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societies called Calvinistic or his subjects, yet the decency of Reformed. The King himself his private conduct merits praise, professes this creed. It has in- and is certainly, in every point deed been the profession of the of view, far more beneficial than royal family for several reigns. the dazzling but pernicious exThe great Elector, it was said, amples of some of his predeces. when upon a visit to his son-in-sors. At Potsdam, he regularlaw, the Prince of Orange, in ly attends the institutions of Hollar:), was so struck with the public worship, and joins in the simplicity and purity of the Cal- | communion service once in the vinistic and Presbyterian wor- year. Too many of his courship of that country, that he re- | tiers and officers retain the unsolved to en:bracé it himsef, happy impressions of the former and to recommend or promote reigns ; but there are also some its adoption in his own territo who exhibit better principles, rics.

and shew a sinceze regard to A sad decline, since that peri sound faith and good morals. od, has fatally appeared in the Of the Calvinistic and reformaspect of religious opinions and ed profession of faith, there are manners in the Prussian states. many churches at Berlin, and Frederick, so little entitled, in the states arcund, where the their just sense, to the names service is performed either in which the world lavished upon the Cerman or the French lanhim with its usual blindness, the guages. The revocation of the Great and Protestant Hero, em | Edict of Nantz drove many ployed every insiduous art, and French Protestant refugees to indeed avouched and avowed a seek shelter in this country, and purpose, to undermine or ex- | to enrich or adorn it with their tinguish all religion in his king- industrious habits and salutary dom. Frederick William, his principles. Among the pastors successor, as a judicious profus- of these, the names of Abbadie, sor, has remarked, effected, if | Lenfant, Beausobre, Formey, possible, more injury to religion Ancillon, are well known, and than his predecessor. For he | long celebritid. The venerable scmetimes professed to be de-Erman is at pirsent their sonior vout, and published edicts to en- pastor, entitled the Dean of their force the interests of religion ; | College, and presides over a but thic open irregularities of his most uraiul suminary of educa. life, not only counteracted his ' tion under that name. In this professed designs, but brought college, many students, both of them, with himself into co- | French and German extraction, tempt. The present Kings is are taught t'c principles of useregular and decent in his ran- ful knowlerse, classical litera.duct; demestic and retired in his iure, mathematis, logic, moral manner of life, but disslayirg and natural philosophy, biblical no energy to promotc an esseneciiticism and trcolory. Candi. tial reformaticn in the manners dites forihe cffice of the minis. of his people, or to restore the try are strictly examined in cignity and active infierce of public, in the latin and I'rench religion. Though 'e is, ir | lang iyages, anrisumetimes in sume respects, unpopular among 'the (erinan, up on their progress

and attainments, twice in the has afforded. The sovereign Disyear. The King shews much poser of all events still may orattention, and reposes great confi- dain good out of evil, confound dence in Erman, the Dean. the projects of his foes by the

It would be tedious to detail very issue of their own devices, the peculiar state of the other and cause the subtilty of sophists, provinces and chief towns of the persecution of tyrants, Germany. Through the whole whether democratic or despotic, Empire, the influence of the Po-, the frenzy or the impotence, pish church is greatly enfee the power, or even the wrath of bled, the institutions of the Pro- man, to render him praise. testant religion more extensive In Germany, the aspect of rely respected, and, in some dis-ligion is undoubtedly more fatricts, well disposed and devout | vorable than it was before the men of other denominations, convulsions of the French revoMoravians, Baptists and Inde- | lution. Before that frightful, pendents, exert their labours to | but instructive period, the charpromote or revive the influence acter of the princes, the labours of religion.

of the sophist, the effusions of It is a singular circumstance the poets, the temper of the in the strange revolutions of the universities, the prejudices of age, that even in the adjusting the people, were all hostile, not of the proposed indemnities in only to sound principles and Germany, many Popish juris- pure morals, but even to the dictions and institutions have | genuine philosophy, solid learnbeen overthrown, the number of ing and good taste. These fatal Protestant states and voters in sources of corruption, though in the Diet of the Empire have part checked, are by no means been greatly increased ; and a radically removed. One great probability appears, that at some cause of error in opinion, and future period, a Protestant Em- laxity in practice, among even peror may rule in Germany. the Protestant clergy of Germa

From the striking alteration ny, springs from the same ori. in the current of public opinion | gin which engendered most of resulting from the horrors of the heresies of the first ages of the French revolution, from the Christianity. It was the pride conduct and obvious interests of of reason, the affectation or the the present rulers of the Con- prejudice of a false philosophy. tinent, from the peculiar cir- Right reason, genuine wisdom, cumstances of the nations a- happily accord with pure reliround, from the disgrace of so- gion; and, in the scriptures phistry, and the prevalence of themselves, are employed as religious toleration and dispas- synonymous terms. The minds sionate respectful enquiry into of a Socrates, or a Newton, the claims and doctrines of would readily have been impelChristianity, more animating led to revere the doctrines of prospects, perhaps, may be en- the gospel ; and, in favorable tertained of a more extensive circumstances, might have been reception of a sound and primi-led to display their power. tive religion, than any former The minds of modern sophists period since the Reformation | exhibit very different tempers, as well as talents. The systems of religion, nothing can be so of what is called speculative, or absurd as this affectation of phimetaphysical philosophy, form, losophy, even where the system at bèst, but a series of roman- adopted is otherwise inoffences. When these involve no sive. Abstract metaphysicks, pernicious principles, and lead or researches, in their proper to no dangerous practice, they place, may amuse inquisitive may be regarded as innocuous and studious minds : But meta. in themselves, or amusing exer- physical sermons, affected speccises to the human understand-ulative discussions, are the scorn ing : But unhappily, like other of the wise, an insult to the romances, they are prone to en-hearers, and a mockery of reli. gross too much the mind, dis- gion. When philosophy atturb the imagination, and agi-tempts to graft its theories upon tate the passions. When their religion; heresy, absurdity and principles are false, and their delusion will appear as the fruits. tendency pernicious, their ef- Iu Germany, the desire to acfects must prove still more fatal comodate religion to the philosly destructive. Such have been ophy of the day, at one time, the character and effects of many seemed to have effaced from the modern speculations of pretend- | discourses of the clergy, in maed philosophy. In Germany, ny places, every vestige and fea. systems and theories, called ture of the gospel of Christ. philosophical, often of extreme | The sophists themselves laugh absurdity, inconsistence, or con- at such philosophising divines, trariety, have succeeded each the people desert them in hope. other with amazing rapidity. less indfference; they are left to The spirit of sophistry, the aro- brood in their swelling imaginagance of dogmatism, or propen- tions over the solace of their cold sities to sceptism have thus dreams ; and religion, like a been widely fostered. It was blasted tree, seems to wither at the fashion for princes and sub- their touch. In Germany, the jects to affect to be philosophers. tendency of such infatuation is The clergy, forgetting the dig- now, in part, perceived even in nity of their offices, the immuta- courts and universities : In the ble sanctity of religion, and firm country, and among the people, features of divine truth, yielded it never was so widely spread. to the same infatuation. To Even the more formidable alplease speculating princes, to arms which have been excited accommodate themselves to 80- | from the pernicious projects of phisticated universities, or to in- masonic conspirators, illuminati, dulge the natural pride of the and confederated sophists, have human mind, many of them af- | only been confined to a narrow fected to be philosophical preach-circle, though intended to diffuse ers. As the philosophy of the ruin and convulsions to the widay was so perverted or perni-dest range. Happily, the procious, it may easily be conceived jects are unknown, and the poi. how foul was the taint of its im- son untasted, through the great pression on the features of their mass of the people. Happily, sermons, and the spirit of their through the good providence of character. In the ministrations' God, we can now hail more fa.. rouråble prospects of the state | mach reverence for its doctrines and reception of religion. and institutions, and great atten.

The condition and circum- tion to the right education of stances of the United Provinces, their children, and discipline of widely differ from those of Ger- their families. The clergy dismany. Insulated by their limits, play striking examples of Prestheir language, their interests, byterian simplicity and stricto their habits, from the rest of Eu- ness of manners : They, in genrope, they admit innovations eral, are learned in the sciences more tardily, and retain their that pertain to their profession, customs, and other principles exemplary in their conduct, reg. with more pertinacity or firm ular, and even strict in their atness. The Protestant religion tention to their duties, and often in a very simple and salutary zealous in their performance. form, has long been established | Irom the recent innovations of in this country. Perhaps, it has | the French in Holland, the cleras little degenerated from its ori gy have suffered considerably. ginal constitution, as in any oth- | In Amsterdam, eight Pastors er region of Europe.--There were driven from their churches, are, indeed, many Roman Cath- because they refused their oaths olics in Holland. There is a to the new constitution, and, to multitude of Jews in Amster- | the deep regret of the people, dam. The Mennonites still are who still seek their ministrafound in considerable numbers, tions, were supplanted by others, especially at Haerlem. All who are regarded with indiffer. sects are tolerated : and, from ence or contempt. the freedom of the press, books of infidelity and scepticism have,

The constitution of the church in former times, often been prin

is Presbyterian ; the doctrines

are Calvinistic, and are generalted in Holland, which could not find publishers in any other

ly taught not nominally, inerely,

but explicitly ; the discipline is country : But these books were

strict and regularly exercised. soon scattered to other quarters, and received but little encour

Their mode of worship is like

that of the Scots church, simple agement in the Provinces them- ! selves. It is not the delusions

and primitive, and generally fer

vent, interesting, and well attenof sophistry, the vices of courts,

ded. They, however, admit orfor the seductions of poetry, that

gans into their churches, of can be supposed to pervert the

which, that at llaerlem, is reckDutch. The temptations which

oned the finest in the world. unavoidably attend extensive

At Rotterdam, they are at prescommerce, and an unceasing

ent erecting an organ, valued at pursuit of gain, are asserted to

20,000). sterling. have rather marked the unfa

Freedoms

and levities appear in some towns vourable features of their char

upon the Sabbath, which once acter. But, however prevalent

were regarded with abhorrence these may be among the richer

in Scotland : but which, if sufclasses, they effect little the

fered to increase, will do more great body of the people. A. mong these are still found many

harm there than in Holland ; bo

cause regarded as a departure kaappy effects of a pure religion ; 10

from all religion, which is not elements, principles, and forms, the sentiment of the Dutch. are rigidly exacted of the young,

The universities of the United and respected with seeming revProvinces have been long deem | erence by all ages. Some inteled very pure seminaries of edu- ligent and devout Christians cation, highly respectable for who reside in the country, affirm learning, piety and discipline, that, as the Dutch are singularand particularly attentive to ly cleanly in their mode of life, those sciences which are connc- yet often very indelicate in their ted with theology. They have actions ; so while they are riproduced many eminent divines gidly attentive to the form, they and profound scholars. Class- are often sadly estranged from ical literature, the oriental lan- the power of godliness. This, guages, biblical criticism, syst- however, is a censure, that unematic theology, have been cul- happily may be applied to every tivated in them with peculiar country where the institutions of ardóur and success. Theology | religion have been generally inis the only science which can, troduced, and long familiar. with just claims, be taught syn- | But contemptible as mere forms thetically. A revelation from are in themselves, they are yet God, if rightly understood, must highly useful in human society, be fixed and immutable in its and even in the church of Christ. doctrines. The Dutch seem to And where the forms are in act upon this principle ; and are themselves good, many subtanremarkably steady in their at- tial advantages may flow from tachment to the creed they pro- their observance ; though, from fess. Happily for them, that the infirmities of human nature, creed is scriptural, simple and they are ever liable to be abused. sound. Their steadfastness to | But God even connects his blesthe religion of their forefathers sing with the external ordinanis wise and safe. In other sci- / ces and means of grace, which ences, which boast no such au- he presciibes. It may be trustthority, and are to be studied in ed, that they are not so frequenta different manner, this unbend- / ly seperated in Holland. ing disposition might not merit! The religious institutions of so much praise : as when, in the Protestant cantons of Swittheir medical institutions, theyzerland, are similar to those of will permit no man to be wiser | Holland. Their admired simthan their countryman Boer- plicity of manners and purity of haave, or to contradict his principle, were represented, as aphorisms.

having suffered melancholy It is remarkable, that in so abatements, even before the small a state, there are no less late convulsions which have disthan five universities, besides tracted that unhappy country. inferior colleges, academies, and still the impressions of the good excellent schools, in every town seed cown, and advantages forof note. Of the reformed Cal- | merly possessed, are not effaccd, vinistic church, there are 1570 and amidst their mountains are preachers : literature, and the yet found cxamples of primitive knowledge of religicn, are thus piety, discipline and zcal. very generally diffused. Their From the most recent War

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