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10 (Kot évtos de) But 10 However let these also be tried let these also be proved first, by publishing their names to first,' then let them exer- the church, that if any one hath cise the deacon's office, bring ought to lay to their charge, he unaccused.

may shew it: and after such a pub'lication of their names, let them exercise the deacon's office, if no person

accuses them, 11 (Γυναικας ωσαύτως) 11 The women, in like manner, The women in like mannerl who are employed in teaching the MUST BE grave, not slan- young, must be stayed in their dederers,2BUT vigilan:,' faith- portment; not slanderers and taleful in all things.

bearers, but vigilant and fuithful in all ihe duties belonging to their office.

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age. And it is believed that they are the persons called widows, of whose maintenance by the church the apostle speaks, 1 Tim. v. 2. and whose character and state he there describes, ver. 9, 10. See the note on ver. 15. of that chapter.-Farther, Clement of Alexandria reckons widows among ecclesiastical persons, Pædag. Lib. iii. c. 12. There are many precepts in scripture concerning those who are chosen, some for priests, others for bishops, others for deacons, others for widows.—Grotius tells us, these female presbyters or elders, were ordained by the imposition of hands, till the council of Laodi. cea ; and for this he quotes the xith canon of that council.–From what is said of Euodia and Syntycke, Philip.iv. 3. it is probable they were female presbyters. Perhaps also Priscilla, Tryphana and Tryphosa were of the same order, with some others, whom in his epistle to the Romans the apostle salutes, Rom. xvi. 3. 12. as labouring in the Lord.

For these reasons, and on account of the particulars mentioned, Rom. xvi 1. note 3. I think the apostle in 1 Tim. iii. 11 describes the qualifica. tions not of the deacons wives, but of the women who in the first age were employed by the church, to minister to the sick and afflicted, and to instruct the young of their own sex in the principles of the Christian faith.

2. Not slanderers Mn doc 60285. This Greek word comes from diaban2.91V, transfigere verbis aut calumniis, and is very properly translated slanderers. It was necessary that the women who were employed in ministring to the afflicted, and in teaching the younger women, should be free from detraction, because their slanders might provoke the bishops and deacons to administer rebukes rashly.

3. But (vnqenixs) vigilant. As it was required of the bishop that he should be inpandey, vigilant or attentive to all the duties of his function and to his flock, so the women who were employed in ministring to the sick, and in teaching the young of their own sex, were to be vigilant and faithful in all things ; in all the duties of their office.-Estius, who understands this verse of the wives of the bishops and deacons, is of opinion, that the word va947185, translated vigilant, signifies sober, or free from drunkenness. If

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12 Let the deacons be

12 Διακονοι εςωσαν μιας the husbands of one wife, γυναικος ανδρες, τεκνων ruling their children and λως προιςαμενοι και των ιδιtheir own houses well.

ων οικων. 13 For they that have 13 Οι γαρ καλως διακονηused the office of a deacon σαντες, βαθμον εαυτοις καwell purchase to them- λον σεριποιουνται, και πολselves a good degree, and

λην παρρησίαν εν πιςει τη great boldness in the faith which is in Christ Jesus. εν Χριςω Ιησου.

14 These things write 14 Ταυτα σοι γραφω, ελI unto thee, hoping to πιζων ελθειν προς σε ταχιον" come unto thee shortly.

15 But if I tarry long, 15 Εαν δε βραδυνω, ένα that thou mayest know how ειδης πως δει εν οικω Θεου thou oughtest to behave

αναςρεφεσθαι, ήτις εςιν εκthyself in the house of God, which is the church κλησια Θεου ζωντος ευλος of the living God,the pillar και εδραιωμα της αληθειας. and ground of the truth.

this is the apostle's meaning, the requisition in this verse will be an implied direction to the ministers of the gospel, who ought to rule well all the members of their own families, to attend chiefly to the good qualities of the wo. men they propose to marry. See, however, ver. 2. note 2.

Ver. 12.-1. Ruling well their children and their own houses. This quali. fication, which was required in bishops likewise, shews how anxious the apostle was, that all who bare sacred offices should be unblameable in every respect ; knowing that the disorderly behaviour of the members of their family, might give occasion to suspect that they had been careless of their morals.

Ver. 13.-1. They who have performed the office of a deacon well crepitoxitao procure to themselves Bale Jueco xanov, an excellent step, or degree. In the early ages, the bishops or pastors were sometimes taken from among the deacons. Thus Eleutherus, bishop of Rome, before his promotion, was a deacon of that church in the time of Anicetus, as Eusebius informs us, Eccles. Hist. v. 6. Edit. Vales. But whether this was the practice in the apostie's time; or, if it was the practice, whether St. Paul had it in view here, is hard to say.—Because Befuos signifies a step or seat, some imagine the apostle alludes to the custom of the synagogue, where persons of the greatest dignity were set on the most elevated seats.

Ver. 15.-1. In the house of God. The tabernacle first, and afterwards ebe temple, obtained the name of the house, or habitation of God, because

12 Let the deacons 12 Let the deacons be the husbands Be the husbands of one of one wife only at a time, having wife, (see ch. iii. 2. note shewed their temperance, by avoid1.) ruling well Their ing polygamy and causeless divorce. children an

their own

They must likewise rule with pruhouses.

dence and firmness their children and

every one in their families. 13 For they who have 13 For they who have performed performed the office of a the office of a deacon with ability and deacon well, procure to assiduity, secure to themselves an hothemselves an ercellent de nourable rank in the church, and great gree,' and great boldness courage in teaching the Christian faith. in the faith which is in For even the wicked must respect Christ Jesus.

persons who shew so much benevolence and activity, in relieving the poor, the afflicted, and the perse

cuted. 14 These things I write 14 These things (See the illustrato thee (saw13wv, 16.) al- tion.) I write to thee, although I hope though I hope to come to to come to thee soon, to give thee more thee soon.

complete instruction concerning

thy behaviour. 15 (Ag, 108.) OR, if I 15 Or, if by any accident I am tarry long, that thou obliged to tarry long, I have written mayest know how thou these things, that thou mayest know oughtest to behave thy- . how thou oughtest to behave thyself in self in the house of God, the house of God, which is neither the which is the church of temple at Jerusalem, nor the temthe living God, 2 the pil- ple of Diana at Ephesus, but the lar and support 3 of the church of the living God, consisting truth.

of all believers, and which is the pillar and support of the truth.

there the symbol of the divine presence resided, 1 Sam. i. 7.—Matth. xxi. 13. My bouse shall be called the bouse of prayer.—Matth. xxiii. 38. Behola your bouse is left to you desolate.—2 Kings v. 18. The house of Rimmon, or his temple.

2. Which is the church of the living God. Under the gospel dispensation, no material building or temple is called the house of God. That appellation is given only to the church of God; or to those societies of men who profess to believe in Christ, and join together in worshipping God according to the gospel form. See 2 Thess. ii. 4. note 3.

3. The pillar, x40 odpalmoped, and support of the truth. The word is perswoude, coming from deadow, to establish, is fitly translated firmamentum, a support.

16

16 And without contro

Και ομολογουμένως versy, great is the mystery μεγα εςι TO

της ευσεβειας of godliness; God was ma

μυςηριον Θεος εφανερώθη εν nifest in the flesh, justified

σαρκι, εδικαιωθη εν πνευμαin the Spirit, seen of an

τι, ωφ9η αγγελοις,

αγγελοις, εκηρυχgels, preached unto the

-Some commentators think Timothy is called in this passage, The pillar and support of the truth, for the same reason that Peter, James, and John are called pillars, Gal. ii. 9. and that the particle 'ws, as, should be supplied before suros x40 ideeswrece; and that the clause should be construed and translated thus : That thou mayest know how thou oughtest to bebave thyself, as the pillar and support of the truth, in the church of the living God. But not to insist on the harshness and singularity of this construction, I observe, that in regard the interpretation of the passage hath been much contested, a word, which entirely changes the apostle's meaning, should by no means be inserted in the text on mere conjecture ; because in that manner, the scriptures may be made to speak any thing which bold critics please. The two clauses of the sentence, ήτις εσι εκκλησια τα θεα ζωντος, ευλος και εδραιαMed ons aan fulas, wanting something to couple them, the substantive verb with the relative pronoun, either in the masculine or in the feminine gender, must be supplied. If the relative masculine, és est, is supplied, God will be the pillar and support of the truth; or of that scheme of true religion which hath been discovered to mankind by revelation, and which is called in the next verse, the mystery of godliness. Of this scheme of truth, God may justly be denominated tbe pillar and support, because he hath support. ed it from the beginning, and will support it to the end. But if the relative feminine, štus est, is adopted, the church of the living God, will be tbe pillar and support of the truth; which I take to be the apostle's meaning ; because, as the Logicians speak, the subject of his proposition, is, not God, but the church of the living God. This I gather from the omission of the verb and the relative. For on supposition that the apostle meant to tell Timothy, that the church of the living God is the pillar and support of the truth, he could not write ós esi, as that would have made God the pillar and support of the truth, contrary to his intention. Neither could he write ritus est, because being a repetition of the verb and the relative expressed in the clause im. mediately preceding, it would have been grating to the reader's ear; and besides it is unnecessary, as útes e55, relates, both to exxing1 78 Oex 3vTOS, and to suros xxo ed quia pe de ons aan Felds.--I have no doubt myself concerning the meaning of the passage: Yet because it is appealed to in proof of a con. troverted doctrine (Sce Pref. Sect. 5.) I have in the translation left it as ambiguous as it is in the original, by not supplying the relative, either in the one gender or in the other.

The church of the living God, as the pillar and support of tbe truth, is here contrasted with the house or temple of the lifeless image of Diana, at Ephesus, which was the pillar and support of false bood, i:lolatry, and vice.In the opinion of some, the church of the living God is termed the pillar and

16 (Kail, 207.) For con- 16 Thou oughtest to behave professedly great is the mys- perly in the church of God; for contery of godliness; God fessedly most important is the doctrine was manifested in the of the gospel which is kept therein; flesh, was justified (ev, namely, that to save sinners by his 167.) through the Spirit, 3 death, the Son of God was manifested

support of the truth, in allusion to theitwo pillars which Solomon placed in the porch of the temple, and to which, it is said, the prophets affixed their prophecies in writing, that they might be read by the people who came into the temple to worship. Others think the allusion is to the pillars in the heathen temples, on which tables were hung up, containing laws, and other matters of importance, which were designed to be published. But to settle this is of no importance ; because to whichever of the customs the apostle alluded, his meaning is the same.—That the church of the living God which is the pillar and support of the truth, is not the church of Rome, nor any particular church, but the Catholic Christian church, consisting of all the churches of Christ throughout the world, see proved Pref. sect. 5.

Ver. 16-1. Great is the mystery of godliness. See ver. 9. where the incorrupt doctrine of the gospel is called, The mystery of the faith, for the reasons mentioned, 1 Cor. ii. 7. note 1. Here the mystery of godliness is called Meye, Great, in allusion to the Eleusinian mysteries, which were distinguish. ed into Morge and Mezand, the lesser and the greater. Wherefore, by calling the articles mentioned in this verse, Meza uusingson, A great mystery, the apostle hath intimated, that they are the most important doctrines of our religion.

2. God was manifested in the flesh. The Clermont MS. with the Vulgate, and some other ancient versions, read here, 'O, which, instead of OG God. -The Syriac version, as translated by Tremellius, bath, Quod Deus rerelatus est in carne ; That God was revealed in the flesh.—The Colbertine MS. hath ós, who. But Mill saith, it is the only Greek MS. which hath that reading. All the others, with one consent, have osos ; which is followed by Chrysostom, Theodoret, and Theophylact, as appears by their commentaries. Mill saith ós and ő were substituted in place of the true reading : not however by the Arians, nor by the other heretics, as neither they, nor the orthodox fathers, have cited this text.-See Mill in loc. where he treats as fabulous what Liberatus and Hinemarus tell us concerning Macedonius being expelled by Anastasius for changing ‘oz in this text into Ex: Where also he delivers his opinion concerning the alteration made on this word in the Alexandrian MS.-See also Pearson on the Creed, p. 128. who has very well defended the common reading.–The thing asserted in this verse, according to the common reading, is precisely the same with what John hath told us in his gospel, chap. i. 14. The word (who is called God, ver. 1.) was made flesh, and dwelt among us.—The other reading, not very intelligibly, represents the gospel as manifested in the flesh, and taken up in glory. See note 7.

3. Was justified through the Spirit. Jesus having been publicly put to death as a blasphemer for calling bimself the Son of God, he was justified,

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VOL. IV.

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