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Prognostics of Weather and Horologe unfolds them, so that the husbandman of Flora.

can pretty clearly foretell tempests from

it. It is also well known that the mounFrom the “ Perennial Calendar." tain ebony bauhinia, sensitive plants, Chickweed.—When the flower expands and cassia, observe the same rule. boldly and fully, no rain will happen for Besides affording prognostics, many four hours or upwards : if it continues in plants also fold themselves up at partithat open state, no rain will disturb the cular hours, with such regularity, as to summer's day: when it half conceals its have acquired particular names from this miniature flower, the day is generally property. The following are among the showery; but if it entirely shuts up, or more remarkable plants of this descripveils the white flower with its green tion:mantle, let the traveller put on his great Goatsbeard. The flowers of both coat, and the ploughman, with his beasts species of tragopogon open in the mornof drought, expect rest from their labour. ing at the approach of the sun, and with:

Siberian sowthistle.—If the flowers of out regard to the state of the weather this plant keep open all night, rain will regularly shut about noon. Hence it is certainly fall the next day.

generally known in the country by the Trefoil.—The different species of tre- name of go to bed at noon. foil always contract their leaves at the The princesses' leaf, or four o'clock approach of a storm : hence these plants flower, in the Malay Islands, is au elegant have been termed the husbandman's shrub so called by the natives, because barometer.

their ladies are fond of the grateful odour African marygold.-If this plant opens

of its white leaves. It takes its generic not its flowers in the morning about seven name from its quality of opening its o'clock, you may be sure it will rain that flowers at four in the evening, and not day, unless it thunders.

closing them in the morning till the same The convolvulus also, and the pim hour returns, when they again expand pernel anagalis arvensis, fold up their in the evening at the same hour. Many leaves on the approach of rain : the last people transplant them from the woods in particular is termed the poor man's into their gardens, and use them as a dial weather-glass.

or a clock, especially in cloudy weather. White thorns and dog-rose bushes. The evening primrose is well known Wet summers are generally attended from its remarkable properties of regularly with an uncommon quantity of seed on shutting with a loud popping noise, about these shrubs; whence their unusual fruit- sunset in the evening, and opening at fulness is a sign of a severe winter. sunrise in the morning. After six o'clock,

Besides the above, there are several these flowers regularly report the approach plants, especially those with compound

of night. yellow flowers, which nod, and during The tamarind tree parkinsonia, the the whole day turn their flowers towards nipplewort lapsana communis, the water the sun: viz. to the east in the morning, lily nymphaea, the marygolds calenduto the south at noon, and to the west lae, the bastard sensitive plant aeschytowards evening; this is very observable nomcne, and several others of the in the sowthistle sonchus arvensis : and diadelphia class, in serene weather, exit is a well-known fact, that a great part pand their leaves in the daytime, and of the plants in a serene sky expand contract them during the night. Accordtheir flowers, and as it were with cheerful ing to some botanists, the tamarind-tree looks behold the light of the sun; but enfolds within its leaves the flowers or before rain they shut them up, as the fruit every night, in order to guard them tulip.

from cold or rain. The flowers of the alpine whitlow The flower of the garden lettuce, grass draba alpina, the bastard fever- which is in a vertical plane, opens at few parthenium, and the wintergreen seven o'clock, and shuts at ten. trientalis, hang down in the night as if A species of serpentine aloe, without the plants were asleep, lest rain or the prickles, whose large and beautiful mioist air should injure the fertilizing dust. Howers exhale a strong odour of the

One species of woodsorrel shuts up or vanilla during the time of its expansion, doubles its leaves before storms and tem- which is very short, is cultivated in the pests, but in a serene sky expands or imperial garden at Paris. It does not

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blow till towards the month of July, and Till the bright Daystar to the west about five o'clock in the evening, at Declines, in Ocean's surge to lave : which time it gradually opens its petals, Then, folded in her modest vest, expands them, droops, and dies. By ten

She slumbers on the rocking wave. o'clock the same night, it is totally See Hieracium's various tribe, withered, to the great astonishment of

Of plumy seed and radiate flowers,
the spectators, who flock in crowds to see The course of Time their blooms describe,

And wake or sleep appointed hours.
The cerea, a native of Jamaica and
Vera Cruz, expands an exquisitely beau- Broad o'er its imbricated cup
tiful coral flower, and emits a highly But shuts its cautious petals up,

The Goatsbeard spreads its golden rays, fragrant odour, for a few hours in the

Retreating from the noontide blaze. night, and then closes to open no more. The flower is nearly a foot in diameter; Pale as a pensive cloistered nun, the inside of the calyx, of a splendid yel

The Bethlem Star her face unveils, low; and the numerous petals are of a

When o'er the mountain peers the Sun,

But shades it from the vesper gales, pure white. It begins to open about seven or eight o'clock in the evening, Among the loose and arid sands and closes before sunrise in the morning. The humble Arenaria creeps;

The flower of the dandelion possesses Slowly the Purple Star expands, very peculiar means of sheltering itself Bui soon within its calyx sleeps. from the heat of the sun, as it closes en

And those small bells so lightly rayed tirely whenever the heat becomes excessive. It has been observed to open, in Are to the noontide Sun displayed,

With young Aurora's rosy hue, summer, at half an hour after five in the

But shut their plaits against the dew, morning, and to collect its petals towards the centre about nine o'clock.

On upland slopes the shepherds mark Linnæus has enumerated forty-six

The hour, when, as the dial true,

Cichorium to the towering Lark flowers, which possess this kind of sen

Lifts her soft eyes serenely blue. sibility: he divides them into three classes.-1. Meteoric flowers, which less And thou, “Wee crimson tipped flower," accurately observe the hour of folding, Gatherest thy fringed mantle round but are expanded sooner or later accord- Thy bosom, at the closing hour, ing to the cloudiness, moisture, or pres When nightdrops bathe the turfy ground. sure of the atmosphere. 2. Tropical close before evening every day, but the But when the evening crescent shines, flowers, that open in the morning and Unlike Silene, who declines

The garish noontide's blazing light; hour of their expanding becomes earlier

Gives all her sweetness to the night.
or later as the length of the day increases
or decreases. 3. Equinoctial flowers, Thus in each flower and simple bell,
which open at a certain and exact hour That in our path betrodden lie,
of the day, and for the most part close at Are sweet remembrancers who tell
another determinate hour.

How fast their winged moments fly.
On Flora's Horologe, by Charlotte Smith. Dr. Forster remarks that towards the
In every copse and sheltered dell,

close of this month, the cat's ear hypoUnveiled to the observant eye,

charis radicata is in flower every where; Are faithful monitors, who tell

its first appearance is about the 18th day. How pass the hours and seasons by.

This plant, as well as the rough dandeThe green-robed children of the Spring lion, continues to flower till after Midsumwill mark the periods as they pass,

The lilac, the barberry tree, the Mingle with leaves Time's feathered wing,

maple, and other trees and shrubs, are And bind with flowers his silent glass. also in flower. The meadow grasses are Mark where transparent waters glide, full grown and flowering. The flowers

Soft flowing o'er their tranquil bed ; of the garden rose, in early and warm There, cradled on the dimpling tide,

years, begin to open. Nymphæa rests her lovely head. But conscious of the earliest beam,

On a Young Rosebud in May, from the She rises from her humid nest,

German of Goethe. And sees reflected in the stream

A kose, that bloomed the roadside by, The virgin whiteness of her breast. Caught a young vagrant's wanton eye ;

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The child was gay, the morn was clear, sible, and that this herbage should be The child would see the rosebud near : agreeable and nutritious to the animals She saw the blooming flow'r.

which are fed with its crop. Every My liule Rose, my Rosebud dear'

plant of crowfoot therefore ought, if pracMy Rose that blooms the roadside near !

ticable, to be extirpated, for, so far from The child exelaimed, “ My bands shall dare, being grateful and nourishing to any kind Thee, Rose, from off thy stem to tear :" of cattle, it is notorious, that in its fresh The Rose replied, “ If I have need,

state nothing will touch it. The same My thorns shall make thy fingers bleed may be said of the hemlock, kex, and Tby rash design give o'er.'

other umbelliferous plants which are My little Rose, my Rosebud dear!

common in most fields, and which have My Rose that blooms the roadside near !

entirely overrun others; for these when Regardless of its thorny spray,

fresh are not only noxious to the animals The child would tear the Rose away; that are fed upon hay, but from their The Rose bewailed with sob and sigh, rank and straggling manner of growth But all in vain, no help was nigh

occupy a very large proportion of the To quell the urchin's pow's.


Many other plants that are My little Rose, my Rosebud dear!

commonly found in meadows may upon My Rose that bloomed the roadside near !

the same principles be objected to; and New Monthly Magazine.

though the present generation of farmers

has done much, yet still more remains From Dr. Aikin's “ Natural History of for their successors to perform. the Year," the ensuing passages regard The gardens now yield an agreeable ing the season will be found agreeable though immature product in the young and useful.

gooseberries and currants, which On hedge-hanks the wild germander of highly acceptable to our tables, now a fine azure blue is conspicuous, and the almost exhausted of their store of prewhole surface of meadows is often covered served fruits. by the yellow crowfoot. These flowers, Early in the month the latest species also called buttercups, are erroneously of the summer birds of passage arrive, supposed to communicate to the butter generally in the following order: fernat this season its rich yellow tinge, as owl or goat-sucker, fly-catcher, and sedgethe cows will not touch it on account of bird. its acrid biting quality; this is strikingly This is also the principal time in which visible in pastures, where, though all the birds hatch and rear their young. The grass is cropped to the very roots, the assiduity and patience of the female durnumerous tufts of this weed spring up, ing the task of sitting are admirable, as flower, and shed their seeds in perfect well as the conjugal affection of the male, security, and the most absolute freedom who sings to his mate, and often supplies from molestation by the cattle; they are her place; and nothing can exceed the indeed cut down and made into hay to- parental tenderness of both when the gether with the rest of the rubbish that young are brought to light. usually occupies a large proportion of Several species of insects are this every meadow; and in this state are month added to those which have already eaten by cattle, partly because they are been enumerated ; the chief of which are incapable of separating them, and partly the great white cabbage butterfly, capilio because, by dying, their acrimony is con- brassicæ ; the may-chaffer, the favourite siderably subdued; but there can be no food of the fern-owl; the horse-fly, or doubt of their place being much better forest-fly, so great a plague to horses and supplied by any sort of real grass. In cattle ; and several kinds of moths and the present age of agricultural improve. butterflies. ment the subject of grass lands among Towards the end of May the bee-hives others has been a good deal attended to, send forth their earlier swarms. These but much yet remains to be done, and colonies consist of the young progeny, the tracts of the ingenious Stillingfleet, and some old ones, now grown too nuand of Mr. Curtis, on this important di- merous to remain in their present habitavision of rural economy, are well deserv- tion, and sufficiently strong and vigorous ing the notice of every liberal farmer. to provide for themselves. One queen The excellence of a meadow consists in bee is necessary to form each colony; its producing as much herbage as pos- and wherever she flies they follow. När



ture directs them to march in a body, in barberry, laburnum, horse-chestnut, lilac, quest of a new settlement, which, if left mountain ash, and Guelder rose ; of the to their choice, would generally be some more humble plants the most remarkable hollow trunk of a tree. But man, who are the lily of the valley, and woodroof in converts the labours and instincts of so woods, the male orchis in meadows, and many animals to his own use, provides the lychnis, or cuckoo flower, on hedgethem with a dwelling, and repays him- banks. self with their honey. The early swarms This month is not a very busy season are generally the most valuable, as they for the farmer. Some sowing remains have time enough to lay in a plentiful to be done in late years; and in forward store of honey for their subsistence through ones, the weeds, which spring up abunthe winter.

dantly in fields and gardens, require to be About the same time the glow-worm kept under. The husbandman now looks shines. Of this species of insect the fe- forward with anxious hope to the reward maies are without wings and luminous, of his industry :the males are furnished with wings, Be gracious, Heaven ! for now laborious but are not luminous; it is probable, therefore, that this light rray serve to Has done his part. Ye fost'ring breezes, direct the male to the haunts of the fe blow! male, as Hero of Sestos is said to have Ye soft'ning dews, ye tender show'rs dedisplayed a torch from the top of a high scend; tower to guide her venturous lover Le And temper all, thou world-receiving sun, ander in his dangerous passage across

Into the perfect year!

Thomson. the Hellespont : You (i. e. the Sylphs) Warm on her mossy couch the radiant worm,

The Horse-chestnut. Æschylus HippoGuard from cold dews her lore-illumined

castanum. form,

Dedicated to St. Barnardine of Sienna. From leaf to leaf conduct the virgin light, Star of the earth, and diamond of the night.


Map 21. These little animals are found to ex

Holiday at the Public Offices. tinguish their lamps between eleven and St. Felix of Cantalicio. A. D. 1587. St. twelve at night.

Godrick, Hermit, A. D. 1170. St. Old May-day is the usual time for

Hospitius, A. D. 681. turning out cattle into the pastures, though frequently then very bare of grass. The milk soon becomes more copious, and of finer quality, from the juices of

Ragged Robin. Lychnis flos cuculi.

Dedicated to St. Felix, the young grass; and it is in this month that the making of cheese is usually begun in the dairies. Cheshire, Wiltshire, and the low parts of Gloucestershire, are the tracts in England most celebrated for St. Yvo, A. D. 1303. St. Basiliscus, Bp. the best cheese.

A. D. 312. Sts. Castus and Æmilius, Many trees and shrubs flower in May, A. D. 250. St. Bobo, A. D. 983. St. such as the oak, beech, maple, sycamcre, Conall, Abbot.

When first the soul of Love is sent abroad,
Warm through the vital air, and on the heart
Harmonious seizes, the gay troops begin,
In gallan* thought, to plume the painted wing,
And try again the long-forgotten strain,
At first faint warbled. But no sooner grows
The soft infusion prevalent and wide,
Than all alive at once their joy o'erflows
In music unconfined. Up springs the Lark,
Shrill voiced and loud, the messenger of morn ;
Ere yet the shadows fly, he mounted sings
Amid the dawning clouds, and from their haunts
Calls up the tuneful nations. Every copse


Map 22.


Deep tangled, tree irregular, and bush
Bending with dewy moisture o'er the heads
Of the coy quoristers that lodge within,
Are prodigal of harmony. The Thrush
And Woodlark, o'er the kind contending throng
Superior heard, run through the sweetest length
Of notes, when listening Philomela deigns
To let them joy, and purposes, in thought
Elate, to make her night excel their day.
The Blackbird whistles from the thorny brake,
The mellow Bullfinch answers from the gruve.
Nor are the Linnets, o'er the flowering furze
Pour'd out profusely, silent. Joined to these
Innumerous songsters, in the freshening shade
Of newsprung leaves, their modulations mix,
Mellifluous. The Jay, the Rook, the Daw,
And each harsh pipe, discordant heard alone,
Aid the full concert, while the Stockdove breathes
A melancholy murmur through the whole.
Around our heads the whitewinged Plover wheels
Her sounding flight, and then directly on,
In long excursion, skims the level lawns,
To tempt him from her nest. The Wild Duck hence :
O'er the rough moss and o'er the trackless waste
The Heath Hen flutters, pious fraud, to lead
The hot pursuing Spaniel far astray!


Hebrews; and a breakfast composed of Yellow Star of Bethlehem. Tragopogon cake, bread, and a liquor made by hot pratensis.

water poured on wheaten bran. The Dedicated to St. Yvo.

Whitson Ales were derived from the

Agapai, or love- feasts of the early May 23.

Christians, and were so denominated

from the churchwardens buying, and lay. St. Julia, 5th Cent. St. Desiderius, Bp. ing in from presents also, a large quan

of Langres, 7th Cent. St. Desiderius, tity of malt, which they brewed into beer, Bp. of Vienne, A. D. 612.

and sold out in the church or elsewhere. Whitsuntide.

The profits, as well as those from sundry

games, there being no poor rates, were Mr. Fosbroke remarks that this feast given to the poor, for whom this was one was celebrated in Spain with representa- mode of provision, according to the tions of the gift of the Holy Ghost, and of christian rule that all festivities should thunder from engines, which did much be rendered innocent by alms. Aubrey damage. Wafers, or cakes, preceded by thus describes a Whitson Ale. water, oak-leaves, or burning torches, parish was a church-house, to which bewere thrown down from the church roof; fonged spits, crocks, and other utensils small birds, with cakes tied to their legs, for dressing provisions. Here the houseand pigeons were let loose; sometimes keepers met. The young people were there were tame white ones tied with there too, and had dancing, bowling, strings, or one of wood suspended. A long shooting at butts, &c. the ancients sitting censer was also swung up and down. In gravely by, and looking on.” It seems an old Computus, anno 1509, of St. Pa too that a tree was erected by the church trick's, Dublin, we have ivó, viid. paid to door, where a banner was placed, and those playing with the great and little maidens stood gathering contributions. angel and the dragon; ii'. paid for little An arbour, called Robin Hood's Bower, cords employed about the Holy Ghost;

was also put up in the church-yard. The ivo. vid. for making the angel (thurificantis) modern Whitson Ale consists of a lord censing, and iii. iid. for cords of it—all on

and lady of the ale, a steward, swordthe feast of Pentecost. On the day before bearer, purse-bearer, mace-bearer, trainWhitsuntide, in some places, men and bearer, or page, fool, and pipe and tabor boys rolled themselves, after drinking, &c. man, with a company of young men and in the mud in the streets. The Irish kept women, who dance in a barn, the feast with milk food, as among the

“ In every

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