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9 Make haste to come i 9 As I have a great desire to see to me soon :

thee, Make haste to come to me soon. 10 For Demas i having

10 For Demas in particular, hav, loved the present world, ing loved the present world more than hath forsaken me, and was fit, hath forsaken me, and is gone is gone to Thessalonica, to Thessalonica, expecting to be in Crescens into Galatia, more safety there than at Rome; and Titus into Dalmatia. Crescens is gone into Galatia, and

Titus into Dalmatia. 11 Only Luke is with 11 Only Luke is with me. His me.! . Take Mark, and attachment to me and his zeal for bring him with thee,? for the cause of Christ, are the more he is very useful to me remarkable that all my other asin the ministry.

sistants have left me.

In thy way call on Mark, and bring him with thee, for he will be very useful to me in the

ministry of the gospel. 12 But Tychicus I have 12 But when Tychicus comes to sent to Ephesus.

thee, do not think he hath behaved like Demas : I have sent him to Ephesus to supply thy place.

priest. But of this there is no evidence, as the apostle does not insinuate that he renounced the gospel.–See Philemon, ver. 24. note 2.

2. Crescens into Galatia. The apostle does not say either of Crescens or of Titus, that their departure, like the departure of Demas, was owing to their love of the present world. We may therefore, in charity, suppose that the one went into Galatia, and the other into Dalmatia, by the apostle's order ; or, at least with his permission.

Ver. 11.-1. Only Luke is with me. The apostle meant, that of his fellowlabourers and assistants in Rome, Luke alone remained with him. For, from ver. 21. where the salutations of some of the Roman brethren by name are mentioned, it appears that the apostle had many friends still in Rome, members of the church there, with whom he was allowed to have some intercourse. For the character of Luke, see Coloss. iv. 14. note 1.

2. Take Mark and bring him with thee. Although the apostle was once exceedingly displeased with Mark, for deserting him and Barnabas in Pamphylia, Acts xv. 38, 39. that grudge was long ago removed, by his subsequent faithful labours in the gospel. See Philem. ver. 24.— The Mark, mentioned in this passage, is by some thought to be a different person from the writer of the gospel which bears his name. See 1 Pet. y. 13. note 3.

13 The cloak that I left

13 Τον φαιλονην ον απεat Treas with Carpus, λιπον εν Τρωαδι σαρα Καρwhen thou comest bring with thee, and the books,

σω, ερχομενός φερε, και τα

βιβλια, μαλιςα τας иғиbut especially the parch

βρανας. .




14 Alexander the cop- 14 Αλεξανδρος και χαλpersmith did me much


μοι evil; the Lord reward delĞATO. Αποδωη αυτω ο him according to his

Κυριος κατα τα εργα αυτου. works ;

Ver. 13.-1. The bag. The word Qurovny, signifies either a cloak or a bag. If the apostle meant a cloak, his sending for it at so great a distance, is a proof, as Grotius observes, of his poverty. The Syriac translator understood it of a bag in which books were kept; for his version is, Domum scriptorum.

2. Which I left at Troas with Carpus. Paul, who was several times at Troas, may have lodged some of these times with Carpus ; and knowing him to be a person of probity, he had left with him the valuable things here mentioned.

3. And the books, especially the parchments. What the books were, which the apostle left with Carpus, commentators have not attempted to conjecture. But Benson fancies, the parchments, were the letters which he receive ed from the churches, and the autographs of his own letters to the churches. For that he employed persons to transcribe his letters, is probable from Rom. xvi. 22. where the name of the amanuensis of that epistle is inserted, In these fair copies, the apostle wrote the salutation with his own hand, 1 Cor. xvi. 22. Gal. vi. 11. Col. iv. 8. Philem, ver. 19. and thereby authenti., cated them as his letters. So he told the Thessalonians, 2 Epistle iii. 17.If these autographs were a part of the parchments which Timothy was to bring with him to Rome, we may suppose the apostle's intention in this order, was, after acknowledging them to be his autographs of the letters which be wrote to the churches, to give them to Timothy to be kept; or, he may have had it in view to desire Timothy to deliver them to the churches and persons to whom the fair copies of them had been sent, that they might preserve them with care, as the originals of the letters in their possession.B. Pearson observes, that the bag with the books and parchments, of which the apostle speaks, were not left with Carpus at the time mentioned, Acts XX. 6, 7. For then he had many attendants, who no doubt assisted him in carrying his things : not to speak of the ship which waited on them, Acts xx. 13. to transport them. Pearson therefore concludes that the bag with the books and parchments were left at Troas, in some journey which the

13 The bagi which I 13 The bag which I left at Troas left at Troas with Car- with Carpus, in my way from Ephepus, o bring when thou sus, after parting with thee, bring comest, and the books, 3 when thou comest, and the books conespecially the parchments. tained in that bag, but especially the

parchments. 14 Alexander the cop

14 Alexander the coppersmith hath persmith? hath done me done me many ill offices here. In parmany evil things. The ticular he hath stirred up both the Lord reward him accord- unbelieving Jews and Gentiles in ing to his works. 3

Rome against me.

The Lord reward him according to his works.

apostle made through the Lesser Asia, after he was released from his first confinement at Rome.

Ver. 14.-1. Alexander the coppersmith. This seems to be the person mentioned in the history of the riot at Ephesus, Acts xix. 33. and whom the enraged multitude would not hear, when they knew he was a Jew.- Probably he was one of the Judaizing teachers, who violently opposed the true doctrine of the gospel, and was by that time become the apostle's enemy. The tunbelieving Jews at Ephesus knowing this, pushed him forward into the theatre tu harangue the people, in expectation that he would vindicate them from having any connexion with the Christian teachers.-Alexander is mentioned likewise 1 Tim. i. 20.

2. Hath done me (literally, hath sbewed me, see Psal. iv. 6.) many evil things. Benson is of opinion, that these evil things were done to the apostle by Alexander in Ephesus. But, on that supposition, there was no occasion to inform Timothy of them, who was a witness to all the ill offices which Alexander had done to the apostle in Ephesus. I therefore think these ill offices were done to him recently, and in Rome. See the preface to this Epistle, Sect. 3. paragr. 3.

3. The Lord reward him according to his works. The Alexandrian, and six other MSS. the Syriac, and the Vulgate versions, and some of the fathers, read here (aadwTE1,) The Lord will reward. Perhaps, the ancient transcribers and translators thought it more agreeable to the apostle's character, to foretell, than to wish evil to this wicked teacher. See Mill, and Whitby. But why might not St. Paul, who had the gift of discerning spirits, and by that gift knew the malice which was in Alexander's heart, wish that such a malicious false teacher might be punished, if he did not repent ? This limitation is implied in the words, according to his works. Nay it is implied in the very nature of the wish ; at least in the mouth of a virtuous person. A wish of the same kind, Nehemiah expressed with respect to Sanballat and Tobiah. Nehem. iv. 5. Cover not their iniquity, and let not their sin be blotted out, for they have provoked thee to anger,


15 Of whom be thou 15 Ον και συ φυλασσου ware also; for he hath λιαν γαρ ανθεςηκε τοις ημεgreatly withstood

τερους λογους. . words.

16 At my first answer 16 Εν τη πρωτη μου αno man stood with me, πoλoγια ουδεις μου συμπαρεbut all men forsook me: I

γενετο, αλλα παντες με εγflray God that it may not κατέλιπον (μη αυτοις λοbe laid to their charge.

γισθεια) 17 Notwithstanding, the 17 Ο δε Κυριος μοι παρέLord stood with me, and ξη, και ενεδυναμωσε με, ένα strengthened me ; that by δι' εμου το κηρυγμα πληροme the preaching might be fully known, and that all popnan, xau axovon ravta the Gentiles might hear;

τα εθνη και ερρυσθην εκ and I was delivered out of soματος λεοντος. the mouth of the lion.

Ver. 15.-1. Of whom be thou also aware. This being written after the apostle had made his first answer, at which Alexander bad greatly opposed or contradicted his words, he judged it necessary to inform Timothy of that wicked teacher's malice. And as he suspected that Alexander would soon return to Ephesus, he cautioned Timothy to be on his guard against him.

Ver. 16.–1. At my first answer. The apostle's first answer was that which he made some time after he was imprisoned. He called it his first answer, not because he had made, but because he expected to make, a a second answer. 2. But all forsook me.

When the apostle made his first answer, Demas and the rest had not left the city; otherwise he could not have complained of them, as he does in this verse, for not attending on him at his trial. The cruelty which Nero, or his Prefect Helius Cæsarianus (see ver. 17. note 3.) was now exercising against the Christians, so terrified the apostle's fellowlabourers, that though they were in Rome, when he made this answer, none of them appeared with him in the court.

3. May it not be laid to their charge. This prayer shews the excellence of the apostle's disposition. He was sensible of the danger to which his assistants would have exposed themselves, by appearing with him at his trial; he knew likewise the infirmity of human nature. And therefore he made great allowances for their yielding in such circumstances, and prayed that they might be forgiven, as Christ prayed his Father to forgive those who crucified him.

Ver. 17.-1. The preaching might be fully declared. The word wampooopa Iw, literally signifies, might be carried with a full sail; (1 Thess, i. 5. note 3.)


I pray

15 Of whom be thou 15 Of that wicked person be thou also also aware ; 1 for he hath aware, wherever thou happenest to greatly opposed our words. meet with him, for he hath greatly (See Pref. sect. 3.). contradicted the things which I ad

vanced in


first answer. 16 (Ev) At my first an- 16 At my first answer, my

fellow swer 1 one appeared labourers were so terrified, that no with me, but all forsook one of them appeared svith me in the me, May it not be laid to court, but all forsook me. their charge ! 3

God not to lay it to their charge! 17 (As, 100.) However 17 However though men forsook the Lord stood by me, me when brought to my trial, the and strengthened me, that Lord Jesus according to his promise, through me the preaching Luke xxi, 15. stood by me and strengmight be fully declared,?. thened me, that on such an occasion, and all the Gentiles might and before such personages, through hear; 2 and I was deliver- me the preaching concerning Christ ed out of the mouth of might be fully declared; and that all the the lion."

Gentiles might hear that it was so declared, and I escaped with such difficulty, that I cannot describe it better than by saying I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion.

that is fully and boldly declared. Accordingly Chrysostom and Theophylact have paraphrased this word by mangow; for the meaning of which see Rom. xv. 19. note 4. In this passage the apostle told Timothy, that, contrary to the expectation of his enemies, he had declared in the hearing of Nero, or his Prefect, the supreme dominion of Christ, his right to all the Gentiles as his subjects, his power in their salvation, together with the nature and method of that salvation ; and that he had done so, that all the Gentiles in the provinces might hear of his courage in maintaining their privileges.

2. And all the Gentiles might bear. The apostle justly supposed, that what was said and done at the emperor's tribunal in Rome, where there was such a confluence of strangers from all quarters, would quickly fly abroad on the wings of fame, and be heard by all the Gentile converts every where.

3. I was delivered out of the mouth of the Lion. By the Lion, some think Nero is meant, or rather his Prefect Helius Cæsarianus, to whom Nero com. mitted the government of the city in his absence, with power to put whomsoever he pleased to death. See Pearson. Annal. Paulin. An. Chr. 57. Others understand the expression proverbially, as denoting an escape from the greatest danger ; in which sense it is used, Psal. xxii. 21. This inter. pretation they adopt, because they think the apostle would not give so disrespectful an appellation, either to Nero, or to his Prefect. VOL. IV.


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