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They hurl him up into the ayre,

and thus furiously they drove without not suff'ring him to fall,

stopping for people to get out of their And this they doe at divers tymes, the citie over all.

way: The Kentish “holly boy," and " ivy girl"

Yea, sometimes legges or arms they breake,

and horse and cart and all are erroneously supposed (at p. 226,) to They overthrow, with such a force, have been carried about on St. Valentine's

they in their course do fall! day. On turning to Brand, who also cites the circumstance, it appears they with the cessation of the vulgar sports on

The genteel “wagon"-drivers ceased not were carried the Tuesday before Shrove Tuesday, and most probably were the un

foot, recognised remains of the drest mawkin

But even till midnight holde they on, of the “ Popish Kingdome,” carried

their pastimes for to make, about with various devices to represent Whereby they hinder men of sleepe, the “ death of good living," and which

and cause their heades to ake our catholic neighbours continue. The But all this same they care not for, Morning Chronicle of March the 10th,

nor do esteemne a beare, 1791, represents the peasantry of France

So they may have their pleasure, &c. carrying it at that time into the villages,

APPRENTICES' HOLIDAY. collecting money for the “funeral,” and, “after sundry absurd mummeries," com Shrove Tuesday was until late years mitting the body to the earth.

the great holiday of the apprentices; why

it should have been so is easy to imagine, Neogeorgus records, that if the snow on recollecting the sports that boys were lay on the ground this day, snow-ball allowed on that day at school. The incombats were exhibited with great vigour, dulgencies of the ancient city 'prentices till one party got the victory, and the other

were great, and their licentious disturbran away: the confusion whereof trou ances stand recorded in the annals of bled him sorely, on account of its disturb- many a fray. Mixing in every neighance to the “ matrone olde,” and “ sober bouring brawl to bring it if possible to man," who desired to pass without a cold open riot, they at length assumed to de salutation from the “ wanton fellowes." termine on public affairs, and went in

The “rabble-rout," however, in these bodies with their petitions and remonprocessions and mockeries, had the ho strances to the bar of the house of con:nour of respectable spectators, who seem mons, with as much importance as their to have been somewhat affected by the masters of the corporation. A satire of popular epidemic. The same author says that, the noble men, the rich

They'r mounted high, contemp the humble and men of hie degree,


Of trap or foot-ball on a holiday Least they with common people should

In Finesbury-fieldes. No, 'tis their brave not seeme so mad to bee,

intent, came abroad in “wagons finely framed Wisely t advise the king and parliament. before" drawn by “a lustie horse and wift of pace," having trappings on


But this is not the place to notice their from head to foot, about whose neck,

manners further. The successors to their and every place before,

name are of another generation, they have A hundred gingling belles do hang,

been better educated, live in better times, to make his courage more,

and having better masters, will make better and their wives and children being seated

The apprentices whose situation

is to be viewed with anxiety, are the outin these “wagons,” they

door apprentices of poor persons, who -bebinde themselves do stande

can scarcely find homes, or who being orWell armde with whips, and holding faste phans, leave the factories or work-rooms the bridle in their hande.

of their masters, at night, to go where Thus laden and equipped

they can, and do what they please, withWith all their force throughout the streetes

out paternal care, or being the creatures and market place they ron,

of any one's solicitude, and are yet exAs if some whirlwinde mad, or tempest pected to be, or become good members of

great from skies should coine society

1675 says,




is supposed to have had its origin in the A MS. in the British Museum quoted days of chivalry ; when an Italian is by Brand states, that in 1560, it was a reported to have come into this part of custom at Eton school on Shrove Tues- the country challenging all the parishes, day for the cook to fasten a pancake to a under a certain penalty in case of declincrow upon

the school door; and as crows ing his challenge. All the parishes deusually hatch at this season, the cawing clined this challenge except Scone, which of the young ones for their parent, beat the foreigner, and in commemoration heightened this heartless sport. From a of this gallant action the game was instiquestion by Antiquarius, in the “Gentle- tuted. Whilst the custom continued, man's Magazine," 1790, it appears that it every man in the parish, the gentry not is a custom on Shrove Tuesday at West- excepted, was obliged to turn out and minster school for the under clerk of the support the side to which he belonged, college, preceded by the beadle and the "and the person who neglected to do his other officers, to throw a large pancake part on that occasion was fined; but the over the bar which divides the upper custom being attended with certain inconfrom the lower school. Brand mentions veniences, was abolished a few years bea similar custom at Eton school. Mr. fore Sir Frederick wrote. He further Fosbroke is decisive in the opinion that mentions that on Shrove Tuesday there is pancakes on Shrove Tuesday were taken a standing match at foot-ball in the parish from the heathen Fornacalia, celebrated of Inverness, county of Mid Lothian, beon the 18th of February, in memory of tween the married and unmarried women, making bread, before ovens werc invented. and he states as a remarkable fact that the by the goddess Fornax.

married women are always successful.

Crowdie is mentioned by sir F. M. This was, and remains, a game on Eden, (“ State of the Poor,") as a never Shrove Tuesday, in various parts of Eng- failing dinner on Shrove Tuesday, with all land.

ranks of people in Scotland, as pancakes Sir Frederick Morton Eden in he are in England; and that a ring is put into “Statistical account of Scotland," says that the basin or porringer of the unmarried at the parish of Scone, county of Perth, folks, to the finder of which, by fair means, every year on Shrove Tuesday the bache- it was an omen of marriage before the rest lors and married men drew themselves up of the eaters. This practice on Fasten's at the cross of Scone, on opposite sides; a Eve, is described in Mr. Stewart's “ Poball was then thrown up, and they played pular Superstitions of the Highlands," from two o'clock till sun-set. The game with little difference; only that the ring was this: he who at any time got the ball 'instead of being in “ crowdie” is in into his hands, run with it till overtaken “brose," made of the “bree of a good fat by one of the opposite party; and then, if rigget of beef or mutton." This with he could shake himself loose from those on plenty of other good cheer being desthe opposite side who seized him, he run on; patched, the Bannich Junit, or "sauty if not, he threw the ball from him, unless bannocks” are brought out. They are it was wrested from him by the other made of eggs an meal mixed with salt party, but no person was allowed to kick to make them “ sauty,” and being baked it. The object of the married men was to or toasted on the gridiron," are regarded by hang it, that is, to put it three times into old and young as a most delicious treat." a small hole in the moor, which was the They have a “charm” in them which endool or limit on the one hand : that of ables the highlander to “spell" out his the bachelors was to drown it, or dip it future wife : this consists of some article three times in a deep place in the river, being intermixed in the meal-dough, and the limit on the other : the party who he to whom falls the “sauty bannock" could effect either of these objects won which contains it, is sure—if not already the game; if weither won, the ball was married to be married before the next cut into equal parts at sun-set. In the anniversary. Then the Bannich Brauder, course of the play there was usually some dreaming bannocks” find a place. violence between the parties ; but it is They contain “a little of that substance a proverb in this part of the country that which chimney-sweeps call soot." In “ All is fair at the ball of Scone.' Sir baking them “ the baker must be as mute Frederick goes on to say, that this custom as a stone--one word would destroy the


“ Tusa,


whole concern." Each person has one, neva, being at Rome on Ash Wednesday, slips off quietly to bed, lays his head on he fell at the feet of pope Boniface VIII., his bapnoek, and expects to see his sweet- who blessed and gave out the ashes on heart in his sleep.

that day, in order to be signed with the blessed ashes as others had been. Think

ing him to be his enemy, instead of utterShakspeare in King Henry IV. says, ing the usual form, “ Remember, O man,

because thou art dust, thou shalt return to Be merry, be merry, 'Tis merry in hall, when beards wag all

dust,” &c., the pope parodied the form And welcome merry Shrovetide.

and said “Remember thou art a Gibelline, Be merry, be merry, &c.

and with the Gibellines thou shalt return

to ashes," and then his holiness threw the It is mentioned in the “ Shepherd's Al- ashes in the archbishop's eyes. manack” of 1676, that“ some say, thunder

It is observed by Mr. Fosbroke that on Shrove Tuesday foretelleth wind, store ladies wore friars' girdles in Lent. This of fruit, and plenty. Others affirm that gentleman quotes, from “ Camden's Re30 much as the sun shineth on that day, mains," that sir Thomas More, finding his the like will shine every day in Lent.” lady scolding her servants during Lent,

endeavoured to restrain her.
tush, my lord,” said she, “look, here is

one step to heavenward,” showing him Cloth of Gold. Crocus sulphureus.

a friar's girdle. “I fear me," said he, Dedicated to St. Sigifride.

" that one step, will not bring you up one step higher." There are various instances

of belief in the virtues of garments that February 16. had been worn by monks and friars;

some of them almost surpassing belief. St. Onesimus. Sts. Elias, Jeremy, Isaias,

Ash Wednesday is observed in the Samuel, and Daniel, A. D. 309. St. Ju- church of England by reading publicly liana. St. Gregory X. Pope, A. D. 1276.

the curses denounced against impenitent St. Tanco, or Tutta, of Scotland, A. D.

sinners; to each malediction the people 815.

being directed to utter, amen. Many

who consider this as cursing their neighAsh Wednesday.

bours, keep away from church on the ocHoliday at the Public Offices; except the Stamps, casion ; which absence from these motives

Mr. Brand regards as “ a folly and superThis is the first day of Lent. It is stition worthy of the after-midnight, the called Ash Wednesday, because in the Ro. spirit-walking time of popery.” On this man catholic church the priest blesses eloquent reroark, and Mr. Brand is selashes on this day, and puts them on the dom warmed to eloquence, it may be ohheads of the people. These ashes are served, that persons far reinoved from made of the branches of brushwood or superstition and who have never appalms, consecrated the year before. The proached “the valley of the shadow of poashes are cleaned, and dried, and sifted, pery," deem the coinmination of the “Comfit for the purpose.

After the priest mon Prayer Book," a departure from the has given absolution to the people, he christian dispensation, and its injunctions prays

« Vouchsafe + to bless and sanctify of brotherly kindness. + these ashes that whosoever shall sprinkle these ashes upon them for the redemption of their sins, they may obtain health of body and protection of soul,'

Lilac Primrose. Primula acaulis plena.

Dedicated to St. Juliana. &c. Prayers ended, the priest sprinkles the ashes with holy water, and perfumes them thrice with incense, and the people

February 17. cording to him and kneeling, he puts ashes on their heads in the form of a cross with St. Flavian, Archbishop of Constantiother ceremonies,

nople, A. 1). 449. Sts. Theodulus and Platina, a priest, and librarian to the Julian. St. Silvin of Auchy, A. D Vatican, who wrote the lives of the popes 718. St. Lomun, or Luman, Bishop relates that Prochetus, archbishop of Ge. St. Fintan, Abbot.

Customs, and Excise.




application brought him nearer to excel. Scotch Crocus. Crocus Susianus. lence. By the merit of a sleeping cupid Dedicated to St. Flaviun.

from his chisel, which was stained and buried by a dealer to be dug up as an

antique, and purchased by cardinal On the 17th of February, 1563, died Giorgio under the persuasion that it was Michael Angelo Buonarroti, as an artist one, he was invited to Rome. and a man one of the most eminent On the elevation of Julius II. to the ornaments of the times wherein he lived. pontificate he desired a mausoleum for A bare record of his decease is not suffi- his remains, and commissioned Michael cient. Thousands of readers have heard Angelo lo execute it. The design was his name; some know his works; few magnificent and gratified Julius. He know his character.

inquired the cost of completing it, “A Michael Angelo was born in Tuscany, hundred thousand crowns,' answered on the 6th of March, 1474. Fascinated Michael; the pope replied, “ It may be by art at an early age, he executed a twice that sum," and gave orders accordfacsimile of a picture in his thirteenth ingly. The pontiff further determined on year, which he presented to the owner rebuilding the cathedral of St. Peter on a instead of the original, who did not dis- plan of corresponding grandeur wherein cover the deception till a confidant of the mausoleum should be erected. It Michael's began to laugh. He afterwards was for the prosecution of this vast strucstudied under Ghirlandaïo, and at fifteen ture for Romish worship, that Leo X. sold drew an outline round a drawing by his the indulgencies against which Luther master which showed its defects and his inveighed, and by establishing the right own superiority. Studying in a garden of private judgment shook the papacy to supplied by the celebrated Lorenzo de its foundations. While Michael was enMedici with antique statues and other gaged on the mausoleum, Julius caused a forms, he saw a student modelling figures covered bridge to be crected by which he in clay, and emulous of excelling in the might pass from the Vatican to Michael's same branch, begged a piece of marble, study unobserved. Envy was excited in and the use of implements, from one of the papal dependents by this distinction, the workmen employed in making orna and insinuated so much to Michael's disadments for Lorenzo's library. With these vantage that his unrestrained visits to the he imitated an old head, or mask, of a Vatican were suddenly interrupted. “I laughing faun, supplying the deficiencies have an order not to let you enter," said effected by time, by his own invention, the groom of the chamber: a prelate and making other additions. Lorenzó inquired if he knew to whom he spoke; saw it, and good humouredly remarked, “Well enough," answered the officer, “You have restored to the old faun all “and it is my duty to obey my orders." his teeth, but don't you know that a man “Tell the pope,” said Michael indignantly, of such an age has generally lost some ?" “ if he wants me, he shall have to seek As soon as Lorenzo departed, Michael “me in another place.” He returned home, broke a tooth from the upper jaw, and ordered his servants to sell his furniture drilled a hole in the gum to denote that immediately, and follow him to Florence, it had decayed. Lorenzo at his next and the same evening left Rome. visit was delighted by this docility, and The pope sent couriers to force his to encourage Michael assigned him an return, but before he was overtaken he apartment in his palace for a workroom, had reached a territory wherein the papal seated him at his table, and introduced mandate was without- authority. « Imhim to the men of rank and talent who mediately return to Rome on pain of our daily resorted to Lorenzo, as the munifi- disgrace," was the pope's letter. Michael's cent patron of learning and the arts. He answer was, that having been expelled justified this distinction by labouring his holiness's antichamber without havwith intense ardour. At seventeen years ing merited disgrace, he had left Rome to of age he sculptured in brass the battle preserve his character, and that he would of liercules with the Centaurs; a work not return; for if he had been deemed of which he said at seventy, “When I see worthless one day, he could be little it now, I repent that I did not entirely valued the next, unless by a caprice that devote myself to sculpture." His repu- would neither be creditable to the pope tation increas d with his application, for nor to himself. Having despatched the

pope's couriers with this letter, he pro- rant of every thing but their art. "Thou," ceeded to Florence. To the government answered the pontiff

, “ hast vilified him; of this city Julius wrote: “ We know I have not : thou art no man of genius but the humour of men of his stamp; if he an ignorant fellow; get out of my sight." will return, we promise he shall be nei- The prelate was pushed from the room. ther meddled with nor offended, and he The pope gave Michael his benediction, shall be reinstated in the apostolic grace." restored him

to full favour, and desired him Michael was unmoved. A second and a not to quit Bologna till he had given him third arrived, each more impressive, and a commission for some work. In a few Michael remained unchanged; but the days, Michael received an order from Gonfaloniere of Florence, to whom these Julius for a colossal statue of himself epistles were addressed, became alarmed in bronze. While it was modelling, the and expostulated: “You have done by pope's visits to Michael were as frequent the pope what the king of France would as formerly. This statue was grand, ausnot have presumed to do; he must tere, and majestic: the pope familiarly be no longer trifled with; we cannot asked if the extended arm was bestowing make war against his holiness to risk the a blessing or a curse upon the people. safety of the state ; and therefore you Michael answered that the action only must obey his will.” Thus remonstrated implied hostility to disobedience, and inwith, Michael entertained a proposal for quired whether he would not have a book entering into the service of the sultan put into the other hand. No," said the Bajazet II., and building a bridge from pope,“ a sword would be more adapted Constantinople to Pera. The sultan had to my character, I am no book-man." even sent him letters of credit on Flo- Julius quitted Bologna, and left Michael rence and all the cities on his way; and Angelo there to complete the statue ; he appointed escorts of Janizaries to await effected it in sixteen months, and having his arrival on the Turkish frontiers, and placed it in the facade of the church of St. conduct him, by whatever road he pleased, Petronio, returned to Rome. This product to the Mahometan capital. To divert of Michael's genius was of short existence. Michael Angelo from this course, the The prosperity of Venice under united Gonfaloniere urged that it was better to councils, and a prudent administration of die under the pope's displeasure than to its affairs, excited the hatred of the Eurolive in the Turkish service; and that if he pean powers. An infamous league was were apprehensive for his security at Rome, entered into at Cambray for the ruin of the government of Florence would send the Venetian government, and the partihim thither as its ambassador, in which tion of its terrritory ; Julius became character his person would be inviolable. a party to this alliance, with the hope of Michael, urged by these and other reasons, adding Ronsagna to the dominions of the relented, and met the pope at Bologna, a church, and retaining possession of Bocity which had been betrayed to the papallogna. Effecting his object, he withdrew arms, and taken possession of by Julius in from the league; and by a change of great pomp just before Michael's arrival. policy, and a miscalculation of his strength, The cardinal Soderini, brother to the quarrelled with Louis XII. who had asGonfaloniere, was to have introduced sisted him in subjecting Bologna. That Michael to the pope, but indisposition monarch retook the city, restored the constrained him to depute that office to Bentivoglio family, which had been disa prelate of his household. The pope placed by the papal arms, and the popuaskanced his eye at Michael with dis- lace throwing down Michael's statue of the pleasure, and after a short pause saluted pope, dragged it through the streets, and him, “Instead of your coming to us, you

broke it to pieces.

With the mutilated seem to have expected that we should fragments the duke of Ferrara cast a attend upon you." Michael answered, cannon, which he named Julio, but prethat his error proceeded from too hastily served the head entire, as an invaluable feeling a disgrace he was unconscious of specimen of art, although it bore the having merited, and hoped holiness countenance of his implacable enemy. would pardon what had passed. The offi Michael Angelo resumed Julius's maucious prelate who had introduced him, not soleum, but the pontiff had changed his thinking this apology sufficient, observed mind, and sorely against Michael's inclito the pope, that great allowance was to nation, engaged him to decorate the ceilto be made for such men, who were igno- ings and walls of the Sixtine chapel, with

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