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GOODS AND CHATTELS-GOODWIN SANDS.
■JOBS A3n> CHATTELS, a legal as well as
:iJt a Scotland, France, and some other
=» to the personal property of a married
_»+neh ia not subject to any deed, but left to
-r-nzx-n of the common law. In England,
_i -.arm is unknown, for upon marriage, all the
- ^. rrTperty which previously belonged to the
-3l -rzkh ia not secured by any deed or will),
i^S as what waa previously his own, becomes . .-t3Bts the husband's absolutely—he is entire ■a <i it, and can do what he likes with it, 3,-aai of the wishes of his wife or children, and i in eroi bequeath it away to strangers. In
--lid. ae theory is not so liberal towards the -. -.\ tiaxisrh in practice there is not much -■«» By the law of Scotland, the husband = is- as what he likes with the personal property «a paries, if there is no previous marriage•^aior other deed governing the subject-matter. 3s as aWst squander it atwDL It is only at his
as'ai^e theory of a kind of partnership, or of
-.: g-rra r- gooda, comes into play.
; ;wskfi lie the wife died, for formerly, at her
England he can. See other incidents of this distinction in Paterson's Compendium of Engiuh and Scotch Law, ss. 673, 738. H there is a marriage-contract or antenuptial settlement between the husband and wife, the rights both of the wife and children may be materially varied, for the rule then is, that the parties may make what arrangement they please by way of contract, and in such settlements a fixed Bum is generally provided both to the wife and children, in lieu of what they would be entitled to at common law, L e., where no express contract is made.
GOOD-WILL is rather a short popular expression than a legal term. It means that kind of interest which is sold along with any profession, trade, or business. In reality, it is not the business that is sold, for that is not a distinct thing recognised by the law, but the house, shop, fixtures, &c, are sold, and the trade debts; and along with transferring these, the seller binds himself, either by covenant or agreement, to do everything in his power to recommend his successor, and promote his interests in such business. If the seller acts contrary to such agreement, he is liable to an action. But the more usual course is for the seller to enter into an express covenant not to carry on the same business within 30, 40, or 100 miles, or some specified moderate distance from the place where the purchaser resides. At first, such a covenant was sought to be set aside as invalid, on the ground that it tended to restrain the natural liberty of trade; but the courts have now firmly established that if a definite radius of moderate length is fixed upon, it does not sensibly restrain trade, inasmuch as the person covenanting can go beyond those limits, and trade as much as he pleases. Hence, such limitations are a fair matter of bargain, and upheld as valid. If the party break his covenant, he is liable to an action for damages.
GOODWIN SANDS, famous banks of shifting sands stretching about 10 miles, in a direction north-east and south-west, off the east coast of Kent, at an average distance of 5\ miles from the shore. The sands are divided into two portions by a narrow channel, and at low water, many parts are uncovered. When the tide recedes, the sand becomes firm and safe; but after the ebb, the water permeates through the mass, rendering the whole pulpy and treacherous, in which condition it shifts to such a degree as to render charts uncertain from year to year. The northern portion is of triangular form—3J miles long, and 2J in its greatest width; on the northernmost extremity, known as North Sand Head, a light-vessel marks the entrance on this perilous shoal This light is distant about seven miles from Ramsgate. In the centre, on the western side, jutting out towards the shore, is the Blunt Head, a peculiarly dangerous portion, also marked by a light-ship. The southern portion is 10 miles in length, 2J in width at its northern end, and sloping towards the south-west, to a point called South Sand Head, which, being marked by a light-vessel, completes the triangle of dangerous proximity recorded for the benefit of mariners.
From the sunken nature of these sands, they have always been replete with danger to vessels passing through the Strait of Dover, and resorting either to the Thames or to the North Sea. On the other hand, they serve as a breakwater to form a secure anchorage in the Downs (q. v.), when easterly or south-easterly winds are blowing. The Downs, though safe under these circumstances, become dangerous when the wind blows strongly off-shore, at which time ships are apt to drag their anchors, and to strand upon the perfidious breakers of the GOOLE-GOOSE.
Goodwin, in the shifting sands of which their wrecks are soon entirely swallowed up. Many celebrated and terribly fatal wrecks have taken place here, among which we have only space to enumerate the three line-of-battle-ships, Stirling Castle, Mary, and Northumberland, each of 70 guns, which, with other ten men-of-war, were totally lost during the fearful gale of the 26th November 1703, a gale so tremendous that vessels were actually destroyed by it while riding in the Medway. On the 2lBt December 1805, here foundered the Aurora, a transport, when 300 perished; on the 17th December 1814, the British Queen, an Ostend packet, was lost with all hands; and recently (January 5, 1857), during a gale of eight days' duration, in which several other vessels were lost, the mail-steamer Violet was destroyed, involving the sacrifice of many lives in the catastrophe. From these dates, it will be seen that the greatest dangers are to be apprehended in the winter months.
These dangerous sands arc said to have consisted at one time of about 4000 acres of low land, fenced from the sea by a walL One well-known tradition ascribes their present state to the building of the Tenterden steeple, for the erection of which the funds that should have maintained the sea-wall had been diverted: this traditionary account is of little, if any value. Lambard, in writing of them, says: 'Whatsoever old wives tell of Goodwync, Earle of Kent, in time of Edward the Confessour, and his sandes, it appearcth by Hector Boetius, the Brittish chronicler, that theise sandes weare maync land, and some tyme of the possession of Earl Godwync, and by a great inundation of the sea, they weare taken HioiniM. at which tyme also much harme was done in Scotland and Flanders, by the same rage of the water.' At the period of the Conquest by William of Normandy, these estates were taken from Earl Godwin, and bestowed upon the abbey of St Augustine at Canterbury, the abbot of which, allowing the sea-wall to fall into a dilapidated condition, the waves rushed in. in the year 1100, and overwhelmed the whole. How far this account of the formation of this remarkable shoal can be relied on, is a matter of considerable doubt, the documentary evidence on the subject being ■canty and unsatisfactory. A colourable confirmation is, however, to be deduced from the fact of the successive inroads which the sea has made for centuries past, and is still making along the whole east coast of England
As a precaution, now, in foggy weather, bells in the light-ships are frequently sounded. Difficulty is experienced in finding firm anchorage for these vessels; and all efforts to establish a fixed beacon have been hitherto unsuccessful In 1846, a lightbouso on piles of iron screwed into the Band was erected, but it was washed away in the following year. As soon as a vessel is known to have been driven upon the sands, rockets are thrown up from the light-vessels, and the fact thus communicated to the shore. The rockets are no sooner recognised, than a number of boatmen, known all along the coast as 'hovellers,' immediately launch their boats and make for the Bands, whatever may be the state of wind and weather. These ' hovellers' regard the wreck itself as their own property, and although during fine weather they lead a somewhat regardless as well as a wholly idle and inactive life, their intrepidity in seasons of tempest is worthy of all (•raise.
GOOLE, a thriving market-town and river-port of England, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, is situated on the right liank of the Ouse at its junction with the Dutch River, 22 miles southBouth-east of York. It has only recently risen
into importance, and may be said to date the commencement of its prosperity from its establishment as a bonding-port in 1829. It has commodioua ship, barge, and steam-vessel docks, a patent slip for repairing vessels, ponds for bonded timber, a neatly-built custom house, and extensive warehouse accommodation. G. has a considerable trade in ship and boat building, sail-making, iron-founding, and agricultural machine-making; it has also several corn-mills, some of which are worked by steam. Coal is largely exported along the coast, and in considerable quantities to London. About 40(H) vessels enter and clear the port annually. Fop. iu 1871, 7680.
GOOSANDER (Mergus Merganser), a webfooted bird of the same genus with those commonly called Mergansers (q. v.), and the largest of the British species. It is larger than a wild duck; the adult male has the head and npper part of the neck of a rich shining green; the feathers of the crown and back of the head elongated, the back black and gray, the wings black and white, the breast and belly of a delicate reddish buff colour. The female has the head reddish brown, with a less decided tuft than the male, and much grayer plumage, and has been often described as a different species, receiving the English name of Dundiver. Both mandibles are furnished with many sharp serratures or teeth directed backwards (see accompanying illustration), the nearest
Goosander (Mergus Merganser).
approach to true teeth to be found in the nioutl of any bird. See also Bill The G. ia native of the arctic regions, extending into t.h temperate parts of Europe, Asia, and America in the southern partB of Britain, it is Been on! in winter, and then only in severe weather, tl females and young migrating southwards in «m< circumstances more frequently than the old 11 .- • and not nnfrequently appearing in small flocks the south of Scotland and north of Engla.ii. but in Borne of the northern parts of Scotia: and the Scottish isles it spends the whole ye: It feeds on fish, crustaceans, and other aqual animals which its serrated bill and its power diving admirably adapt it for seizing. The fl« of the G. is extremely rank and coarse, but eggs appear to be sought after by the inh.-U »i t .. ■ of some northern countries.
GOOSE [Anter), a genus of web-footed birds, .i of the sections of the Linntean genus Anas <■; ■ having the bill not longer than the head, mi high than hroad at the base, the upper maxatlil slightly hooked at the tip; the legs placed fvurtl