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paintings in fresco, to the

memory of Sixtus splendour, and wished them ornamented VI., the pope's uncle. For the purpose of with gold. Michael answered, “ In those commencing these paintings, ropes were days gold was not worn, and the characlet through the ceiling to suspend the scaf- ters I have painted were neither rich, nor folding. Michael asked Bramante the desirous of riches; they were holy men architect, who had arranged this machi- with whom gold was an object of connery, how the ceiling was to be completed tempt.” if the ropes were suffered to remain ?" The Julius soon afterwards died; and the answer did not obviate the objection. execution of his mausoleum was frustrated Michael represented to the pope that the by Leo X., to whose patronage Michael defect would have been avoided if Bra was little indebted. He finished his celemante had better understood the applica- brated cartoon of the Last Judgment, for tion of mechanical principles, and obtained the east end of the Sistine chapel, in 1541, the pope's permission to take down the On Christmas-day in that year the chapel inefficient contrivance and erect another. was opened, and residents in the most This he effected; and his machinery was distant parts of Italy thronged to see it. so ample and complete, that Bramante In the following year, he painted the himself adopted it in the building of St. Conversion of St. Paul, and the Crucifixion Peter's. Michael gave this invention to of St. Peter, on the walls of the chapel the poor man who was his carpenter in Paolina. In 1546, when he was 72 years constructing it, and who realized a fortune old, the reigning pope nominated him from the commissions he received for architect of St. Peter's. Michael would others on the same plan. To indulge his only accept the appointment on the concuriosity, and watch the progress of the dition that he received no salary; that he work, the pope ascended the ladder to the should have uncontrolled power over the top of Michael's platform almost daily. subordinate officers; and be allowed to He was of an impetuous temper, and im- alter the original design conformably to patient to see the general effect from below his own judgment. It was necessary before the ceiling was half completed: to adapt and contract that design to the Michael, yielding to his impatience, impoverished state of the papal exchequer. struck the scaffold; and so eager were Though numerous impediments were purmen of taste to obtain a view, that before posely opposed to his progress with this the dust from displacing the machinery splendid edifice, he advanced it rapidly; had settled, they rushed into the chapel to and before he was 74, he had completed gratify their curiosity. Julius was satis- the Farnese palace, built a palace on the fied: but Michael's rivals, and Bramante hill of the Capitol for the senator of among the rest, secretly solicited the pope Rome, erected two galleries for sculpture to intrust the completion of the car- and painting on the same site, and threw toons to Raphael. Michael had intima- up a flight of steps to the church of the tion of these wiles, and in the presence convent of Araceli-an edifice remarkof Bramante himself, claimed and ob- able for its occupying the highest part of tained of the pope the entire execution of the hill whereon the temple of Jupiter his own designs. He persevered with in- Capitolinus formerly stood, and, more cessant assiduity. In twenty months especially, for Gibbon having mused there, from the commencement of “ this stupen- while listening to the vespers of the baredous monument of human genius" it was footed friars, and conceived the first completed, and on All Saints' day, 1512, thought of writing his “ History of the the pontiff himself opened the chapel in Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." person with a splendid high mass, to In 1550, Julius III. succeeded to the crowds of devotees and artists. Whatever pontificate, and Michael to new vexations. Julius conceived he hastened with the His rivals endeavoured to displace him ardour of youth; he was old, and knowing him for unfitness in the conduct of St. Pethat he had no time to spare, he had so ter's. A committee of architects was harassed the progress of these cartoons by appointed to investigate the charge, in the his eagerness, that the scaffolding was presence of the pope. The committee struck before they were thoroughly com- alleged that the church wanted light; and pleted; yet, as there was not any thing of they furnished the cardinals Salviati and importance to be added, Michael deter- Marcello Cervino with plans, to show mined not to undergo the labour of re- that Michael had walled up a recess erecting the machinery The pope loved for three chapels, and made only three

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insufficient windows. “ Over those win- chamber, and in the presence of them and dows are to be placed three others," an his physicians uttered this verbal will:swered Michael. ** You never said that be- “My soul I resign to God, my body to fore," answered one of the cardinals. To the earth, and my worldly possessions to this Michael indignantly replied, “ I am my nearest of kin:" then admonishing not, neither will I ever be, obliged to tell his attendants, he said, “ In your passage your eminence, or any one else, what I through this life, remember the sufferings ought or am disposed to do; it is your of Jesus Christ.” office to see that money be provided, to Thus died one of the greatest artists, keep off the thieves, and to leave the and one of the noblest men of modern building of St. Peter's to me.” The pope times. The ceremony of his funeral was decided in Michael's favour. From that conducted at Rome with great pomp, but time Julius prosecuted no work in paint- his remains were removed

within a month ing or sculpture without Michael's ad to Florence, and finally deposited in the vice; and his estimation of him was so church of Santa Croce at Florence. In high, that he told him at a public audi- 1720, the vault was opened; the body ence, that if he died before himself, he retained its original form, habited in the should be embalmed, and kept in his own costume of the ancient citizens of Flopalace, that his body might be as perma- rence, in a gown of green velvet, and nent as his works. Soon after the death slippers of the saine. of Julius III. in 1555, Paul IV., the new According to his English biographer, pontiff, expressed his displeasure of the Mr. Duppa, Michael Angelo was of the academical figures in the Last Judgment, middle stature, bony in make, rather and intimated an intention to “reform” spare, and broad shouldered ; his comthe picture. Michael sent this message plexion good, his forehead square and to him: “ What the pope wishes, is very somewhat” projecting; his eyes hazel little, and may be easily effected; for if and rather small; his brows with little his holiness will only reform' the opi- hair; his nose flat from a blow given him nions of mankind, the picture will be in his youth by Torrigiano; his lips thin; reformed of itself.” This holy father his cranium large in proportion to his plunged Italy in blood by his vindictive face. Within these pages a detail of his passions; and while war ravaged its works will not be sought. plains, Michael, at the age of 82, retreated ticulars mentioned are from Mr. Duppa's for a while to a monastery. On coming quarto life, where many of them are enufrom his seclusion, he wrote to Vasari, merated, and outline sketches of some of “ I have had a great deal of pleasure in them are engraved. visiting the monks in the mountains of The portrait of Michael Angelo selectSpoleto: indeed, though I am now return ed by Mr. Duppa, to precede his life, is ed to Rome, I have left the better half of engraved by Bartolozzi, ficm a profile in myself with them; for in these trouble- Gori's edition of “ Condivi's Memoir." He some times, to say the truth, there is no says its original was a drawing supposed happiness but in such retirement." The to have been made by Julio Bonasoni, death of this pope filled Rome with from which Mr. Duppa presumes that ar“ tumultuous joy," and the papal chair tist to have etched a print bearing his name, was ascended by Pius IV., in whose pon- and dated in the year 1546. There is an tificate, wearied and reduced by the in- engraved portrait dated 1545, without cessant attacks and artifices of his ene any artist's name attached. Mr. Duppa mies, Michael, at the age of 87, resigned says, “ of these two prints Bonasoni's is his office of architect to St. Peter's; but much the best; and although the second tle pope, informed of the frauds which has a prior date, it appears to have been had occasioned it, reinstated him, and engraved from the same original.” That to induce him to retain the appointment, “original,” whatever it was, is no longer ensured strict adherence to his designs in existence. Certainly Bonasoni's print until the building should be completed. is better as a print, for it has the grace of

At the age of eighty-nine a slow fever that master's point, yet as a likeness the indicated Michael Angelo's approaching print of 1545 seems to the editor of the decease. His nephew, Leonardo Buo- Every-day Book to have a stronger claim narrotti, was sent for ; but not arriving, to regard ; not because it is of prior date, and the fever increasing, he ordered the but because it has more decisive marks persons who were in the house into his of character. He conjectures, that the

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anonymous print of 1545 may have been cuted from a marble " original." While executed from a bust or statue of Mi- correctness seems to have been the aim of chael. There is a laboured precision in the engraver in this anonymous print, the contour, and a close mannered mark- elegance appears to have been the object ing of the features, that denote the “ on of the painter Bonasoni in his etching. Boginal” to have been marble. The conjec- nasoni's portrait is comparatively common; ture is strengthened by the fact, that the the anonymous one is rare; a copy of it eye in the anonymous print is without from the print in the editor's possesan iris; a deficiency which exists in no sion, is executed on wood, by Mr. T. Wilengraved portraits unless they are exe- liams, and placed under the reader's eye.

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Michael Angelo was remarkable for ture in her undescribable sublimity, he nothing but his genius. He slept little, achieved with corresponding greatness and was abstemious; he was accustomed and beauty. His forms and their intellecto say, “However rich I may have been, tual expression are of the highest order. I have always lived as a poor man." He He never did any thing little. All was in obtained the reputation of being proud harmony with a mind which he created and odd; for he found little pleasure in of himself by adding fact to fact, by sethe society of men from whom he could vere reading, by close observation, by not learn, or whom he could not teach. study, by seclusion. He was the quarHe was pleased by originality of charac rier, and architect, and builder-up of his ter in whatevec rank he met with it; and own greatness. cultivated in mature life the society of persons respected for their talents and Sir Joshua Reynolds speaks with belearning. When young he endeavoured coming deference of Michael Angelo's to acquaint himself with every branch of powers.-“It will not be thought presumpknowledge that could contribute to his tuous in me to appear in the train, I canimprovement. In common with all who not say of his imitators, but of his adhave obtained a deserved eminence, he was mirers. I have taken another course, one never satisfied with his performances ; if more suited to my abilities, and to the he perceived an imperfection that might taste of the times in which I live. Yet have been avoided, he either threw aside however unequal I feel myself to that atthe work in disgust, or commenced it tempt, were I now to begin the world

again, I would tread in the steps of that He continued to study to the end of great master: to kiss the hem of his garhis life. In his old age the cardinal ment, to catch the slightest of his perfecFarnese found him walking in solitude tions, would be glory and distinction amidst the ruins of the Coliseum and ex enough for an ambitious man. He was pressed his surprise. Michael answered, the bright luminary from whom painting “I go yet to school that I may continue has borrowed a new lustre, under whose to learn." He lived much alone. His hands it assumed a new appearance, and great excess seems to have been indulg became another and superior art, and ence in reflection, and the labours of his from whom all his contemporaries and profession. The power of generalizing successors have derived whatever they facts, and realizing what he conceived, he have possessed of the dignified and drew from this habit: without it some majestic.” men have become popular for a time, but no man ever became great.

There are excellent casts from three of

Michael Angelo's statues exhibited by Grandeur was vichael Angelo's pre- Mr. West at Mr. Bullock's museum, in vailing sentiment. In his architecture of Piccadilly; they are, Christ, from the St. Peter's, he scems to have been limited church of Sta. Maria at Florence, Lorenzo by the impossibility of arriving to excel de Medici from his monument, and the lence without adopting the ancient styles, celebrated Moses, from the church of St. and the necessity of attempting something Pietro, in Vincoli, at Rome. The editor great without them; and to speak with of the Every-day Book has conversed with the severity of uncompromising truth he persons who think themselves pupils and failed. Of what else he did in that students in sculpture and painting withscience, and he did much, for which he out having seen these ! obtained deserved renown, there is neither room nor occasion to speak. In Michael Angelo had studied analomy painting and sculpture, if he did not profoundly. Condivi, who was his pupil always succeed in embodying his feel- . and one of his biographers, says that his ings, yet he succeeded more frequently knowledge of human anatomy and or than any other artist since the revival of other animals was so correct, that those arts; and, as his power was greater who had studied it as a profession all than theirs, so he accomplished greater their lives, scarcely understood it so well. works. His aim was elevated as that of When he began to dissect he conceived the giants who warred against the fabled disgust from the offensiveness of the gods; in one respect he was unlike them, operation and desisted; but reflecting that he conquered. Majestic and wild as na- it was disgraceful to abandon what others



could achieve, he resumed and pursued impediment, confer no dignity on the it to the fullest extent. Perceiving the work on which it is bestowed, painting utility of Albert Durer's “Treatise on the and sculpture may be considered without Proportions of the Human Body," he deem- giving the preeminence to either : and ed it capable of improvement. Its rules since it has been so considered, no painter were in his opinion insufficient and too ought to undervalue sculpture, and in. mechanical, and he contemplated a trea- like manner, no sculptor ought to make tise to exhibit the muscles in their various light of painting.” action. A friend, whom he consulted on Great as Michael Angelo was in art, the subject, sent him the body of a fine his intellectual character was greater. young Moor, which he dissected and “ No one," says Mr. Duppa,

ever felt made remarks on, but they were never the dignity of human nature with its published. The result of his anatomical noblest attributes more forcibly than knowledge may be seen in the powerful Michael Angelo, and his disgust at any muscular developement of his figures : he violation of principle was acute in proleft no part undefined.

portion to his sensibility and love of truth." He despised and shrunk from

the shadow of a meanness: hating the. Several reniarks occur in the course of heartlessness of unmeaning professioli, Michael Angelo's letters concerning his he regarded the dazzling simulation

Speaking of the rivalry between which constitutes the polish of society as sculpture and painting, he says, “ The a soul-cloud. With these comma

manding sculptor arrives at his end by taking views of self dignity he poured ont. bis away what is superfluous; the painter feelings to his friend Luigi del Ricco, in produces his, by adding the materials which embody the representation to the mind : however, after all, they are both Translated by Robert Southey Esq. produced by the same intelligence, and

(From Mr. Duppa's Life of Michael Angelo.) the superiority is not worth disputing Ill bath he chosen his part who seeks to please about, since more time may be lost in the The worthless world, — ill hath he chosen his discussion, than would produce the works

part, themselves.At one time, however, For often must he wear the look of ease Michael Angelo regarded painting with When griet' is at his heart; less favour than he expresses in this And often in his hours of happier feeling letter. It is addressed to Varchi, why With sorrow must his countenance be hung, wrote a dissertation on the subject, and And ever his own better thoughts coucealing sent it to him with an inquiry, which had Must in stupid grandeur's praise be loud, divided the amateurs of Florence, as to

And to the errors of the ignorant crowd whether painting or sculpture required

Assent with lying tongue. the most talent. Varchi's treatise has Thus much would I conceal—ihat none should

know the merit of having convinced Michael

What secret cause I have for silent woe ; Angelo that he was in error, and with the truth and candour inseparable from

And taught by many a melancholy proof

That those whom fortune favours it pollutes such a character he confessed his inistake. I from the blind and faithless world aloof, “ Of the relative importance of painting Nor fear its envy nor desire its praise, and sculpture,” says Michael Angelo, “I But choose my path through solitary ways. think painting excellent in proportion as it approaches relievo, and relievo bad in It was one of Michael Angelo's high proportion as it partakes of the character qualities to bear about him an atmosphere of a picture, and therefore I was used to which the parasite dared not approach: be of opinion, that painting might be no heart-eater could live in it. considered as borrowing light from sculp He justly estimated whatever was inture, and the difference between them as fluential in society; and hence though he the sun and moon. Now, however, since seemed to look down upon rank as an I have read your dissertation, which treats accident of life, he was net regardless of the subject philosophica y, and shows, its use. To those whom distinctions had that those things which have the same raised, be paid the deference accorded to end, are one, and the same, I have their dignities. Yet towards him who changed my opinion, and say, that, if iouched his integrity, he bore a lofty cargreater judgment, labour, difficulty, and riage, and when he condescended to resent

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