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in the classified grades, from 1961 to 1962, is pointed out by reports from specific areas.

Significantly, Los Angeles revealed an increase for Spanish-surname employing in the classified grades from 270 in 1961 to 324 in 1962, or 20 percent; whereas total employment increased from 12,749 in 1961 to 13,199 in 1962, or 3.5 percent. In the middle grades, GS-5 through 11, the increase was from 119 to 169, or 42 percent, against a total employment increase from 6,188 in 1961 to 6,395 in 1962, or 3.3 percent.

In Atlanta, Negro employment in the middle grades, GS-5 through 11, increased from 23 in 1961 to 32 in 1962, or 39.1 percent; whereas, the total employment increase was 7.4 percent. St. Louis revealed an increase for Negroes in these middle grades from 475 to 604, or 27.2 percent, against a total employment increase from 7,301 to 7,810, or 7.0 percent. Significant gains for Negroes in grades 12 through 18 were revealed in all areas covered, particularly Philadelphia, where the gain was from 55 in 1961 to 81 in 1962 or 47.3 percent, against a total change from 4,536 in 1961 to 5,584 in 1962, or 23.1 percent. St. Louis revealed an increase in the upper grades, 12 through 18, from 6 to 8 or 33.3 percent against a total increase from 1,268 to 1,383, or 9.1 percent. In New York, there was an increase of 32 Negroes in grades 12-18, for a 25 percent gain, compared to a total increase of 1,037 for a 10.8 percent gain. It must be stressed that the primary purpose of these meetings was to assist the participating agencies in developing their affirmative action programs. Statistical information was gathered in order to indicate the general pattern of minority

red between meetings. This gave an objective basis from which to discuss why the pattern was as described, whether a satisfactory local effort was being made, and what additional steps could be taken. The objective of the Committee in these meetings was to give on-the-spot aid to local Federal offices and installations in their efforts to assure equal employment opportunity for all applicants and employees. By covering further areas of higher government employment, this assistance was directed specifically to the field services.

Agency Capability Development

Through Committee help, the capabilities of agencies to carry out the Executive Order have been greatly increased. All Federal Agencies have had some basic orientation for assuring agency proficiency in fulfilling the intent of the Order. To do this, the Committee has conducted or aided in several major training programs on equal employment opportunity in which either all agencies or several agencies participated.

Departments and agencies employing more than 4% of all Government employees have had special training programs in equal employment opportunity. Individual specialized training courses aimed at reaching all personnel responsible for department and agency equal employment opportunity programs have been given by some departments and agencies using the resources of the Committee. Departments participating in such individual specialized training programs included: Department of the Army, Department of the Air Force, Department of the Navy, Department of Agriculture, the Post Office Department, and the

TABLE 1. Change in Negro and total Federal employment as reported by agencies participating in regional followup meeting

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1 Similar information was obtained on other minorities where they are a significant part of the labor force.

sions were from 1 to 3 days in length.

In addition, the Office of Career Development, U.S. Civil Service Commission, conducted a 3-day equal employment training session for 11 middlesized departments and agencies. Committee staff served as consultants and resource people. The 11 departments and agencies participating were: Department of Justice, Department of Labor, Department of Commerce, Department of State, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Housing and Home Finance Agency, Atomic Energy Commission, U.S. Information Agency, Civil Service Commission and Agency for International Development.

and agency field personnel responsible for final execution of the Order, regional training sessions have been held by the Committee in 14 major cities having large concentrations of Federal employees as described earlier.

Department and agency personnel so trained aid the Employment Policy Officer in carrying out agency responsibility under the Executive Order. The agencies also have engaged staff personnel to work on their equal employment opportunity programs. The assigning of special personnel to handle the equal employment program has enabled these agencies both to expedite complaint processing and insure equal employment opportunity with growing effectiveness.

CHAPTER SIX

Government Employment Census

Prior to the issuance of Executive Order 10925, the belief was widely held that minority group employees of the Federal Government, particularly Negro employees, were denied equal opportunity in employment. No accurate measure existed, however, of the extent of such alleged discrimination.

Accordingly, the late President Kennedy included in his Order instructions to conduct a government-wide survey of employees to provide statistics on current employment patterns. By direction of the Committee, that survey was made as of June, 1961. It was repeated in June, 1962, and June, 1963.

The results of the 1961 survey bore out in large measure the contention that Negroes were being denied equal access to employment opportunity. And it provided the Committee and the agencies with the necessary information for undertaking programs to insure equal opportunity. Among the findings in 1961:

-While Negroes held 8.9 percent of the 1,012,447 Classification Act or similar positions, 72 percent of their jobs were concentrated in the lower level of GS-1 through GS-4 where the starting salary range was from $3,185 to $4,985. Only 35 percent of all employees were in this job bracket.

-Only 27 percent of the Negroes in Classification Act or similar systems held jobs in the middle range of positions, GS-5 through GS-11 (salary range, $4,345 to $9,640), while 50 percent of all employees held jobs in this bracket.

-Only 1 percent of the positions from GS-12 through GS-18 ($8,955 to $18,500) were held by Negroes.

In the Postal Field Service, the situation was similar-the great bulk of the Negroes concentrated in the lower grades, disproportionately small numbers in middle and upper grades.

Even before the survey figures were available, however, the Committee and the various agencies

had undertaken programs to insure equal opportunity in Government employment. By the time of the second annual survey of Government employment in June, 1962, the Committee was able to report substantial progress toward equal opportunity for Negroes in Federal employment (see tables).

Some Highlights:

-The percentage of Negro Federal employees in Classification Act jobs in Grades 1-4 dropped from 72 percent to 68 percent while the number in the middle level GS-5 through GS-11 positions climbed from 27 percent to 30 percent.

-Of the net increase of 62,633 jobs from June, 1961, to June, 1962, Negroes accounted for 10,737 or more than 17 percent.

-In Classification Act jobs, Negro employment in the middle grades, GS-5 through GS11, increased 19.2 percent compared with an overall increase of 2.4 percent, while in the upper grades, GS-12 through GS-18, the increase of Negroes was 35.6 percent compared with an overall increase of 9.5 percent.

The second and third surveys also provided information (not obtained in the 1961 census) on employment of the Spanish-speaking nationwide; of people of Mexican origin in five southwestern states; of people of Puerto Rican origin in four northeastern states; of people of Oriental origin in three western states, and of American Indians in seven states.

Since this survey was the first to cover the additional minority groups, there was no basis for comparison as to progress being made, but the picture presented was similar, although to varying degrees, to the picture of Negro employment (see tables). This material is still being tabulated for the 1963 census.

At the time this report was being prepared, only

third census. What was available, however, showed that sound and steady progress was still being made.

Some Highlights:

-Twenty-two percent of the net increase in Federal employment during the period represented increased Negro employment. This compares to 17 percent for the previous census period.

-This net increase brings total reported Negro employment to a new high of 301,899-up 3 percent from 293,353 in June, 1962. The cumulative percentage increase from June, 1961, to June, 1963, amounted to 6.8 percent.

-There were 545 more Negroes in the grades GS-12 through GS-18 (paying $9,475 to $20,000) than there were a year earlier, an increase of 38.7 percent. The total number of jobs in these grades increased 12.4 percent during the same period.

-Negroes in the middle grades (GS-5-GS11) increased by 4,278, or 14.7 percent, while total employment in these grades increased 5.1 percent.

-The number of Negroes in Wage Board positions paying more than $8,000 increased by 183, or 122 percent, while the total number of these positions increased 41.5 percent.

-In the Postal Field Service, the number of Negroes in higher paying positions increased

total number of such jobs (see tables for further details).

These annual surveys provide the Committee. and the agencies with the necessary information for effective operation of equal opportunity programs. The statistics pinpoint areas and facilities where special efforts need to be made. They call the attention of administrators to areas in their jurisdiction where equal opportunity may be lacking, and they provide the basis for the development of affirmative action efforts to insure equal opportunity.

It is recognized that encouraging national figures do not always accurately reflect local situations. For that reason, and as a supplement to the census reports, the Civil Service Commission has instituted a series of continuous community surveys of Federal facilities.

These surveys last from 2 to 3 weeks and cover all personnel activities of each Government agency in the community being surveyed.

Programs to improve the activities of each agency are developed and then carefully followed through, with help from the local community.

One of the objectives of these surveys is to assure the community residents that all qualified persons will receive equal opportunity with the Federal Government and to demonstrate to them that the Government provides a good place for career advancement.

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