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adorning ourselves with fine clothes, poffeffing fine furniture, with elegant houfes, &c. is not, by strongly inciting to labour and industry, the occafion of producing a greater value than is confumed in the gratification of that defire.

The agriculture and fifheries of the United States are the great fources of our increasing wealth. He that puts a feed into the earth is recompenced, perhaps, by receiving forty out of it; and he who draws a fifh out of our water, draws up a piece of filver.

Let us (and there is no doubt but we shall) be attentive to these, and then the power of rivals, with all their reftraining and prohibiting acts, cannot much hurt us. We are fons of the earth and feas, and, like Antæus in the fable, if in wrestling with a Hercules we now and then receive a fall, the touch of our parents will communicate to us fresh ftrength and vigour to renew the conteft.

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MANY perfons in Europe having, directly or by letters, expreffed to the writer of this, who is well acquainted with North-America, their de fire of transporting and establishing themselves in that country; but who appear to him to have formed, through ignorance, miftaken ideas and expectations of what is to be obtained there; he thinks it may be useful, and prevent inconvenient, expenfive, and fruitlefs removals and voyages of improper perfons, if he gives fome clearer and truer notions of that part of the world than appear to have hitherto prevailed.

He finds it is imagined by numbers, that the inhabitants of North-America are rich, capable of rewarding, and difpofed to reward, all forts of ingenuity; that they are at the fame time. ignorant of all the fciences, and confequently that ftrangers, poffeffing talents in the belleslettres, fine arts, &c. muft be highly efteemed, and fo well paid as to become easily rich them, felves; that there are alfo abundance of profitable offices to be difpofed of, which the natives are not qualified to fill; and that having few perfons of family among them, ftrangers of birth must be greatly refpected, and of course easily obtain the best of those offices, which will make all their fortunes: that the governments too, to encourage emigrations from Europe, not only pay the expence of perfonal transportation, but give lands gratis to ftrangers, with negroes to work for them, utenfils of hufbandry, and ftocks of cattle. These are all wild imaginations; and those who go to America with expectations founded

founded upon them, will furely find themselves disappointed.

The truth is, that though there are in that country few people fo miferable as the poor of Europe, there are alfo very few that in Europe would be called rich: it is rather a general happy mediocrity that prevails. There are few great proprietors of the foil, and few tenants; moft people cultivate their own lands, or follow fome handicraft or merchandife; very few rich enough. to live idly upon their rents or incomes, or to pay the high prices given in Europe for painting, ftatues, architecture, and the other works of art that are more curious than useful. Hence the natural geniuses that have arifen in America, with fuch talents, have uniformly quitted that country for Europe, where they can be more fuitably rewarded. It is true that letters and mathematical knowledge are in esteem there, but they are at the fame time more common than is apprehended; there being already exifting nine colleges, or universities, viz. four in New-England, and one in each of the provinces of New-York, New-Jersey, Pennfylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, all furnished with learned profeffors; befides a number of fmaller academies: these educate many of their youth in the languages, and those sciences that qualify men for the profeffions of divinity, law, or phyfic. Strangers indeed are by no means excluded from exercifing those profeffions; and the quick increafe of inhabitants every where gives them a chance of employ, which they have in common with the natives. Of civil offices, or employments, there are few; no fuperfluous ones as in Europe; and it is a rule established in fome of the ftates, that no office fhould be fo profitable as to make it defirable. The 36th article of the conftitution of Pennfyl

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vania runs exprefsly in these words: "As every "freeman, to preferve his independence (if he "has not a fufficient eftate), ought to have fome "profeffion, calling, trade, or farm, whereby "he may honeftly fubfift, there can be no necef૮ "fity for, nor use in, establishing offices of pro"fit; the ufual effects of which are dependence “and fervility, unbecoming freemen, in the "poffeffors and expectants; faction, contention, "corruption and diforder among the people. "Wherefore, whenever an office, through in

crease of fees or otherwife, becomes fo profita"ble as to occafion many to apply for it, the "profits ought to be leffened by the legislature."

Thefe ideas prevailing more or lefs in all the United States, it cannot be worth any man's while, who has a means of living at home, to expatriate himself in hopes of obtaining a profitable civil office in America; and as to military offices, they are at an end with the war, the armies being difbanded. Much lefs is it adviseable for a perfon to go thither, who has no other quality to recommend him but his birth. In Europe it has indeed its value; but it is a commodity that cannot be carried to a worfe market than to that of America, where people do not enquire concerning a stranger, What is he? but What can he do? If he has any ufeful art he is welcome, and if he exercifes it, and behaves well, he will be refpected by all that know him; but a mere man of quality, who on that account wants to live upon the public by fome office or falary, will be despised and difregarded. The hufbandman is in honour there, and even the mechanic, because their employments are useful. The people have a faying, that God Almighty is himfelf a mechanic, the greatest in the universe; and he is refpected and admired more for the


variety, ingenuity, and utility of his handiworks, than for the antiquity of his family. They are pleased with the obfervation of a negro, and frequently mention it, that Boccarorra (meaning the white man) make de black man workee, make de horse workee, make de ox workee, make ebery ting workce; only de hog. He de hog, no workee; he eat, he drink, he walk about, he go to fleep when he pleafe, he libb like a gentleman. According to thefe opinions of the Americans, one of them would think himself more obliged to a genealogist, who could prove for him that his ancestors and relations for ten generations had been ploughmen, fmiths, carpenters, turners, weavers, tanners, or even fhoemakers, and confequently that they were ufeful members of fociety; than if he could only prove that they were gentlemen, doing nothing of value, but living idly on the labour of others, mere fruges confumere nati*, and otherwife good for nothing, till by their death their eftates, like the carcafe of the negro's gentlemanhog, come to be cut up.

With regard to encouragements for ftrangers from government, they are really only what are derived from good laws and liberty. Strangers are welcome, because there is room enough for them all, and therefore the old inhabitants are not jealous of them; the laws protect them fufficiently, fo that they have no need of the patronage of great men; and every one will enjoy fecurely the profits of his induftry. But if does not bring a fortune with him, he must work and be induftrious to live. One or two years refidence give him all the rights of a citizen;

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