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AT this time, when the general complaint is that-" money is fcarce," it will be an act of kindness to inform the moneyless how they may reinforce their pockets. I will acquaint them with the true fecret of money-catching-the certain way to fill empty purfes-and how to keep them always full. Two fimple rules, well obferved, will do the business.

First, let honesty and industry be thy conftant companions; and,

Secondly, spend one penny lefs than thy clear gains.

Then fhall thy hide-bound pocket foon begin to thrive, and will never again cry with the empty belly-ach: neither will creditors infult thee, nor want opprefs, nor hunger bite, nor nakednefs freeze thee. The whole hemifphere will fhine brighter, and pleasure spring up in every corner of thy heart. Now, therefore, embrace thefe rules and be happy. Banifh the bleak winds of forrow from thy mind, and live independent. Then fhalt thou be a man, and not hide thy face at the approach of the rich, nor fuffer the pain of feeling little when the fons of fortune walk at thy right hand: for independency, whether with little or much, is good fortune, and placeth thee on even ground with the proudeft of the golden fleece. Oh, then, be wife, and let industry walk with thee in the morning, and attend thee until thou reacheft the evening hour for reft. Let honefty be as the breath of thy foul, and ne



ver forget to have a penny, when all thy expences are enumerated and paid: then fhalt thou reach the point of happinefs, and independence fhall be thy fhield and buckler, thy helmet and crown; then fhall thy foul walk upright, nor ftoop to the filken wretch because he hath riches, nor pocket an abuse because the hand which offers it wears a ring fet with diamonds.



[A Tranflation of this letter appeared in one of the Daily Papers The following is the Original Corrections made in it by the

of Paris about the Year 1784. Piece, with fome Additions and Author.]



YOU often entertain us with accounts of new difcoveries. Permit me to communicate to the public, through your paper, one that has lately been made by myself, and which I conceive may be of great utility.

I was the other evening in a grand company, where the new lamp of Meffrs. Quinquet and Lange was introduced, and much admired for its fplendor; but a general enquiry was made, whe ther the oil it confumed was not in proportion to the light it afforded, in which cafe there would be no faving in the use of it. No one prefent could fatisfy us in that point, which all agreed ought to be known, it being a very defirable thing to leffen, if poffible, the expence of lighting our apartments, when every other article of family expence was fo much augmented.

I was pleafed to fee this general concern for œconomy; for I love economy exceedingly.

I went home, and to bed, three or four hours after midnight, with my head full of the fubject. An accidental fudden noife waked me about fix in the morning, when I was furprized to find my



room filled with light; and I imagined at first, that a number of thofe lamps had been brought into it: but, rubbing my eyes, I perceived the light came in at the windows. I got up and looked out to see what might be the occafion of it, when I faw the fun juft rifing above the horizon, from whence he poured his rays plentifully into my chamber, my domeftic having negligently omitted the preceding evening to clofe the fhut


I looked at my watch, which goes very well, and found that it was but fix o'clock; and ftill thinking it fomething extraordinary that the fun fhould rife fo early, I looked into the almanack, where I found it to be the hour given for his ri fing on that day. I looked forward too, and found he was to rise still earlier every day till towards the end of June; and that at no time in the year he retarded his rifing fo long as till eight o'clock. Your readers, who with me have never feen any figns of funfhine before noon, and feldom regard the aftronomical part of the almanack, will be as much aftonished as I was, when they hear of his rifing fo early; and especially when I affure them, that he gives light as foon as he rifes. I am convinced of this. I am certain of my fact. One cannot be more certain of any fact. I faw it with my own eyes. And having repeated this obfervation the three following mornings, I found always precisely the fame refult.

Yet fo it happens, that when I fpeak of this discovery to others, I can eafily perceive by their countenances, though they forbear expreffing it in words, that they do not quite believe me. One, indeed, who is a learned natural philofopher, has affured me, that I muft certainly be mistaken as to the circumftance of the light coming into my room; for it being well known, as he fays, that


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there could be no light abroad at that hour, it follows that none could enter from without; and that of confequence, my windows being accidentally left open, inftead of letting in the light, had only ferved to let out the darkness: and he used many ingenious arguments to fhew me how I might, by that means, have been deceived. own that he puzzled me a little, but he did not fatisfy me; and the fubfequent obfervations I made, as above mentioned, confirmed me in first opinion.


This event has given rife, in my mind, to feveral ferious and important reflections. I confidered that, if I had not been awakened fo early in the morning, I fhould have flept fix hours longer by the light of the fun, and in exchange have lived fix hours the following night by candlelight; and the latter being a much more expenfive light than the former, my love of œconomy induced me to mufter up what little arithmetic I was mafter of, and to make fome calculations, which I fhall give you, after observing, that utility is, in my opinion, the teft of value in matters of invention, and that a difcovery which can be applied to no ufe, or is not good for fomething, is good for nothing.

I took for the bafis of my calculation the fupposition that there are 100,000 families in Paris, and that these families confume in the night half a pound of bougies, or candles, per hour. I think this is a moderate allowance, taking one family with another; for though I believe fome confume lefs, I know that many confume a great deal more. Then eftimating feven hours per day, as the medium quantity between the time of the fun's rifing and ours, he rifing during the fix fol, lowing months from fix to eight hours before noon, and there being seven hours of course per night

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