill gotten gain.He was, it seems, part owner of a ship, which the other owners thought fit to employ as a letter of marque, and which took a number of French prizes. The booty being shared, he has now an agent here enquiring, by an advertisement in the Gazette, for those who suf... fered the loss, in order to make them, as far as ju him. lies, restitution. This conscientious man is a Quaker. The Scoich presbyterians were formerly as tender; for there is still extant an ordinance of the town-council of Edinburgh, made soon after the Reformation, “forbidding the purchase of prize goods, under pain of losing the freedom of the burgh for ever, with other punishment, al the will of the nagistrate ; the practice of making prizes being contrary to good conscience,

and the rule of treating Christian brethern, as we would wish to be treated ; and such goods are not to be sold by any godly men within this burgh,The race of these godly men in Scotland is probably extinct, or their principles abandoned, since, as far as that nation had a hand in promoting the war against the colonies, prizes and confiscations are believed to have been a considerable: motive.

It has been for some time a generally-received opinia on, that a military man is not to enquire, whether a war be just or unjust; he is to execute his orders. All princes who are disposed to become tyrants, must probably approve of this opinion, and be willing to estab. lish it; but is it not a dangerous one ? since on that principle, if the tyrant commands his army to attack and destroy, not only an unoffending neighbor nation, but even his own subjects, the arıny is bound to 'obey. A. negro slave, in our colonies, being conimanded by his master to rob or murder a neighbor, or do any other immoral act, may refuse ; and the magistrate will protect him in his refusal. The slavery then of a soldier is worse than that of a negro! A conscientious officer, if not restrained by the apprehension of its being im-. puted to another cause, may indeed resign, rather than be employed in an unjust war, but the private men are slaves for life ; and they are perhaps incapable of judging for themselves. We can only lament their fate, and still more that of a sailor, who is often dragged by force from his honest occupation, and compelled to ime brue his hands in perhaps innocent blood.

But me. thinks it well behoves merchants (men more enlighten. ed by their education, and perfectly free from any such force or obligation) to consider well of the justice of a. war, before they voluntarily engage a gang of ruffians to attack their fellow-merchants of a neighboring nation, to plunder them of their property, and perhaps ruin them and their families, if they yield it; or to wound, main, and murder them, if they attempt to defend it.. Yet these things are done by Christiian mercha LS

whether a war be just or unjust; and it can hardly be just on both sides. They are done by English and A. inerican merchants, who, nevertheless, complain of private theft, and hang by dozens, the thieves they have taught by their own example.

It is high time, for the sake of humanity, that a stop were put to this enormity. The United States of America, though better situated than any European nation to make profit by pravateering, (most of the trade of Europe with the West-Indies, passing before their doors) are, as far as in them lies, endeavoring to abolish the practice by offering, in all their treaties with other powers, an article, engaging solemnly, that in case of future war, no privateer shall be commissioned on either side ; and that unarmed merchant-ships, on both sides, shall pursue their voyages unmolested. * This will be a happy improvement of the law of nations. The hu-mane and the just cannot but wish generať suecess to the proposition..

With unchangeable esteem and effection,

Iam, my dear friend, ever yours.

* This offer having been accepted by the late king of Prussia, a treaty of amity and commerce was concluded between that monarch and the United States, containing the following humane, philanthropic article ; in the formation of which Dr. Franklin, as one of the American plenia : potentiaries, was principally concerned, viz.

ART. XXIII. If war should arise between the two contracting para ties, the merchants of either country, then residing in the other, shall be allowed to remain nine months to collect their debts and settle their affairs, and may depart freely carrying off all their effects without molestation or hindrance : and all women and children, scholars of every faculty, cultivators of the eartlı, artisiads, manufacturers, and fishermen, unarmed and inhabiting unforetificd towns, villages, or places, and in general all others

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whose occupations are for the common subsistence and benefit of mankind, shall be allowed to continue their respective employments, and shall not be molested in their persons, nor shall their houses or goods be burnt, or otherwise destroyed, nor their fields wasted, by the armed force of the enemy into whose power, by the events of war, they may happen to fall; but if any thing is necessary to be taken from them for the use of such arined force, the same shall be paid for at a reasonable price. And all merchant and trading vessels employed in exchanging the products of different places, and thereby rendering the necessaries, conveniences, and comforts of human life more easy to be obtained, and more general, shall be allowed to pass free and unmolested; and neither of the contracting power's shall grant or issue any commission to any private armed vessels empowering them to take or destroy such trad. ing vessels, or interrupt such commerce,

Remarks concerning the Savages of North

America. SAVAGES we call them, because their manners differ from ours, which we think the perfection of civility ; they think the same of theirs.

Perhaps, if we could examine the manners of different nations with impartiality, we should find no people so rude as to be without any rules of politeness; nor any so polite as not to have some remains of rude

ness.

The Indian men, when young, are hunters and warriors : when old, counsellors; for all their government is by the counsel of advice or sayes; there is no force, there are no prisons, no officers to compel obedience, or inflict punishment. Hence they generally study oratory ; the best speaker having the most influence. The Indian women till the ground, dress the food, purse. auri briner up the chillren, and pieserve and hani do* to poslurity in merity of public transactions. These en plormnes of an and somen are accounted natural anch' onorabli: Hiving tow altiicial wants, they have abundanet of leisuu: friimprovement by conversations Ou labouious manner of life, compared with thuis, they esteem divish and base; and the learning on which We vulle din's lv's they regardi du frivolous and useless. An instance of this occurred at the treaty of Lancas ter, in Pennsylvan a anno 1734. between the governmot of Virginia and the is Nation-. After the priacipai business las selllud, ile commissioner's from Virginja acquainted the indians by a speech, that there was at vi viliamshurg a college, with a fund, for educat. inI dian you h; anal that if the chief of the Six Na. tions would send down balf a dozen of their sons to that college, the government would take care that they should be well provided for, and instructed in all the learning of the white people. It is one of the Indian rules of politeness not to answer a public proposition the same day that it is made ; they think it would be treating it as a light matter; and they shew it respect by taking time to consider it, as of a matter important. They therefore deferred their answer till the day following; when their speaker began, by expressing their deep sense of the kindness of the Virginia government, in making that offer: “ for we know (says he) that you highly esteem the kind of learning taught in those colleges, and that the maintenance of our young men, while with you, would be very expensive to you.

We are convinced, therefore, that you mean to do us good by your proposal, and we thank you heartily. But you who are wise, must know, that different nations have different conceptions of things, and you will therefore not take it a miss, if our ideas of this kind of education happen not to be the same with yours. We have had some experience of it: several of our young people Were formerly brought up at the colleges of the northern provinces; they were instructed in all your sciences;

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