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adorning ourselves with fine clothes, poffefling fine furniture, with elegant houses, &c. is not, by strongly inciting to labour and industry, the occasion of producing a greater value than is consumed in the gratification of that desire.
The agriculture and fisheries of the United States are the great sources of our increasing wealth. He that puts a seed into the earth is recompenced, perhaps, by receiving forty out of it; and he who draws a fish out of our water, draws up a piece of silver.
Let us (and there is no doubt but we shall be attentive to these, and then the power of rivals, with all their restraining and prohibiting acts, cannot much hurt us. We are fons of the earth and feas, and, like Antäus in the fable, if in wrestling with a Hercules we now and then receive a fall, the touch of our parents will communicate to us fresh ftrength and vigour to renew the conteft.
INFORMATION TO THOSE WHO WOULD
REMOVE TO AMERICA.
Many persons in Europe having, dire&tly or by letters, expreffed to the writer of this, who is well acquainted with North-America, their defire of transporting and establishing themselves in that country; but who appear to him to have formed, through ignorance, mistaken ideas and expectations of what is to be obtained there ; he thinks it may be useful, and prevent inconvenient, expensive, and fruitless removals and voyages of improper persons, if he gives some clearer and truer notions of that part of the world than appear to have hitherto prevailed.
He finds it is imagined by numbers, that the inhabitants of North-America are rich, capable of rewarding, and disposed to reward, all sorts of ingenuity; that they are at the same time ignorant of all the sciences, and consequently that ftrangers, possessing talents in the belleslettres, fine arts, &c. must be highly esteemed, and so well paid as to become easily rich them. selves; that there are also abundance of profitable offices to be disposed of, which the natives are not qualified to fill; and that having few perfons of family among them, strangers of birth must be greatly respected, and of course easily obtain the best of those offices, which will make all their fortunes : that the governments too, to encourage emigrations from Europe, not only pay the expence of personal transportation, but give lands gratis to strangers, with negroes to work for them, utensils of husbandry, and ftocks of cattle. These are all wild imaginations; and those who go to America with expectations
founded upon them, will surely find themselves disappointed.
The truth is, that though there are in that country few people fo miserable as the poor of Europe, there are also very few that in Europe would be called rich: it is rather a general happy mediocrity that prevails. There are few great proprietors of the soil, and few tenants ; moft people cultivate their own lands, or follow some handicraft or merchandise; very few rich enough to live idly upon their rents or incoines, or to pay the high prices given in Europe for painting, ftatues, architecture, and the other works of art that are more curious than useful. Hence the natural geniuses that have arisen in America, with such talents, have uniformly quitted that country for Europe, where they can be more suitably rewarded. It is true that letters and mathema. tical knowledge are in esteem there, but they are at the same time more common than is apprehended; there being already existing nine colleges, or universities, viz. four in New-England, and one in each of the provinces of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, all furnished with learned professors; belides a number of smaller academies: thefe educate many of their youth in the languages, and those sciences that qualify men for the professions of divinity, law, or physic. Strangers indeed are by no means excluded from exerci'ing those professions; and the quick increase of inhabitants every where gives them a chance of employ, which they have in common with the natives. Of civil offices, or employments, there are few; no fuperfluous ones as in Europe; and it is a rule established in some of the states, that no office should be so profitable as to make it desirable. The 36th article of the constitution of Pennsyl
vania runs expressly in these words : “ As every “ freeman, to preserve his independence (if he " has not a sufficient eftate), ought to have some “ profession, calling, trade, or farm, whereby 5 he may honestly subfift, there can be no necesfity for, nor use in, establishing offices of
pro- fit'; the usual effects of which are dependence “ and servility, unbecoming freemen, in the 55 poffeffors and expectants; faction, contention, 66.corruption and disorder among the people. 66 Wherefore, whenever an office, through inb crease of fees or otherwise, becomes so profita$6 ble as to occasion many to apply for it, the 56 profits ought to be lessened by the legislature."
These ideas prevailing more or less in all the United States, it cannot be worth any man's while, who has a means of living at home, to expatriate himself in hopes of obtaining a profitable civil office in America; and as to military offices, they are at an end with the war, the armies being disbanded. Much less is it adviseable for a person to go thither, who has no other quality to recommend him but his birth. In Europe it has indeed its value ; but it is a com. modity that cannot be carried to a worfe market than to that of Ainerica, where people do not enquire concerning a stranger, What is he? but What can be do? If he has any useful art he is welcome, and if he exercises it, and behaves well, he will be respected by all that know him ; but a mere man of quality, who on that account wants to live upon the public by some office or salary, will be despised and disregarded. The husbandman is in honour there, and even the mechanic, because their employments are useful. The people have a saying, that God Almighty is himself a mechanic, the greatest in the universe; and he is respected and admired more for the
variety, ingenuity, and utility of his handiworks, than for the antiquity of his family. They are pleased with the observation of a negro, and frequently mention it, that Boccarorra (meaning the white man) make de black man workee, make de horse workee, make de ox workee, make ebery ting workee; only de hog. He de hog, no workee; he eat, he drink, he walk about, he go to sleep when he please, he libb like a gentleman. According to these opinions of the Americans, one of them would think himself more obliged to a genealogist, who could grove for him that his ancestors and relations for ten generations had been ploughmen, smiths, carpenters, turners, weavers, tanners, or even ihoemakers, and consequently that they were useful members of fociety; than if he could only prove that they were gentlemen, doing nothing of value, but living idly on the labour of others, mere fruges consumere nati *, and otherwife good for nothing, till by their death their eftates, like the carcase of the negro's gentlemanhog, come to be cut up.
With regard to encouragements for strangers from government, they are really only what are clerived from good laws and liberty. Strangers are welcome, because there is room enough for them all, and therefore the old inhabitants are not jealous of them ; the laws protect them sufficiently, so that they have no need of the patrorage of great men; and every one will enjoy fecurely the profits of his industry. But if does not bring a fortune with him, he must work and be industrious to live. One or two years residence give him all the rights of a citizen;