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I wish it were poflible, from this instance, to invent a method of embalming drowned persons, in such a manner that they might be recalled to life at any period, however diftant; for having a very ardent desire to see and observe the state of America an hundred years hence, I should prefer, to an ordinary death, the being immersed in a calk of Madeira wine, with a few friends, until that time, then to be recalled to life by the solar warmth of my dear country! But since, in all probability, we live in an age too early, and too near the infancy of science, to see such an art brought in our time to its perfection, I must, for the present, content myself with the treat, which you are so kind as to promise me, of the resurrection of a fowl or a turkey-cock.




WHEN you intend to take a long voyage, nothing is better than to keep it a fecret till the moment of your departure. Without this, you will be continually interrupted and tormented by visits from friends and acquaintances, who not only make you lose your valuable time, but make you forget a thousand things which you wish to remember; so that when you are embarked, and fairly at sea, you recollect, with much uneasiness, affairs which you have not terminated, accounts that you have not settled, and a number of things which you proposed to carry with you, and which you find the want of every moment. Would it not be attended with the best consequences to reform such a custom, and to suffer a traveller, without deranging him, to make his preparations in quietness, to set apart a few days, when these are finished, to take leave of his friends, and to receive their good wishes for his happy return ?

It is not always in one's power to choose a captain; though great part of the pleasure and happiness of the palage depends upon this choice, and though one must for a time be confined to his company, and be in some measure under his command. If he is a focial fenfible man, obliging, and of a good disposition, you will be lo much the happier. One sometiinęs meets with people of this description, but they are not common; however, if yours be not of this number, if he be a good feaman, attentive, careful, and active in the management of his vessel, you must difpenfe with the rest, for these are the most effential qualities.

Whatever right you may have, by your agreement with him, to the provisions he has taken on board for the use of the passengers, it is always proper to have some private store, which you may make use of occasionally. You ought, therefore, to provide good water, that of the ship being often bad; but you must put it into bottles, without which you cannot expect to preserve it sweet. You ought also to carry with you good tea, ground coffee, chocolate, wine of that fort which you like best, cyder, dried raisins, almonds, sugar, capillaire; citrons, rum, eggs dipped in oil, portable soup, bread twice baked. With regard to poultry, it is almost useless to carry any with you, unless you resolve to undertake the office of feeding and fattening them yourself. With the little care which is taken of them on board ship, they are almost all fickly, and their flesh is as tough as leather.

All failors entertain an opinion, which has una doubtedly originated formerly from a want of water, and when it has been found neceffary to be sparing of it, that poultry never know when they have drank enough; and that when water is given them at discretion, they generally kill themselves by drinking beyond measure. In con. sequence of this opinion, they give them water only once in two days, and even then in small quantities: but as they pour this water into troughs inclining on one fide, which occasions it to run to the lower part, it thence it happens that they are obliged to mount one upon the back of another in order to reach it; and there are fome which cannot even dip their beaks in it. Thus continually tantalized and tormented by


thirst, they are unable to digest their food, which is very dry, and they foon fall fick and die. Some of them are found thus every morning, and are thrown into the fea; whilst those which are kill. ed for the table are scarcely fit to be eaten. Το remedy this inconvenience, it will be necessary to divide their troughs into small compartments, in such a manner that each of them may be capable of containing water; but this is seldom or never done. On this account, sheep and hogs are to be considered as the best fresh provision that one can have at sea ; mutton there being in general very good, and pork exceHent.

It may happen that fome of the provisions and ftores which I have recommended may become almost useless, by the care which the captain has taken to lay in a proper stock; but in such a case you may dispose of it to relieve the poor passengers, who, paying less for their passage, are ftowed among the common sailors, and have no right to the captain's provisions, except such part

of them as is used for feeding the crew.

These pafsengers are sometimes sick, melancholy, and dejected; and there are often women and children among them, neither of whom have any opportunity of procuring those things which I have mentioned, and of which, perhaps, they have the greatest need. By distributing amongst them a part ofyour superfluity, you may be of the greatest assistance to them. You may restore their health, fave their lives, and in short render them happy ; which always affords the liveliest fenfation to a feeling mind.

The most disagreeable thing at sea is the cookery; for there is not, properly speaking, any professed cook on board. The worst failor is generally chosen for that purpose, who for the most part is equally dirty. Hence comes the proverb


used among the English sailors, that God sends meat, and the Devil sends cooks. Those, however, who have a better opinion of Providence, will think otherwise. Knowing that sea air, and the exercise or motion which they receive from the rolling of the ship, have a wonderful effect in whetting the appetite, they will say, that Provi. dence has given failors bad cooks to prevent them from eating too much; or that knowing they would have bad cooks, he has given them a good appetite to prevent them from dying with hun- . ger. However, if you have no confidence in these fuccours of Providence, you may yourself, with a lamp and a boiler, by the help of a little fpirits of wine, prepare some food, such as soup, hash, &c. A small oven made of tin-plate is not a bad piece of furniture : your servant may roast in it a piece of mutton or pork. If you are ever tempted to eat falt beef, which is often very good, you will find that cyder is the best liquor to quench the thirst generally caused by falt meat falt fish. Sea-biscuit, which is too hard for the teeth of some people, may be foftened by steeping it; but bread double baked is the best; for being made of good loaf-bred cut into slices, and baked a second time, it readily imbibes water, becomes foft, and is easily digested: it consequently forms excellent nourishment, much superior to that of biscuit, which has not been fermented.

I must here observe, that this double-baked bread was originally the real biscuit prepared to keep at sea ; for the word biscuit, in French, fig. nifies twice baked *. Peafe often boil badly, and do not become soft; in such a case, by putting a two-pound fhot into the kettle, the rolling of the vessel, by means of this bullet, will convert the pease into a kind of porridge, like mustard. * It is derived from bis again, and cuit baked. Q_2



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