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but the government does not at prefent, whatever it may have done in former times, hire people to become fettlers, by paying their paffages, giving land, negroes, utenfils, ftock, or any other kind of emolument whatsoever. In fhort, America is the land of labour, and by no means what the English call Lubberland, and the French Pays de Cocagne, where the streets are faid to be paved with half-peck loaves, the houses tiled with pancakes, and where the fowls fly about ready roafted, crying, Come eat me!
Who then are the kind of perfons to whom an emigration to America may be advantageous? And what are the advantages they may reafonably expect?
Land being cheap in that country, from the vaft forefts ftill void of inhabitants, and not likely to be occupied in an age to come, infomuch that the propriety of an hundred acres of fertile foil full of wood may be obtained near the frontiers, in many places, for eight or ten guineas, hearty young labouring men, who understand the hufbandry of corn and cattle, which is nearly the fame in that country as in Europe, may easily eftablish themselves there. A little money faved of the good wages they receive there while they work for others, enables them to buy the land and begin their plantation, in which they are affifted by the good-will of their neighbours, and fome credit. Multitudes of poor people from England, Ireland, Scotland, and Germany, have by this means in a few years become wealthy farmers, who in their own countries, where all the lands are fully occupied, and the wages of labour low, could never have emerged from the mean condition wherein they were born.
From the falubrity of the air, the healthiness of the climate, the plenty of good provifions,
and the encouragement to early marriages, by the certainty of fubfiftence in cultivating the earth, the increase of inhabitants by natural generation is very rapid in America, and becomes ftill more fo by the acceffion of ftrangers; hence there is a continual demand for more artifans of all the neceffary and useful kinds, to supply those cultivators of the earth with houses, and with furniture and utensils of the groffer forts, which cannot fo well be brought from Europe. Tolerably good workmen in any of thofe mechanic arts, are fure to find employ, and to be well paid for their work, there being no reftraints preventing ftrangers from exercifing any art they underftand, nor any permiffion neceffary. If they are poor, they begin firft as fervants or journeymen; and if they are fober, induftrious, and frugal, they foon become mafters, establish themfelves in bufinefs, marry, raife families, and become refpectable citizens.
Alfo, perfons of moderate fortunes and capitals, who having a number of children to provide for, are defirous of bringing them up to induftry, and to fecure eftates for their pofterity, have opportunities of doing it in America, which Europe does not afford. There they may be taught and practise profitable mechanic arts, without incurring difgrace on that account; but on the contrary acquiring refpect by fuch abilities. There finall capitals laid out in lands, which daily become more valuable by the increase of people, afford a folid profpect of ample fortunes thereafter for thofe children. The writer of this has known feveral inftances of large tracts of land, bought on what was then the frontier of Pennfylvania, for ten pounds per hundred acres, which, after twenty years, when the fettlements had been extended far beyond them,
fold readily, without any improvement made upon them for three pounds per acre. The acre in America is the fame with the English acre, or the acre of Normandy.
Thofe who defire to understand the state of government in America, would do well to read the conftitutions of the feveral ftates, and the articles of confederation that bind the whole together for general purpofes, under the direction of one affembly, called the Congrefs. These constitutions have been printed, by order of Congress, in America; two editions of them have alfo been printed in London; and a good tranflation of them into French, has lately been published at Paris.
Several of the princes of Europe having of late, from an opinion of advantage to arife by producing all commodities and manufactures within their own dominions, fo as to diminish or render ufelefs their importations, have endeavoured to entice workmen from other countries, by high falaries, privileges, &c. Many perfons pretending to be killed in various great manufactures, imagining that America must be in want of them, and that the Congress would probably be difpofed to imitate the princes above mentioned, have proposed to go over, on con dition of having their paffages paid, lands given, falaries appointed, exclufive privileges for terms of years, &c. Such perfons, on reading the articles of confederation, will find that the Congrefs have no power committed to them, or money put into their hands, for fuch purposes; and that if any fuch encouragement is given, it must be by the government of fome feparate ftate. This, however, has rarely been done in America; and when it has been done, it has rarely fucceeded, fo as to establish a manu
facture, which the country was not yet fo ripe for as to encourage private perfons to fet it up; labour being generally too dear there, and hands difficult to be kept together, every one defiring to be a mafter, and the cheapnefs of land inclining many to leave trades for agriculture. Some indeed have met with fuccefs, and are carried on to advantage; but they are generally fuch as require only a few hands, or wherein great part of the work is performed by machines. Goods that are bulky, and of fo fmall value as not well to bear the expence of freight, may often be made cheaper in the country than they can be imported; and the manufacture of fuch goods will be profitable wherever there is a fufficient demand. The farmers in America produce indeed a good deal of wool and flax; and none is exported, it is all worked up; but it is in the way of domestic manufacture, for the use of the family. The buying up quantities of wool and flax, with the defign to employ fpinners, weavers, &c. and form great establishments, producing quantities of linen and woollen goods for fale, has been feveral times attempted in different provinces; but those projects have generally failed, goods of equal value being imported cheaper. And when the governments have been folicited to fupport fuch schemes by encouragements, in money, or by impofing duties on importation of such goods, it has been generally refused, on this principle, that if the country is ripe for the manufacture, it may be carried on by private perfons to advantage; and if not, it is a folly to think of forcing nature. Great establishments of manufacture, require great numbers of poor to do the work for fmall wages; thofe poor are to be found in Europe, but will not be found in America, till the lands are all taken up and cultivated, and the excefs
excefs of people who cannot get land want employment. The manufacture of filk, they fay, is natural in France, as that of cloth in England, because each country produces in plenty the first material but if England will have a manufacture of filk as well as that of cloth, and France of cloth. as well as that of filk, these unnatural operations must be supported by mutual prohibitions, or high duties on the importation of each other's goods; by which means the workmen are enabled to tax the home confumer by greater prices, while the higher wages they receive make them neither happier nor richer, fince they only drink more and work lefs. Therefore the governments in America do nothing to encourage fuch projects. The people, by this means, are not imposed on either by the merchant or mechanic: if the merchant demands too much profit on imported fhoes, they buy of the fhoemaker; and if he afks too high a price, they take them of the merchant: thus the two profeffions are checks on each other. The fhoemaker, however, has, on the whole, a confiderable profit upon his labour in America, beyond what he had in Europe, as he can add to his price a fum nearly equal to all the expences of freight and commiffion, rifque or insurance, &c. neceffarily charged by the merchant. And the cafe is the fame with the workmen in every other mechanic art. Hence it is, that artifans generally live better and more easily in America than in Europe; and fuch as are good œconomists make a comfortable provifion for age, and for their children. Such may, therefore, remove with advantage to America.
In the old long-fettled countries of Europe, all arts, trades, profeffions, farms, &c. are fo full, that it is difficult for a poor man who has children to place them where they may gain, or learn to