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an improper sample. The people of the trading towns may be rich and luxurious, while the country possesses all the virtues that tend to promote happiness and public profperity. Those towns are not much regarded by the country; they are hardly considered as an effential part of the States; and the experience of the last war has shewn, that their being in the pofseilion of the enemy did not neceffarily draw on the subjection of the country; which bravely continued to maintain its freedom and independence notwithstanding
it has been computed by some political arithmetician, that if every man and woman would work for four hours each day on something useful, that labour would produce sufficient to procure all the necessaries and comforts of life; want and misery would be banished out of the world, and the rest of the twenty-four hours might be leisure and pleasure.
What occasions then so much want and misery? It is the employment of nen and women in works that produce neither the necessaries nor conveniences of life, who, with those who do nothing, consume' neceffaries raised by the laborious. To explain this:
The first elements of wealth are obtained by labour, from the earth and waters. I have land, and raise corn. With this, if I feed a family that does nothing, my corn will be consumed, and at the end of the year I fhall be no richer than I was at the beginning. But if, while I feed them, I employ them, fome in spinning, others in making bricks, &c. for building, the value of my corn will be arrested and remain with me, and at the end of the year we may all be better clothed and better lodged. And if, instead of employing a mian I feed in inaking bricks, I employ him in fiddling for me, the corn he eats is gone, and no part of his manufacture remains to augment the wealth and convenience of the family : I shall therefore be the poorer for this fiddling man, unless the rest of my family work more, or eat less, to make up the defici. ency he occasions.
Look round the world, and see the millions employed in doing nothing, or in something that amounts to nothing, when the necessaries and conveniences of life are in question. What is the bulk of commerce, for which we fight and destroy each other, but the toil of millions for superfluities, to the great hazard and loss of many lives, by the constant dangers of the sea ? How much labour is spent in building and fitting great ships, to go to China and Arabia for tea and coffee, to the West Indies for sugar, to America for tobacco ? These things cannot be called the neceffaries of life, for our ancestors lived very comfortably without them.
A question may be asked: Could all these people now employed in railing, making, or carrying fuperfluities, be subfilted by raising vecessaries ? I think they might. The world is large, and a great part of it still uncultivated. Many hundred millions of acres in Asia, Africa and 'America, are still in a forest; and a great deal even in Europe. On a hundred acres of this forest a man might become a substantial farmer ; and a hundred thousand men employed in clearing each his hundred acres, would hardly brighten a spot big enough to be visible from the. noon, unless with Herschel's telescope ; fo vast are the regions still in wood.
It is however some comfort to reflect, that, upon the whole, the quantity of industry and prudence among mankind exceeds the quantity
of idleness and folly. Hence the increase of good buildings, farms cultivated, and populous cities filled with wealth, all over Europe, which a few ages fince were only to be found on the coasts of the Mediterranean; and this notwithstanding the mad wars continually raging, by which are often destroyed in one year the works of many years peace. So that we may hope, the luxury of a few merchants on the coast will not be the ruin of America.
One reflection more, and I will end this long rambling letter. Almost all the parts of our bodies require some expence.
The feet demand fhoes; the legs stockings; the rest of the body clothing; and the belly a good deal of victuals. Our eyes, though exceedingly useful, ask when reasonable, only the cheap aslistance of spectacles, which could not much impair our finances.
But the eyes of other people are the eyes that ruin
If all but myself were blind, I should want neither fine clothes, fine houses, nor fine furniture.
ON THE SLAVE TRADE.
READING in the newspapers the speech of Ar. Jackson in congress, against meddling with the aflair of llavery, or attempting to mend the condition of fiaves, it put me in mind of a fimi. lar speech, made about one hundred years since, by Sidi Meheinet Ibrahim, a member of the Divan of Algiers, which may be feen in Martin's account of his confulship, 1687. It was against granting the petition of the fećt called Erika, or Purisis, who prayed for the abolition of piracy and flavery as being unjuft.--Mr. Jackson do not quote it; perhaps he has not seen it. If, therefore, some of its reasonings are to be found in his eloquent speech, it may only thew that jnen's interests operate, and are operated on, with surprising fimilarity, in all countries and climates, whenever they are under fimilar circumstances. The African speech, as translated, is as jollows:
“ Alla Bismillah, &c. God is great, and Malomet is his prophet.
“ Have these Erika considered the consequences of granting their petition ? If we cease our cruises against the Christians, how shall we be furnished with the commodities their countries produce, and which are so necessary for us? If we forbear to make flaves of their people, who, in this hot climate, are to cultivate our lands? Who are to perform the common labours of our city, and of our families ? Must we not then be our own slaves ? And is there not more compassi. on and more favour due to us Mussulmen, than to those Chriftian dogs ?-We have now above Efty thousand Naves in and near Algiers. This
number, if not kept up by fresh supplies, will foon diminish, and be gradually annihilated. If, then, we çease taking and plundering the infidel ships, and making flaves of the feamen and passengers, our lands will become of no value, for want of cultivation; the rents of houses in the city will fink one half; and the revenues of government, arising from the share of prizes, must be totally destroyed. And for what? To gratify the whim of a whimsical fect, who would have us not only forbear making more flaves, but even manumit those we have. But who is to indemnify their masters for the loss? Will the state do it; Is our treasury fufficient? Will the Erika do it? Can they do it? Or would they, to do what they think justice to the flaves, do a greater injaslice to the owners? And if we set our flaves free, what is to be done with them? Few of them will return to their native countries; they know too well the greater hardships they must there be subject to. They will not embrace our holy religion: they will not adopt our mariners : our people will not pollute themselves by intermarrying with them. Must we maintain them as beggars in our streets ? or suffer our properties to be the prey of their pillage? for men accustomed to flavery will not work for a livelihood, when not compelled.--And what is there fo pitiable in their prefent condition? Were they not flaves in their own countries ? Are not Spain, Portugal, France, and the Italian states, governed by despots, who' hold all their subjects in slavery, without exception? Even England treats her failors as flaves, for they are, whenever the government pleases, seized and confined in fhips of war, condenined not only to work, but to fight for small wages, or a mere subsistence, not better than our flaves are allowed by us. Is their condition then made