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one can scarce

Martina, that if she would conform to the

Lord Orford says, edict, he would make her his empress, conceive a greater absurdity than retainbut on her being taken to the temple, " by ing the three holidays dedicated to the a sudden earthquake the blockish idol of house of Stuart. Was the preservation of Apollo was broken in pieces, a fourth part James I. a greater blessing to England of his temple thrown down, and, with his than the destruction of the Spanish arruins, were crushed to death; his priests mada, for which no festival is established ? and many others, and the emperor him- Are we more or less free for the execution self, began to fly.” Whereupon St. of king Charles ? Are we at this day Martina taunted the emperor; and the still guilty of his blood? When is the devil, in the idol, rolling himself in the stain to be washed out? What sense is dust, made a speech to her, and another there in thanking heaven for the restorato the emperor, and “ fled through the tion of a family, which it so soon became air in a dark cloud; but the emperor necessary to expel again ?" would not understand it." Then the According to the “ Life of William emperor commanded her to be tortured. Lilly, written by himself,” Charles I. The jesuit's stories of these operations and caused the old astrologer to be consulted her escapes, are wonderfully particular. for his judgment. This is Lilly's account: According to him, hooks and stakes did “ His majesty, Charles I., having inher no mischief; she had a faculty of trusted the Scots with his person, was, shining, which the pouring of hot lard for money, delivered into the hands of upon her would not quench ; when in the English parliament, and, by several gaol, men in dazzling white surrounded removals, was had to Hampton-court, her; she could not feel a hundred and about July or August, 1647; for be was eighteen wounds; a fierce lion, who had there, and at that time when my house fasted three days, would not eat her, and was visited with the plague. He was fire would not burn her; but a sword cut desirous to escape from the soldiery, and her head off in 228, and at the end of to obscure himself for some time near two days two eagles were found watching London, the citizens whereof began now her body.

“ That which above all con to be unruly, and alienated in affection firmeth the truth of this relation," says from the parliament, inclining wholly Ribadeneira, “ is, that there is nothing to his majesty, and very averse to me herein related but what is in brief in the army. His majesty was well informed lessons of the Roman Breviary, com of all this, and thought to make good manded by public authority to be read use hereof: besides, the army and paron her feast by the whole church." liament were at some odds, who should

be masters. Upon the king's intention CHRONOLOGY.

to escape, and with his consent, madam

Whorewood (whom you knew very well, On this day, in the year 1649, king worthy esquire) came to receive my Charles I. was beheaded. In the Com- judgment, viz. In what quarter of this mon Prayer Book of the Church of Eng- nation he might be most safe, and not land, it is called “The Day of the Martyr- to be discovered until himself pleased. dom of the Blessed King Charles I.;" When she came to my door, I told and there is “ A Form of Prayer, with her I would not let her come into my Fasting, to be used yearly” upon its re- house, for I buried a maid-servant of the

plague very lately : however, up we The sheet, which received the head of went. After erection of my figure, I Charles I. after its decapitation, is care told her about twenty miles (or therefully preserved along with the commu- abouts) from London, and in Essex, I nion plate in the church of Ashburnham, in

was certain he might continue undisthis county; the blood, with which it has covered. She liked my judgment very been almost entirely covered, now appears well; and, being herself of a sharp judgnearly black. The watch of the unfor- ment, remembered a place in Essex about tunate monarch is also deposited with the that distance, where was an excellent linen, the movements of wh are still house, and all conveniences for his reperfect. These relics came into the pos- ception. Away she went, early next session of lord Ashburnham immediately morning, unto Hampton-court, to ae. after the death of the king.-Brighton quaint his majesty ; but see the misHerakl.

fortune: he, either guided by his own


approaching hard fate, or misguided by headed January 30, 1649. After the Ashburnham, went away in the night- execution, his body was carried to Windtime westward, and surrendered him- sor, and buried with Henry VIIIth, self to Hammond, in the Isle of Wight. in the same vault where his body was Whilst his majesty was at Hampton- lodged. Some, who saw him embowelled, court, alderman Adams sent his majesty affirm, had he not come unto this untimely one thousand pounds in gold, five hun- end, he might have lived, according unto dred whereof he gave to madam Whore- nature, even unto the height of old age. wood. I believe I had twenty pieces of Many have curiously inquired who it was that very gold for my share.” Lilly pro- that cut off his head: I have no permisceeds thus : “ His majesty being in sion to speak of such things; only thus Carisbrook-castle, in the Isle of Wight, much I say, he that did it is as valiant the Kentish men, in great numbers, rose and resolute a man as lives, and one of a in arms, and joined with the lord Gor- competent fortune. For my part, I do ing; a considerable number of the best believe he was not the worst, but the ships revolted from the parliament; the most unfortunate of kings.” citizens of London were forward to rise Lilly elsewhere relates, “that the next against the parliament; his majesty laid Sunday but one after Charles I. was tais design to escape out of prison, by beheaded, Robert Spavin, secretary unto Sawing the iron bar of his chamber win- lieutenant-general Cromwell at that time, dow; a small ship was provided, and invited himself to dine with me, and anchored not far from the castle to bring brought Anthony Pierson, and several him into Sussex ; horses were provided others, along with him to dinner. Their ready to carry him through Sussex into principal discourse all dinner-time was, Kent, that so he might be at the head of who it was beheaded the king: one said the army in Kent, and from thence to it was the common hangman; another, march immediately to London, where Hugh Peters; others also were nomithousands then would have armed for nated, but none concluded. Robert Spahim. The lady Whorewood came to me, vin, so soon as dinner was done, took me acquaints me herewith. I got G. Farmer by the hand, and carried me to the south (who was a most ingenious locksmith, window; saith he,‘These are all mistaken, and dwelt in Bow-lane) to make a saw they have not named the man that did to cut the iron bars in sunder, I mean to the fact; it was lieutenant-colonel Joice : saw them, and aqua fortis besides. His I was in the room when he fitted himself majesty in a small time did his work; for the work, stood behind him when he the bars gave liberty for him to go out; did it; when done, went in again with he was out with his body till he came to him. There is no man knows this but my his breast; but then his heart failing, he master, viz. Cromwell, commissary Ireproceeded no farther : when this was ton, and myself.'— Doth not Mr. Rushdiscovered, as soon after it was, he was worth know it?' said I. No, he doth narrowly looked after, and no oppor-' not know it,' saith Spavin. The same tunity after that could be devised to en- thing Spavin since hath often related

unto me when we were alone." Lilly goes on to say, “ kle was be

large him.”


SHROVE TUESDAY regulates most of the list, the introduction of which on the next moveable feasts. Shrove Tuesday itself page puts the reader in possession of seris the next after the first new moon in the viceable knowledge on this point, and month of February. If such new moon affords an opportunity for affirming, should happen on a Tuesday, the next that Mr. Nicolas's book contains a vaTuesday following is Shrove Tuesday. A riety of correct and valuable informarecently published volume furnishes a tion not elsewhere in a collected form:



Pentecost or Whit Sunday, is the fil

tieth day and seventh Sunday after

Easter day " Tables, Calendars, &c. for the use of His Quinquagesima Sunday, is so named

torians, Antiquaries, and the Legal Pro from its being about the fiftieth day fession, by N. H. Nicolas, Esq."

before Easter. It is also called Shrove Advent Sunday, is the nearest Sunday to Sunday.

the feast of St. Andrew, November Relick Sunday, is the third Sunday after 30th, whether before or after.

Midsummer-day. Ascension Day, or Holy Thursday, is the Rogation Sunday, is the fifth Sunday af

Thursday in Rogation week, i. e. the ter Easter day.

week following Rogation Sunday. Rogation Days are the Monday, Tuesday, Ash Wednesday, or the first day in lent, and Wednesday following Rogation is the day after Shrove Tuesday.

Sunday. Carle, or Care Sunday, or the fifth Sun Shrove Sunday, is the Sunday next be

day in lent, is the fifth Sunday after fore Shrove Tuesday. It is also called Shrove Tuesday.

Quinquagesima Sunday. Corpus Christi, or Body of Christ, is a

Septuagesima Sunday, so called from festival kept on the Thursday after its being about the seventieth day beTrinity Sunday; and was instituted in

fore Easter, is the third Sunday before the year 1264

Lent. Easter Day. The Paschal Sabbath. The

Sexagesima Sunday, is the second SunEucharist, or Lord's Supper, is the day before Lent, or the next to Shrove seventh Sunday after Shrove Tuesday, Sunday, so called as being about the and is always the first Sunday after sixtieth day before Easter. the first full moon, which happens on Trinity Sunday, or the Feast of the Holy or next after the 21st of March.

Trinity, is the next Sunday after PenEaster Monday

are the Monday and tecost or Whitsuntide. Easter Tuesday

Tuesday following Whit Sunday. See Pentecost.
Easter day.

Whit Monday

rare the Monday and Ember Days, are the Wednesdays, Fri

Whit Tuesday

Tuesday following days, and Saturdays, after the first Sun

Whit Sunday day in lent; after the Feast of Pente

IVhitsuntide, is the three days abovecost; after Holy-rood Day, or the Feast mentioned. of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, viz. 14th September; and after St. Lucia's day, viz. 15th December. The Vigil or Eve of a feast, is the day Ember Weeks, are those weeks in which before it occurs. Thus the Vigil of the the Ember days fall.

feast of St. John the Baptist is the 23d The Eucharist. See Easter day.

of June. If the feast-day falls upon a Good Friday, is the Friday in Passion Monday, then the Vigil or the Ève is Week, and the next Friday before Eas

kept upon the Saturday preceding. ter day.

The Morrow of a feast, is the day followHoly Thursday. See Ascension day.

ing: thus the feast of All Souls, is NoLent, a Fast from Ash Wednesday, to vember 2d, and the Morrow of All the Feast of Easter, viz. forty days.

Souls is consequently the 3d of NovemLord's Supper. See Easter day.

ber. Low Sunday, is the Sunday next after The Octave or Utas of each feast, is alEaster day.

ways the eighth day after it occurs ; Maunday Thursday, is the day before

for example, the feast of St. Hillary, is Good Friday.

the 13th of February, hence the Octave Midlent, or the fourth Sunday in Lent, is

of St. Hillary, is the 20th of that the fourth Sunday after Shrove Tues

month. day.

In the Octaves, means within the eight Palm Sunday, or the sixth Sunday in

days following any particular feast. Lent, is the sixth Sunday after Shrove

Paschal Sabbath. See Easter day.

Passion Week, is the week next ensuing
after Palm Sunday.

Is the ninth Sunday before Easter Sunday.

St. Se

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January 31.
Is the eighth Sunday before Easter.

King George IV. proclaimed. Holiday at the ExIs the seventh Sunday before Easter.


St. Peter Nolasco, A. D. 1258. Is the sixth Sunday before Easter, and

rapion, A. D. 1240. St. Cyrus and the first Sunday in Lent, which com

John. St. Marcella, A. D. 410. St. mences on Ash Wednesday.

Maidoc, or Maodhog, alias Aidar, “ The earliest term of Septuagesima otherwise Mogue, Bishop of Ferns, Sunday is the 18th of January, when

A. D. 1632. Easter day falls on the 22d of March ; the latest is the 22d of February, when

St. Peter Nolasco. Easter happens on the 25th of April ”

Butler. Ribadeneira relates, that on the 1st of Shepherd in his “Elucidation of the August 1216, the virgin Mary with a Book of Common Prayer” satisfactorily beautiful train of holy virgins appeared explains the origin of these days: to this saint at midnight, and signified

“When the words Septuagesima, Ser- it was the divine pleasure that a new agesima, and Quinquagesima were first order should be instituted under the applied to denote these three Sundays, title of Our Blessed Lady of Mercy, for the season of Lent had generally been the redemption of captives, and that extended to a fast of six weeks, that is, king James of Aragon had the same thirty-six days, not reckoning the Sun- vision at the same time, and “this order, days, which were always celebrated as

therefore, by divine revelation, festivals. At this time, likewise, the Sun- founded upon the 10th, or as others say, day which we call the first Sunday in upon the 23d of August.” Then St. Lent, was styled simply Quadragesima, Peter Nolasco begged for its support, or the fortieth, meaning the fortieth day and thereby rendered himself offensive before Easter. Quadragesima was also to the devil. For once taking up his the name given to Lent, and denoted the lodging in private, some of the neighQuadragesimal, or forty days' fast. When bours told him, that the master of the the three weeks before Quadragesima house, a man of evil report, had lately ceased to be considered as weeks after died, and the place had ever since been the Epiphany, and were appointed to be inhabited by " night spirits,” wherein observed as a time of preparation for he commended himself to the virgin and Lent, it was perfectly conformable to the other saints, and “instantly his admoniordinary mode of computation to reckon tors vanished away like smoke, leaving backwards, and for the sake of even and

an intolerable scent behind them." These round numbers to count by decades. of course were devils in disguise. Then The authors of this novel institution, and he passed the sea in his cloak, angels the compilers of the new proper offices, sung before him in the habit of his order, would naturally call the first Sunday be- and the virgin visited his monastery. fore Quadragesima, Quinquagesima; the One night he went into the church and second, Sexagesima; and the third, Sep- found the angels singing the service ‘uagesima. This reason corresponds instead of the monks; and at another rith the account that seems to be at pre- time seven stars fell from heaven, and on ent most generally adopted.”

digging the ground “there, they found a There is much difference of opinion as most devout image of our lady under a whether the fast of Lent lasted an

great bell,"—and so forth. ciently during forty days or forty hours.


Common Maidenhair. Asplenium tri-

ed to St. Martina.

Hartstongue. Asplenium Scolopendium.

Dedicated to St. Marcella,




Then came cold February, sitting
In an old waggon, for he could not ride,
Drawne of two fishes, for the season fitting,
Which through the flood before did softly slyde
And swim away; yet had he by his side
His plough and harnesse fit to till the ground,
And tooles to prune the trees, before the pride

Of hasting prime did make them burgeon round. Spenser. This month has Pisces or the fishes for In short, with whatsoe'er our hearts we hold its zodiacal sign. Numa, who was chosen Are purified, was Februa termed of old ; by the Roman people to succeed Ro- Lustrations are from hence, from hence the mulus as their king, and became their legislator, placed it the second in the Of this our month of February came; year, as it remains with us, and dedi- In which the priests of Pan processions made ; cated it to Neptune, the lord of waters. Of such as had no dirges when they died;

In which the tombs were also purified Its name is from the Februa, or Feralia,

For our religious fathers did maintain, sacrifices offered to the manes of the

Purgations expiated every stain gods at this season. Ovid in his Fasti of guilt and sin; from Greece the custoin attests the derivation :

came, In ancient times, purgations had the name

But here adopted by another name; Of Februa , various customs prove the same ;

The Grecians held that pure lustrations could The pontiffs from the rex and famen crave

Efface an impious deed, or guilt of blood A lock of wool; in former days they gave

Weak men; to think that water can make To wool the name of Februa.

clean A pliant branch cut from a lofty pine, A bloody crime, or any sinful stain. Which round the temples of the priests they

Massey's Ovid. twine,

Our Saxon ancestors, according to VerIs Februa called ; which if the priest demand, stegan, “called February Sprout-kele, by A branch of pine is put into his hand; kele meaning the kele-wurt, which we

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