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12 teaching us, that de- 12 Teaching us, that renouncing nying ungodliness and ungodliness, especially atheism and worldly lusts,' we should idolatry, and putting away svorldly live soberly, 3 righteous- lusts, we should live temperately, righly, 4 and godly, 5 in this teously, and godly in this present present world,

world, 13 expecting the blessed 13 Expecling, not any temporal hope,' (xclby 221.) namely, rewards such as the law promised, the appearing of the glory but the accomplishment of the blessof the great God, ? and ed hope of the appearing of the glory our Saviour 3 Jesus Christ; of the great God, and our Saviour Je

sus Christ, who will bestow eternal life on all who deny ungodliness and worldly lusts.

Ver. 13.-1. Expecting the blessed hope. If this is different from the expectation of the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ, K41, in this clause, must be translated by the word, and : in which case, the blessed hope will mean the hope of eternal life, mentioned chap. i. 2. But as this hope is included in the hope of the appearing of Jesus Christ to raise the dead and to carry his people with him into heaven, the translation which I have given seems more emphatical.

2. Namely, the appearing of the glory of the great God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ. This, which is the exact literal translation of the clause, Kul επιφανειαν της δοξης το μεγαλε Θες και σωτηρος ημών Ιησε Χρισε, is adopted both by the Vulgate and by Beza.-Considered as an Hebraism, the clause may be translated, as in our bible, The glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ. Nevertheless, the literal translation is more just, as the apostle alludes to our Lord's words Luke ix. 26. Of him shall the Son of man be ashamed όταν έλθη εν τη δοξη αυτε, και τα πατρος, xul Tæv ayla aggeaar. Wben be shall come in his own glory, and in the glory of the Father, and of the holy angels.--Matt. xvi. 27. For the Son of man will come, sy en doen T8 Trampos duty in the glory of his Father, with his angels ; and then he will render to every one according to bis works. But if Jesus is to appear, at the last day, in his own glory, and in the glory of the Father, that event may fitly be termed the appearing of the glory of the great God, and of our Saviour Jesus Cörist. It is true, the article is wanting before owinpos. Yet it may be supplied, as our translators have done here, before 4719&valdy; and elsewhere, particularly Ephes, v. 5. In the kingdom Tx Xp158 x40 Orx, of Christ and of God. See Ess. iv. 69. Besides, as owTHpoç is in the genitive case, it will bear to be translated of our Saviour, although the article is wanting. Yet I have not ventured to translate it in that manner, because the meaning of this text hath been much disputed.At the appearing of Jesus Christ, the rank of all men will be determined, and their precedency settled, and every one placed in a station suitable to the real worth of his character, and continue in that station for ever.

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14 Who gave himself 14 ος εδωκεν εαυτον υπερ for us, that he might re- ημων, ένα λυτρωσηται ήμας deem us from all iniquity, aro raons avouias, xai xa. and purify unto himself a

θαριση εαυτω λαον περιουpeculiar people, zealous

σιον, ζηλωτην καλων εργων. of good works. 15 These things speak,

15 Ταυτα λαλει και παand exhort, and rebuke ρακαλει, και

και ελεγχε μετα with all authority. Let no πασης επιταγης μηδεις σου man despise thee.

περιφρονείτω. .

2. The great God. In giving the title of great, to God, the apostle ful. lowed the custom of the Jews, who gave that title to the true God, to distinguish bim from the gods of the heathens : Thus, Psal. lxxvii. 13. Who is so great a God as our God.- I do not think there is any allusion here to the Dii Cabiri, The great Gois worshipped in Samothrace and Crete, as some commentators imagine.

3. And our Saviour Jesus Christ. Because the article prefixed to Mey 17.8 O:, is not repeated before ournpa, Beza is of opinion that one person only is spoken of; namely, Jesus Cbrist, to whom he thinks the title of the great God is given in this verse. Accordingly some translate the clause thus ; the great God, even our Saviour Jesus Christ. And, in confirmation of that opinion, they observe, that we never read in scripture of the appearing of the Father. But the answer is, The apostle does not speak of the appear. ing of the Father, but of the appearing of the glory of the Father; agreeable to what Christ himself declared, that at his return to judgment, he will appear surrounded with the glory of his father. See the first note on this


Ver. 14.-1. A peculiar people. Tegix slov. This is said in allusion to Exod. xix. 5. and Deut. vii. 6. where God calls the Jews a peculiar and a special people to bimself ; because he had made them his property, by redeeming them from the bondage of Egypt, and had distinguished them from the rest of mankind as his, by rites and ordinances of his own appoint.

Christ hath made believers his peculiar people by giving himself for them, to redeem them from all iniquity, and to purify them to himself a


14 Who gave himself 14 Who, during his first appearing for us, that he might re- on earth, gave himself to death for us, deem (1 Tim. ii. 6. note that he might redeem us from the 1.) us from all iniquity, power as well as from the punishand purify to himself a ment of all iniquity, and purify to himpeculiar people,' zealous self a peculiar people, not by circumof good works.

cision and other ceremonial observances, but by being zealous of good

works. 15 These things i incul- 15 These things inculcate as necescate and exhort, and con- sary to be believed, and exhort all fute, (see 2 Tim. iv. 2.) who profess the gospel to live suitawith all authority. Let no bly to them. And such as teach otherone despise thee. 3., wise confute with all the authority

which is due to truth, and to thee as a teacher commissioned by Christ. Lei no one have reason to despise thee.

people, zealous, not of rites and ceremonies, but of good works. This being the great end of Christ's death, how dare any person pretending to be one of Christ's people, either to speak or to think lightly of good works, as not necessary to salvation,

Ver. 15.-1. These things ; namely, concerning the universality of the gospel, and the excellent purpose for which it was given ; the coming of Christ to judgment, the end for which he died during his first appearing on earth; and concerning the character of the people of Christ, as persons zealous of good works.

2. Inculcate and exbort. The Cretians being a sensual and obdurate people, and the Judaizing teachers having denied the necessity of good works, the apostle commanded, Titus, both to affirm the necessity, and to enjoin the practice of them, in the boldest and plainest manner.

3. Let no one despise thee. The apostle does not say, as to Timothy, despise thy youth, 1 Tim. iv 12. from which it may be inferred that Titus was an older man than Timothy.- In the compound word fra epippoveito, the preposition mign like x474, alters the meaning of the word with which it is compounded.

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View and Illustration of the Matters contained in this Chapter.

Because the Judaizers afirmed, that no obedience was due from the worshippers of the true God to magistrates who were idolaters, and because by that doctrine, they made not only the Jewish, but the Gentile believers, bad subjects, and exposed them to be punished as evil doers, (See Rom. xiii. Illustr.) the apostle commanded Titus to inculcate frequently on the Cretians, to obey the magistrates under whose protection they lived, although they were idolaters, ver. 1.—and not to speak evil of any one, on account of his nation, or religion, ver: 2.–Because, said the apostle, even we of the Jewish nation, who now believe the gospel, were formerly in behaviour as bad as the heathens; being foolish, disobedient, &c. ver. 3.-and merely through the mercy of God, and not by our own endeavours, have been de. livered from our former sinful state, by the bath of regenera





1 Υπομιμνησκε αυτους in mind to be subject to αρχαις και εξουσιαις υποτασprincipalities and powers, σεσθαι, πειθαρχειν, προς to obey magistrates, to be

σαν εργον αγαθον ετοιμους ready to every good work.

2 To speak evil of no Μηδενα βλασφημειν, man, to be no brawlers, αμαχους ειναι, επιεικεις, σαbut gentle, shewing all

σαν ενδεικνυμενους σραοτητα meekness unto all men.

προς παντας ανθρωπους. 3 For we ourselves also

3 Hμεν γαρ ποτε και ηwere sometimes foolish,

μεις ανοητοι, απειθεις, πλαdisobedient, deceived,

νωμενοι, δουλευοντες επιθυserving diverse lusts and pleasures, living in malice μιας και ηδοναις ποικιλαις,

Ver. 1.–1. To obey magistrates. The word autagnes literally signifies to obey those who rule. The disposition of the Jews towards heathen rulers, see describel Rom. xiii. View. 1 Τim. ii. 2.

Ver. 2.-1. To speak evil of no man. The word Bacoonpeer, besides coil speaking, denotes all those vices of the tongue which proceed either from tion and renewing of the Holy Ghost, ver. 4, 5, 6.-That being rescued from ignorance and wickedness by grace, we might become heirs of eternal life, ver. 7.-Next the apostle ordered Titus strongly to affirm, that every one who hath believed on God is bound to practise good works; and that such works are really profitable to men, by rendering them acceptable to God, ver. 8.--Also he commanded him in his discourses, to avoid the foolish questions and genealogies which the false teachers insisted on, ver. 9.-and to admonish heretical teachers, both concerning their doctrine and their practice: And after a first and second admonition, if they did not amend, to cast them out of the church, ver. 11.-Withal because the Cretians were disposed to be idle, Titus was to enjoin them to follow some honest occupation, whereby they might both maintain themselves, and do works of charity to the afflicted, ver. 14.—The apostle concluded his epistle with salutations : and with a benediction to all in Crete who acknowledged his apostolical authority, ver. 15.


CHAP. III. Put CHAP. III. 1 Put the Cretians
them in mind to be sub- in mind of what I have taught them;
ject to governments and namely, to be subject to the govern-
powers, to obey' magis- ments and powers established in
trates, to be ready to every Crete ; to obey magistrates though
good work;

they be heathens; to be ready to
perform every good work enjoined

by the laws of their country;
2 To speak evil? of no 2 To speak evil of no one on ac-
one ; to be no fighters, count of his nation or religion, to
Byt equitable, shewing all be no fighters, but of an equitable
meekness to all men. disposition, (Philip. iv. 5. note.)

and to shew the greatest meekness to

all men, even to enemies. 3 For even we

3 This behaviour towards those selves were formerly 1 fool- who profess false religions beish, disobedient, erring, cometh us Jews: For even we ourslavishly serving diverse selves were formerly foolish in our (ww.fumicus) inordinate de- notions of religion, and in observing


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hatred or from contempt of others, and which tend to hurt their reputation ; such as railing, reviling, mocking speeches; whisperings, &c.

Ver. 3.-1. For even we ourselves were formerly foolish, &c. Because the pouring out of the Holy Ghost, on those of whom the apostle speaks, is menVOI.. IV.


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