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would be more becoming the gratitude they owed to the Divine Being, if, inftead of a faft, they fhould proclaim a thanksgiving. His advice was taken; and from that day to this they have, in every year, obferved circumftances of public felicity fufficient to furnifh employment for a thanksgiving day; which is therefore conftantly ordered and religiously observed.

I fee in the public newspapers of different states frequent complaints of hard times, deadness of trade, fcarcity of money, &c. It is not my intention to affert or maintain that these complaints are entirely without foundation. There can be no country or nation exifting, in which there will not be fome people fo circumftanced as to find it hard to gain a livelihood; people who are not in the way of any profitable trade, and with whom money is fcarce, because they have nothing to give in exchange for it; and it is always in the power of a fmall number to make a great clamour. But let us take a cool view of the general ftate of our affairs, and perhaps the profpect will appear lefs gloomy than has been imagined.

The great business of the continent is agriculture. For one artifan, or merchant, I fuppofe, we have at least one hundred farmers, by far the greatest part cultivators of their own fertile lands, from whence many of them draw not only food neceffary for their fubfiftence, but the materials of their clothing, fo as to need very few foreign fupplies; while they have a furplus of productions to difpofe of, whereby wealth is gradually accumulated. Such has been the goodness of Divine Providence to these regions, and fo favourable the climate, that, fince the three or four years of hardship in the firft fettlement of our fathers here, a famine or scarcity has never been heard of among us; on the contrary, though

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multitude of poor, abject, rack-rented, tythepaying tenants, and half-paid and half-ftarved ragged labourers; and views here the happy mediocrity that fo generally prevails throughout thefe ftates, where the cultivator works for him. felf, and fupports his family in decent plenty; will, methinks, fee abundant reafon to blefs Divine Providence for the evident and great difference in our favour, and be convinced that no nation known to us enjoys a greater fhare of hu man felicity.

It is true, that in fome of the fates there are parties and difcords; but let us look back, and afk if we were ever without them? Such will exift wherever there is liberty; and perhaps they help to preferve it. By the collifion of different fentiments, fparks of truth are ftruck out, and political light is obtained. The different factions, which at prefent divide us, aim all at the public good; the differences are only about the various modes of promoting it. Things, actions, meafures, and objects of all kinds, prefent themselves to the minds of men in fuch a variety of lights, that it is not poffible we fhould all think alike at the fame time on every fubject, when hardly the fame man retains at all times the fame ideas of it. Parties are therefore the common lot of humanity; and ours are by no means more mischievous or lefs beneficial than thofe of other countries, nations, and ages, enjoying in the fame degree the great bleffing of political liberty.

Some indeed among us are not fo much grieved for the present state of our affairs, as apprehenfive for the future. The growth of luxury alarms them, and they think we are from that alone in the high road to ruin. They observe, that no revenue is fufficient without economy, and that the most plentiful income of a whole people from the

the natural productions of their country may be diffipated in vain and needlefs expences, and poverty be introduced in the place of affluence.This may be poffible. It however rarely happens: for there feems to be in every nation a greater proportion of induftry and frugality, which tend to enrich, than of idleness and prodigality, which occafion poverty; fo that upon the whole there is a continual accumulation. Reflect what Spain, Gaul, Germany, and Britain were in the time of the Romans, inhabited by people little richer than our favages, and confider the wealth they at prefent poffefs, in numerous well-built cities, improved farms, rich moveables, magazines ftocked with valuable manufactures, to fay nothing of plate, jewels, and coined money; and all this, notwithstanding their bad, wafteful, plundering governments, and their mad, deftructive wars; and yet luxury and extravagant living has never fuffered much restraint in thofe tountries. Then confider the great proportion of induftrious frugal farmers inhabiting the interior parts of these American states, and of whom the body of our nation confists, and judge whether it is poffible that the luxury of our fea-ports can be fufficient to ruin fuch a country. If the importation of foreign luxuries could ruin a people, we should probably have been ruined long ago; for the British nation claimed a right, and practifed it, of importing among us not only the fuperfluities of their own production, but those of every nation under heaven; we bought and confumed them, and yet we flourished and grew rich. At prefent our independent governments may do what we could not then do, difcourage by heavy duties, or prevent by heavy prohibitions, fuch importations, and thereby grow richer;-if, indeed, which may admit of difpute, the defire of

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multitude of poor, abject, rack-rented, tythepaying tenants, and half-paid and half-ftarved ragged labourers; and views here the happy mediocrity that fo generally prevails throughout thefe ftates, where the cultivator works for himfelf, and fupports his family in decent plenty; will, methinks, fee abundant reafon to blefs Divine Providence for the evident and great difference in our favour, and be convinced that no nation known to us enjoys a greater fhare of human felicity.

It is true, that in fome of the fiates there are parties and difcords; but let us look back, and afk if we were ever without them? Such will exift wherever there is liberty; and perhaps they help to preferve it. By the collifion of different fentiments, fparks of truth are ftruck out, and political light is obtained. The different factions, which at prefent divide us, aim all at the public good; the differences are only about the various modes of promoting it. Things, actions, meafures, and objects of all kinds, present themselves to the minds of men in fuch a variety of lights, that it is not poffible we fhould all think alike at the fame time on every fubject, when hardly the fame man retains at all times the fame ideas of it. Parties are therefore the common lot of humanity; and ours are by no means more mischievous or lefs beneficial than thofe of other countries, nations, and ages, enjoying in the fame degree the great bleffing of political liberty.

Some indeed among us are not fo much grieved for the present state of our affairs, as apprehenfive for the future. The growth of luxury alarms them, and they think we are from that alone in the high road to ruin. They obferve, that no revenue is fufficient without economy, and that the most plentiful income of a whole people from

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the natural productions of their country may be diffipated in vain and needlefs expences, and poverty be introduced in the place of affluence.This may be poffible. It however rarely happens: for there feems to be in every nation a greater proportion of induftry and frugality, which tend to enrich, than of idlenefs and prodigality, which occafion poverty; fo that upon the whole there is a continual accumulation. Reflect what Spain, Gaul, Germany, and Britain were in the time of the Romans, inhabited by people little richer than our favages, and confider the wealth they at prefent poffefs, in numerous well-built cities, improved farms, rich moveables, magazines ftocked with valuable manufactures, to fay nothing of plate, jewels, and coined money; and all this, notwithstanding their bad, wafteful, plundering governments, and their mad, deftructive wars; and yet luxury and extravagant living has never fuffered much reftraint in thofe tountries. Then confider the great proportion of induftrious frugal farmers inhabiting the interior parts of these American states, and of whom the body of our nation confifts, and judge whether it is poffible that the luxury of our fea-ports can be fufficient to ruin fuch a country.-If the importation of foreign luxuries could ruin a people, we should probably have been ruined long ago; for the British nation claimed a right, and practifed it, of importing among us not only the fuperfluities of their own production, but those of every nation under heaven; we bought and confumed them, and yet we flourished and grew rich. At present our independent governments may do what we could not then do, difcourage by heavy duties, or prevent by heavy prohibitions, fuch importations, and thereby grow richer;-if, indeed, which may admit of difpute, the defire of

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