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and envy, hateful and ha

εν κακια και φθονο διαγονting one another.

τες, συγητοι, μισουντες αλ

ληλους. 4 But after that the 4 Οτε δε η χρηςοτης και kindness and love of God η φιλανθρωπια επεφανη του our Saviour toward man

σωτηρος ημων Θεου, appeared, , 5 Not by works of righ

Ουκ εξ εργων των εν teousness which we have δικαιοσυνη ων εποιησαμεν ηdone, but according to his

μεις, αλλα κατα τον αυτου mercy he saved us, by the ελεον εσωσεν ημας, δια λουwashing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy τρου παλιγγενεσιας, και αναGhost;

καινωσεως πνευματος αγιου 6 Which he shed on us

6 Ου εξεχεεν εφ' ημας abundantly through Jesus πλουσιως, δια Ιησου Χριςου Christ our Saviour; του σωτηρος ημων

tioned, ver. 6. Jerome, Estius, the author of Misc. Sacra, and Benson, are of opinion that the character of the believing Jews before their conversion is described here; and among the rest the character of the apostle himself. But any reader who compares what he says of his own behaviour in his un. converted state, Acts xxiii. 1. Gal. i. 14. 2 Tim. i. 3. will hardly think the apostle speaks of himself. Only, being about to say things disagreeable to the Jews, he classed himself with them, according to his custom, to prevent their being offended with him. See 1 Thess. iv. 15. note.—The sentiment in this passage is beautiful; namely, that the recollection of our own faults ought to make us equitable in judging of the faults of others, and prevent us from passing severe sentences on them when they fall into sin.

Ver. 4.–1. Of Gud our Saviour. That the Father is here called God our Saviour is evident from ver. 6. where the same person is said to have poured out the Holy Ghost richly on the Jews through Jesus Christ our Saviour. The title of our Saviour, justly belongs to the Father because he formed the scheme of our salvation, and sent his Son into the world to accomplish it: John iii. 16. Rom. v. 8. 1 Jolin iv. 9. on which account the title of Saviour is given to the Son likewise.

Ver. 5.-1. He saved us. The word saved in scripture doth not always denote eternal salvation ; but it signifies, sometimes the knowledge of salva. tion, Rom. xiii. 11. note 2. and sometimes the obtaining the means of salvation: See Rom. xi. 26. note 1. Here saved us, signi delivered us froin the miserable and wicked state in which we were living, before we believed the gospel. This deliverance is called justification, ver. 7. See the note there.

sires and pleasures, liv- the tradition of the fathers, disobea ing in malice and envy, . dient to God, erring from the truth, hated and hating one an- slavishly serving diverse inordinate deother.

sires and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hated by the Gentiles, and hat

ing one another. 4. But when the goodness 4 But then the goodness and phiand the philanthropy of God lanthropy of God our Saviour, (578our Saviour' shone forth, Peeve), chap. ii. 11. note 2.) shone

forth to all mankind through the

preaching of the gospel, 5 He saved us, not (-5, 5 He saved us Jews from the mi156.) on account of works of serable and wicked state in which righteousness which we were living, not on account of any hod done, but according to works of righteousness which we had his own mercy, (doce) through done under the law to merit such a (1878, Ephes. v. 26. note deliverance, but in prosecution of his 1.) the bath of regenera- own merciful purpose, which he action, and the renewing of complished through the bath (Tadiythe Holy Ghost,

yevscias) of regeneration, and (aveexaviwew) the renewing of the Holy

Ghost, 6 Which he poured out 1 6 Which he poured out on us richon us richly through Jesus ly, in his various gifts at our conChrist our Saviour. version, through Jesus Christ our

Saviour, who procured these gifts for men :


2. Through the bath of regeneration : Through baptism ; called the bath of regeneration, not because any change in the nature of the baptized per. son is produced by baptism, but because it is an emblem of the purification of his soul from sin. Hence Ananias, in allusion to the emblematical meaning of baptism, said to our apostle, Acts xxii. 16. 'Arise and be baptized, and wash away thy sins : Be baptized in token of thy resolution to forsake thy sins, and among the rest thy sin in persecuting the disciples of Jesus.- In the term regeneration, when joined with baptism, there is an allu. sion to the phraseology of the Jewish doctors, who, when they admitted a proselyte into their church by baptism, always spake of him as one born again. Nevertheless the real change in the nature of a believer, which entitles him to be called a son of God, is not effected by baptism, but by the renewing of the Holy Ghost, mentioned in the next clause. Hence our Lord, whom the apostle hath followed here, joined the two together, in his discourse to Nicodemus, John iii. 5. Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, be cannot enter into the kingdom of God.

3. And renewing of the Holy Ghost. The gift of the Holy Ghost, which



7 That, being justified

' Ινα δικαιωθεντες τη by his grace, we should

χαριτι, κληρονομοι be made heirs according yevmueda xat

ελπιδα ζωης to the hope of eternal life.

αιωνιου. 8 This is a faithful say, 8 Πιςος ο λογος και πεing, and these things I will ρι τουτων βουλομαι σε διαthat tιοι ε.firm constantly, βεβαιουσθαι, ίνα φροντιζωσι that they which have be


εργων προιςασθαι οι lieved in God might be careful to maintain good πεπιςευκοτες τω Θεω ταυτα works: these things are

εςι τα καλα και ωφελιμα good and profitable unto τους ανθρωπους. . men,

on some occasions was shed down on the believing Jews and Gentiles from heaven, and on others, was imparted to them by the imposition of the apostle's hands, is with great propriety called the renewing of the Holy Ghost, because by that gift, their belief of the divine original of the gospel was greatly strengthened ; so that the doctrines of the gospel, thus confirmed, must have had a powerful influence in producing such a change in their dispositions, as made them new creatures.

Ver. 6.-1. Which be poured out on us. Since in the preceding verse, the Holy Ghost, signifies the gift of the Holy Ghost, I have retained the common translation of the relative év, namely, which, to shew, that what is said to have been poured out, was the gift, not the person, of the Holy Ghost.-When the phrase, poured out, is used in scripture, to signify the communication of the spiritual gifts, it denotes that these gifts were imparted, not by the imposition of the hands of men, but immediately from heaven, accompanied with some visible sign or token ; of which we have instances, Acts ii. 2, 3, 4, and x. 44.—Seeing the apostle speaks of himself here as one of those on whom the Holy Ghost was poured out, we are warranted to believe that he received the gift of the Holy Ghost by an immediate illapse from heaven, and not by the imposition of the hands of Ananias ; and that Ananias's words to Saul, Acts ix. 17. The Lord Jesus bath sent me that thou mightest receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Ghost, though preceded by putting his bands on the apostle, do not mean that Ananias was sent to communicate the Holy Ghost to him by the imposition of his hands : For, in that case Paul could not have said, 2 Cor. xi. 5. I am in nothing behind the very greatest of the apostles. But, his meaning is, that he was sent to restore Saul's sight, and to baptize him, that after his baptism he might be filled with the gifts of the Holy Ghost immediately from heaven, accom. panied with the usual sensible sign, which Saul, having recovered his sight, was to see. Agreeably to this account of the matter, in Christ's commis. sion to Ananias, Acts ix. 12. no mention is made of his communicating the Holy Ghost to Saul, but only of his putting his bands on him that he might

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7 That being justified 1 7 That being delivered by the mere by his grace? we might be favour of God, from the wickedness made heirs according to and misery of our former state, we the hope of eternal life. might be made children and heirs, (Tit. i. 2.)

agreeably to the hope of eternal life

given us by the promise of God. 8 ('o doyos, 71. 60. 2.) 8 This doctrine, that men are jusThis doctrine is true ; (xas, tified and made heirs merely by 211.) yet concerning these God's grace, is true : Yet concerning HEIRS, I command

thee these heirs I command thee strongly to strongly to affirm, that they affirm, That they who have believed in who have believed 1 in God God should take care to promote good should take care to promote? works. These are the things honourgood works. These are able and profitable to men: They are (ra sandsy 1 Tim. iii. 1. good for others, as making them note 3.) the things honour- happy; and most profitable to one's able and profitable to men. self, as productive of happiness both

here and hereafter.

receive his sight: neither is any thing else mentioned by the apostle him. self, Acts xxii. 13. 16.

Ver. 7.-1. Being justified. Concerning the forensic sense of the terms justify and justification. See Rom. ii. 13. note 2. The word justify, signifies likewise to deliver one from evil, Rom. iv, 25. note 2.

2. By bis grace. As the pronoun used in this passage is not the relative auts, but the demonstrative ex ElYX, which commonly denotes the remote antecedent, it is probable that the grace, not of Christ, who is last mentioned, but of God, who is mentioned ver. 4. is meant. By ascribing men's justifi. cation to the grace of God, the apostle did not mean to insinuate that good works are not necessary to justification. For he tells us, chap. ii. 12. that the grace of God which bringeth salvation teacheth us to live soberly, righteously, and godly in this present world.

Ver. 8.-1. That they wbo have believed in God, 'O! TSI5EUXOTEs. They wbo have believed, and who continue to believe ; according to the known use of the preterite tenses, Ess. iv. 10.

2. Take care to promote good works. Igorsan feb xanav egg av, literally to preside over good works ; that is, to practise them ourselves, and by our example and exhortation to encourage others to practise them, and to argue in their defence, against those who speak of them slightingly as not necessary to salvation.-In this, as in other places of scripture, good works signi. fy virtuous actions in general, but especially charitable and beneficent actions. Thus, Matt. v. 16. Let your light so shine before men, tbat they may see your good works.- John x. 33. For a good work we stone tbee not.--1 Tim. v. 10. Borne witness to for good works ; That she hath brought up children ; That she hath lodged strangers; That she hath wasbed the saint's feet;. That she bath relieved the afflicted; That she harb diligently followed every good

9 But avoid foolish 9 Μωρας δε ζητησεις, και questions, and genealo- γενεαλογιας, και ερεις, και gies, and contentions, and

μαχας νομικάς, περιιςασο" strivings about the law;

εισι γαρ ανωφελεις, και μαfor they are unprofitable

ταιοί. . and vain. 10 A man that is an he.

Αιρετικον ανθρωπον, , retic, after the first and μετα μιας και δευτεραν νουsecond admonition, re- θεσιαν, παραιτου. ject;


work.—1 Tim. vi. 18. That they be rich in good works, ready to distribute, &c.What a blessing, as Benson observes, would the ministers of the gospel be to the world, if all of them were careful strongly and often to urge their peo. ple to good works, and were themselves examples of such works !-We have the phrase, sancm egy cy agoisao.54, repeated ver. 14. But there the connection leads us to adopt the translation mentioned in the margin of our Bible ; to practise honest trades.

Ver 9.--1. And genealogies. The genealogies condemned in this and other passages of scripture, in the opinion of Bengelius, are the absurd genealogies of the Æons, taught by the Gnostics. See Col. ij. 9. note. But as the genealogies of the Æons were not invented till long after this epistle was written, I prefer the account given of them in the commentary; the rather that the apostle hath joined genealogies, with strifes and fightings about the law. See also 1 Tim. i. 4.

2. Fightings about the law. Maxus yopeixes, are those disputes about the efficacy and necessity of obedience to the law in order to salvation, which the Judaizing teachers in Crete maintained with great violence, against all who asserted that obedience to the gospel alone was sufficient to salvation.

Ver. 10.-1. An heretical man. See 2 Pet. ii. 1. note 2. where it is shewed, that an heretic is one who, from worldly motives, teaches doctrines which he knows to be false ; as the Judaizers did, who made the rituals enjoined by the law, more necessary to salvation than a holy life. He also is a heretic who from the same motives makes a party in the church, in opposition to those who maintain the truth. In this latter sense, some understand 'AugsTIXOV avtp@top here ; and think the phrase should be translated, A man who maketh a sect : And that diferis, properly is a sect, either in philosophy or religion.-In the first age, when the doctrines of the gospel were delivered by the apostles in person, under the guidance of inspiration, and when the trne meaning of these doctrines was not liable to any doubt, because it was ascertained by the apostles themselves, if any teacher taught differently from them, and made a party in the church in opposition to them, he must have done these things contrary to his conscience, either from the love of money, or the lust of power, or from an immoderate propensity to sensual pleasures. Hence, Gal. v. 20. Heresy is reckoned among the works of the fresh.—Doddridge, by heresy, understands the denying the fundamental doctrines of the gospel, and the maintaining of that denial with obstinacy, to

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