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of a sand-bath. D. By a similar process from 87 parts of sulphuric acid, 100 of dried salt, and 124 of water. Sp. gr. of each, 1.160. ACIDUM HYDROCHLORICUM PURUM. [Ac. Muriaticum purum, E.] Take equal weights of pure muriate of soda (see Soda Murias Purum) well dried, sulphuric acid, and water. Put the salt into a glass retort, and add the sulphuric acid, previously mixed with a third of the water, and cooled. Fit on a receiver containing the rest of the water. Distil with a gentle heat as long as any acid passes over, keeping the receiver constantly cool. Density, 1.170. [Commercial hydrochloric acid sometimes contains arsenic, from which it may be freed by redistilling it with pieces of bright copper.]

ACIDUM HYDROCHLORICUM DILUTUM. L. Acidum muriaticum dilutum E. Hydrochloric acid f3iv, distilled water f 3xij, mix. The D. acid is much stronger, f3x of acid to f3xj of water. ACIDUM HYDROCYANICUM DILUTUM. L. Diluted or medicinal Prussic acid. Sulphuric acid 3iss, water f3iv; mix, and when cool, put them into a tubulated retort, and add ferro-cyanide of potassium 3ij dissolved in f3x of water. Pour f3viij of distilled water into the receiver; and having connected the retort (and adopter), distil f3vj with a gentle heat, keeping the receiver constantly cool. To the product add f3vj of distilled water, or q. s. that 12.7 grains of nitrate of silver, dissolved in water, may be accurately saturated by 100 grains of the diluted acid; indicating 2 per cent. of real hydrocyanic acid. Or it may be more quickly made from 48 grains of cyanide of silver, added to a mixture of 394 grains of hydrochloric acid and f3j of distilled water, and shaken together in a stopped phial; decanting the clear liquid when the sediment has subsided. [Dose, from 2 to 5 mg.]

ACIDUM HYDROCYANICUM. E. Ferro-cyanide of potassium 3iij, sulphuric acid f3ij, water f3xvj. Dissolve the salt in f3xj of water, add the acid mixed with f3v of water, and distil f3xiv. Add distilled water to the product to make up the measure exactly f3xvj. [Dose my j to iij.]

ACIDUM PRUSSICUM. D. Cyanuret (bicyanide) of mercury 3j, muriatic acid f3vij, water f3viij. From a glass retort, distil into a cooled receiver f3viij; to be kept in a well-stopped bottle, in a cool, dark place. This last direction should be observed with all the varieties of this acid. The D. acid contains

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1.5 or 1.6 per cent. of real acid. (Dr. KANE.) SCHEELE'S Prussic acid is frequently prescribed; but this name indicates no certain strength. (See Appendix 3.)

ACIDUM HYDROCYANICUM VEGETABILE. SCHRADER. Essential oil of bitter almonds 3j, rectified spirit 3ix, distilled water 3ix. [Dose, 2 to 3 drops, in sugared water.]

ACIDUM HYDROSULPHURICUM AQUA SOLUTUM. P. Pass a current of sulphuretted hydrogen gas (procured by acting on sulphuret of iron by diluted sulphuric acid) through cold distilled water, till it ceases to be absorbed.

ACIDUM IODICUM. M. BOURSON. Treat one part of iodine with four parts of strong nitric acid (sp. gr. 1·5) by the aid of a gentle heat. Evaporate to dryness, and leave the mass exposed to the air till it deliquesces. Then place it in a warm, dry place, till crystals form.

ACIDUM LACTICUM. To Ovj of milk add 3viij of bicarbonate of soda. Expose it to the air for some days, till it becomes sour, and saturate it with more soda. Repeat this as often as it becomes acid. Boil, filter, evaporate to the consistence of syrup, and digest with alcohol. Filter the solution, and add sulphuric acid as long as it occasions a precipitate. Again filter, and concentrate the clear solution by evaporation, till its density is about 1.215.


Meconic acid. Mix 3j meconate of lime (formed in making muriate of morphia by the E. process) with Oj of boiling water, and add 3iij of muriatic acid; redissolve the crystals, which the liquor deposits in cooling, in the same quantity of water and acid, till they are freed from lime. ACIDUM MURIATICUM. D. and E. See Acidum Hydrochloricum. ACIDUM NITRICUM. L. Distilled from equal weights of dry nitre, and oil of vitriol. Sp. gr. 1.500. The commercial acid is usually from 1.38 to 1.40.

ACIDUM NITRICUM PURUM. E. As the last; but the nitre is purified by two or more crystallizations, till its solution is no longer disturbed by nitrate of silver. The acid may be rendered colourless by gently heating it in a retort. The commercial acid may be concentrated by distilling it with an equal measure of oil of vitriol, until two-thirds of the nitric acid are brought Mr. REDWOOD.


ACIDUM NITRICUM DILUTUM. L. Nitric acid f3j, distilled water fix. E. 1841. Pure nitric acid f3j (or commercial n. acid f3j 3v), d. water f3ix. [The D. and former E. pharm. direct f3iij of acid to f3iv of water.]

ACIDUM NITROSUM. The red fuming nitric acid (nitric acid with nitrous acid gas) is so termed.

ACIDUM NITROSUM DILUTUM. L. 1788. Equal weights of nitrous acid and water. [Aqua Fortis is made of various strengths for different purposes in the arts. Dr. Pereira states, that the aqua fortis duplex of the shops has a sp. gr. of 1.36; aqua fortis simplex, of 1-22.]

ACIDUM NITRICUM ALCOHOLISATUM. P. Nitric acid, commercial, one part; rectified spirits, 3 parts. Mix. [Dose, 3ss.] ACIDUM NITRO-MURIATICUM. D. Nitro-hydrochloric acid. Aqua Regia. Nitric acid f3j, muriatic acid f3ij. Mix, and keep it in a dark place. [Dose, miij to iv.]

ACIDUM NITRO-MURIATICUM [NITRO-HYDROCHLORICUM] DILUTUM. Mid. H. Muriatic acid f3iij, nitric acid f3ij, water f3v. [Dose, my v to viij; but chiefly used for making the acid bath. See Balneum Acidum.]

ACIDUM OXALICUM. Acid of Sugar. Put into a glass or earthen retort equal weights of bruised sugar and nitric acid (sp. gr. 1-286). Connect with an adopter, and a receiver furnished with a tube to convey the vapours into a chimney. Heat moderately, till the vapours cease. The next day, remove and drain the crystals, and concentrate the residual liquor for more. Purify them by crystallization. Potato starch is economically substituted for sugar. Poisonous. Antidote; chalk, whiting, or magnesia. ACIDUM PHOSPHORICUM DILUTUM. L. Mix nitric acid f3iv, with distilled water f3x; put them into a glass retort placed in a sand-bath, add 3j of phosphorus, and apply heat till f3viij have distilled. Return these into the retort, and again distil f3viij, which are to be thrown away. Evaporate what remains in the retort in a platina capsule to f3ij f3vj; and add to the acid, when cooled, sufficient distilled water to make up f3xxviij. [It contains about 10 per cent. of real P. acid. Dose, from my x to f3ss, properly diluted.]

ACIDUM PICIS. Crude Pyroligneous Acid.



ACIDUM PYROLIGNEUM. E. An impure acetic acid procured by the destructive distillation of wood. Sp. gr. 1.034. 100 grains neutralize 53 of carb. soda.


Saccharic acid is obtained by accurately decomposing saccharate of barytes by sulphuric acid.

ACIDUM SUCCINICUM. D. Acid, or Salt of Amber.

Mix amber with its weight of sand, and distil. Press the crystals in bibulous paper, and resublime. Dose, 4 to 12 or 15 grains.

ACIDUM SULPHURICUM PURUM. E. & D. The commercial acid purified by distillation in glass, rejecting the first 12th or 16th part. [No luting, or corks, should be used. A few strips of platinum in the retort will moderate the ebullition. "Sulphuric acid may be freed from nitrous acid, by heating f3viij with 10 or 15 grs. of sugar." E. A little sulphuret of barium, in solution, will remove the metallic impurities.] ACIDUM SULPUHRICUM DILUTUM. L. Spirit of Vitriol. f3xivss of distilled water, add gradually f3iss of sulphuric acid, and mix. E. directs f 3j of acid to f3 xiij of water. D. One part by weight of acid to 7 of water. Dose, mg x to xxx, properly diluted.


ACIDUM SULPHURICUM ALCOHOLISATUM. P. Eau de Rabel. Add gradually 1 part of sulphuric acid to 3 parts of rectified spirit, by weight. [From 3ss to 3j to Oij of water as an acidulous drink. Externally as an escharotic. It is sometimes coloured with cochineal.]

ACIDUM SULPHURICUM AROMATICUM. E. Elixir of Vitriol. Sulphuric acid f3iijss, rectified spirit Oiss, cinnamon bruised. 3iss, ginger bruised 3j. Digest for 6 days and strain. L. 1746, directs iv, by weight, of sulphuric acid, to be added to f3xvj of compound tincture of cinnamon. Dose, my v to xv. ACIDUM SULPHYDRICUM (HYDROSULPHURICUM) AQUA SOLUTUM. P. Cold water fully saturated with sulphuretted hydrogen gas, procured from sulphuret of iron, and dil. sulphuric acid. ACIDUM SULPHUROSUM AQUA SOLUTUM. P. Sulphurous acid gas (procured by gently heating 3 parts of sulphuric acid with 2 of quicksilver, in a glass matrass) is to be conveyed, first through a very little water to purify the gas, and then into the water to be charged, till the latter is fully saturated. A Woolfe's apparatus should be used, with a tube passing from. the last bottle into a vessel of moistened chalk, to absorb the excess of gas.

ACIDUM TANNICUM. U. S. Tannin or Tannic Acid. Cause washed æther to percolate through powdered nut-galls, in a glass adopter, closed at the lower end with carded cotton. The liquor obtained divides into two portions; pour off the upper layer, and evaporate the denser liquid to obtain the acid. [Astringent. Dose, from 1 to 3 grains.]

ACIDUM TARTARICUM. L. Bitartrate of potash Ibiv, boiling distilled water Ciiss, prepared chalk 3xxv, diluted sulphuric acid Ovij f3xvij, hydrochloric acid f3xxviss, or q. s. Boil the bitartrate with Cij of water, and add gradually half the chalk; afterwards add the rest of the chalk previously dissolved in the hydrochloric acid, and the remaining water. When settled, pour away the clear liquid, and wash the precipitate with distilled water till it is tasteless; then pour on it the diluted sulphuric acid, boil for a quarter of an hour, strain, and evaporate the clear liquor, that crystals may form. Redissolve the crystals, filter, concentrate the solution, and set it aside to crystallize. Repeat this till the crystals become colourless. E. Substantially the same. D. directs 10 parts of the bitartrate, 4 of chalk, 7 of sulphuric acid, 120 of water, and q. s. water of muriate of lime.


Distil not

less than 40lbs. of valerian root, with 8 times its weight of distilled or rain water; collect the oil in a separatory, continuing the distillation as long as the water is decidedly acid. Agitate the oil with milk of lime, which takes up the acid which it contains; nearly saturate the acid water by milk of lime (first adding that already used, and then fresh); and lastly, add lime water in excess. Concentrate the solution till a pellicle appears, and when cold decompose it by nitric acid in a long narrow flask with a ground stopper; decant the valerianic acid which floats on the surface of the liquid, and distil it with a gentle heat till the distilled liquid ceases to be oily. [Several methods of increasing the product of acid have been proposed: as boiling the root with carbonate of soda, and distilling the decoction with an excess of sulphuric acid; also by exposing the distilled water to the air; or treating it with chromic acid. See Zinci Valerianas. The addition of acids to the root in the still contaminates the product with formic and acetic acids.]

ACONITINA. L. Take of monkshood root, dried and bruised Ibij; boil it in three successive gallons of rectified spirit for an hour, in a retort connected with a cooled receiver, pouring off the

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