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an opportunity of confronting the witneffes againft him, for they are kept in the dark, as in the Spanish court of inquifition. Nor is there any petty jury of his peers fworn to try the truth of the charges. The proceedings are alfo fometimes fo rapid, that an honest good citizen may find himself fuddenly and unexpectedly accused, and in the fame morning judged and condemned, and fentence pronounced againft him that he is a rogue and a villain. Yet if an officer of this court receives the flighteft check for misconduct in this his office, he claims immediately the rights of a free citizen by the conftitution, and demands to know his accufer, to confront the witneffes, and to have a fair trial by a jury of his peers..

The foundation of its authority.

It is faid to be founded on an article in the state conftitution, which eftablished the liberty of the prefs- -a liberty which every Pennfylvanian would fight and die for, though few of us, I believe, have diftinct ideas of its nature and extent. It seems, indeed, fomewhat like the liberty of the prefs, that felons have, by the common law of England before conviction; that is, to be either preffed to death or hanged. If, by the liberty of the prefs, were understood merely the liberty of difcuffing the propriety of public measures and political opinions, let us have as much of it as you please; but if it means the liberty of affronting, calumniating, and defaming one another, I, for my part, own myself willing to part with my fhare of it, whenever our legiflators fhall please fo to alter the law; and fhall cheerfully confent to exchange my liberty of abufing others, for the pri vilege of not being abufed myself.



By whom this court is commiffioned or conftituted.

It is not by any commiffion from the fupreme executive council, who might previously judge of the abilities, integrity, knowledge, &c. of the perfon to be appointed to this great truft, of deciding upon the characters and good fame of the citizens: for this court is above that council, and may accufe, judge, and condemn it at pleasure. Nor is it hereditary, as is the court of dernier refort in the peerage of England. But any man who can procure pen, ink, and paper, with a prefs, a few types, and a huge pair of blacking balls, may commiflionate himself, and his court is immediately established in the plenary poffeffion and exercise of its rights. For if you make the leaft complaint of the judge's conduct, he daubs his blacking balls in your face wherever he meets you: and befides tearing your private character to fplinters, marks you out for the odium of the public, as an enemy to the liberty of the prefs.

Of the natural fupport of this court.

Its fupport is founded in the depravity of fuch minds as have not been mended by religion, nor improved by good education.


There is a luft in man no charm can tame,
Of loudly' publifhing his neighbour's fhame.

On eagles' wings, immortal fcandals fly,
While virtuous actions are but born and die.


Whoever feels pain in hearing a good character of his neighbour, will feel a pleasure in the reverse. And of thofe who, defpairing to rife


to diftinction by their virtues, are happy if others can be depreffed to a level with themselves, there áre a number fufficient in every great town to maintain one of these courts by their fubfcription. A fhrewd obferver once faid, that in walking the ftreets of a flippery morning, one might fee where the good-natured people lived, by the afhes thrown on the ice before the doors: probably he would have formed a different conjecture of the temper of those whom he might find engaged in fuch fubfcriptions.

Of the checks proper to be established against the abufes of power in thofe courts.

Hitherto there are none. But fince fo much has been written and published on the federal conflitution; and the neceffity of checks, in all other parts of good government, has been fo clearly and learnedly explained, I find myself fo far enlightened as to fufpect fome check may be proper in this part alfo: but I have been at a lofs to imagine any that may not be conftrued an infringement of the facred liberty of the prefs. At length, however, I think I have found one, that, inftead of diminishing general liberty, fhall augment it; which is, by reftoring to the people a fpecies of liberty of which they have been deprived by our laws, I mean the liberty of the cudgel! In the rude state of fociety prior to the existence of laws, if one man gave another ill-language, the affronted perfon might return it by a box on the ear; and if repeated, by a good drubbing; and this without offending against any law: but now the right of making fuch returns is denied, and they are punished as breaches of the peace, while the right of abufing feems to remain in full force; the laws made against it being rendered ineffectual by the liberty of the prefs.

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My propofal then is, to leave the liberty of the prefs untouched, to be exercifed in its full extent, force, and vigour, but to permit the liberty of the cudgel to go with it, pari paffu. Thus, my fellow citizens, if an impudent writer attacks your reputation-dearer perhaps to you than your life, and puts his name to the charge you may go to him as openly, and break his head. If he conceals himself behind the printer, and you can neverthelefs difcover who he is, you may, in like manner way-lay him in the night, attack him behind, and give him a good drubbing. If your adverfary hires better writers than himself, to abuse you more effectually, you may hire brawney porters, ftronger than yourself, to affift you in giving him a more effectual drubbing. Thus far goes my project, as to private refentment and retribution. But if the public fhould ever happen to be affronted, as it ought to be, with the conduct of fuch writers, I would not advise proceeding immediately to thefe extremities, but that we fhould in moderation content ourselves with tarring and feathering, and toffing them in a blanket.

If, however, it fhould be thought that this propofal of mine may difturb the public peace,

fhould then humbly recommend to Our legiflators to take up the confideration of both liberties, that of the prefs, and that of the cudgel; and by an explicit law mark their extent and limits: and at the fame time that they fecure the perfon of a citizen from affaults, they would likewife provide for the fecurity of his reputation.



SOME wit of old-fuch wits of old there were
Whose hints fhow'd meaning, whofe allufions care,
By one brave stroke to mark all human-kind,
Call'd clear blank paper ev'ry infant mind;
When ftill, as opening fenfe her dictates wrote,
Fair virtue put a seal, or vice a blot.

The thought was happy, pertinent, and true;
Methinks a genius might the plan purfue.
I (can you pardon my prefumption), I-
No wit, no genius, yet for once will try.

Various the papers various wants produce, The wants of fashion, elegance, and ufe, Men are as various: and, if right I scan, Each fort of paper represents fome man.

Pray note the fop-half powder and half lace-
Nice, as a bandbox were his dwelling-place:
He's the gilt-paper, which apart you store,
And lock from vulgar hands in the 'fcrutoire.

Mechanics, fervants, farmers, and fo forth,
Are copy-paper, of inferior worth;

Lefs priz'd, more useful, for your desk decreed,
Free to all pens, and prompt at ev'ry need.

The wretch whom av'rice bids to pinch and spare,
Starve, cheat, and pilfer, to enrich an heir,
Is coarfe brown paper; fuch as pedlars choose
To wrap up wares, which better men will use.

Take next the mifer's contrast, who destroys Health, fame, and fortune, in a round of joys. Will any paper match him? Yes, throughout, He's a true finking-paper, paft all doubt.



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