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an action : for it is continually occurring to the player, “ If I move this piece, what will be the is advantage of my new fituation? what use

can my adversary make of it to annoy me? " What other moves can I make to support it, " and to defend myself from his attacks ?

II. Circumspection, which furveys the whole chess-board, or scene of action, the relations of the several pieces and situations, the dangers they are respectively exposed to, the several poffibilities of their aiding eacli other, the probabilities that the adversary may take this or that move, and attack this or the other piece, and what different means can be used to avoid his stroke, or turn its consequences against him.

III. Caution, not to make our moves too haftily. This habit is best acquired by observing strictly the laws of the game, such as, “ If you touch " a piece, you must move it somewhere, if you * set it down, you must let it ftand:” and it is therefore beft that thefe rules should be observed, as the game thereby becomes more the image of human life, and particularly of war; in which, if you have incautiously put yourself into a bad and dangerous position, you cannot obtain your enemy's leave to withdraw your troops, and place them more securely, but you iruff abide all the consequences of your rashness.

And, laftly, we learn by chess the habit of not being discouraged by present bad appearances in the state of our affairs, the habit of hoping for a favourable change, and that of persevering in the search of resources. The game is fo full of events there is such a variety of turns in it, the fortune of it is so subject to sudden viciffitudes, and one so frequently, after long contemplation, discovers the means of extricating oneself from a supposed infurmcuntable difficulty, that one is encouraged


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to continue the contest to the last, in hopes of victory by our own skill, or at least of giving a ftale mate, by the negligence of our adversary. And whoever confiders, what in chess he often sees instances of, that particular pieces of success are apt to produce presumption, and its consequent inattention, by which the loss may be recovered, will learn not to be too much discouraged by the present success of his adversary, nor to despair of final good fortune, úpon every check he receives in the pursuit of it.

That we may, therefore, be induced more frequently to choose this beneficial amusement, in preference to others, which are not attended with the same advantages, every circumstance which may increase the pleasure of it should be regarded ; and every action or word that is unfair, disrespectful, or that in any way may give uneasiness, should be avoided, as contrary to the immediate intention of both the players, which is to pass the time agreeably.

Therefore, first, if it is agreed to play according to the strict rules; then those rules are to be exactly observed by both parties, and should not be insisted on for one fide, while deviated from by the other-for this is not equitable.

Secondly, If it is agreed not to observe the rules exactly, but one party demands indulgencies, he should then be as willing to allow them to the other

Thirdly, No false move should ever bie made to extricate yourself out of a difficulty, or to gain an advantage. There can be no pleasure in playing with a perfon once detected in such unfair practice.

Fourthly, If your adverfary is long in playing, you ought not to hurry him, or express any uneasiness at his delay. You fhould not fing, nor

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your rudeness.

whistle, nor look at your watch, nor take up a book to read, nor make a tapping with your feet on the floor, or with your fingers on the table, nor do any thing that may disturb his attention. For all these things displease; and they do not shew your skill in playing, but your craftiness or

Fifthly, You ought not to endeavour to amuse and deceive your adversary, by pretending to have made bad moves, and saying that you have now lost the game, in order to make him secure and careless, and inattentive to your schemes : for this is fraud and deceit, not kill in the game.

Sixthly, You must not, when you have gained a victory, use any triumphing or insulting exprellion, nor fhow too much pleafure ; but endeavour to console your adversary, and make him less diffatisfied with himself, by every kind of civil expreílion that may be used with truth, such as, “ You understand the game better than “ I, but you are a little inattentive;" or, "you

play too fast;” or, “ you had the best of the

game, but something happened to divert your ;;

thoughts, and that turned it in my favour.”,

Seventhly, If you are a spectator while others play, observe the most perfect Glence. For if you give advice, you offend both parties; him againit whom you give it, because it may cause the loss of his game; him in whose favour you give it, because, though it be good, and he follows it, he loses the pleasure he might have had, if

you had permitted him to think until it had occurred to himself. Even after a move, or moves, you must not, by replacing the pieces, show how it might have been placed better : for that displeases, and may occasion disputes and doubts about their true situation. All talking to the players lessens or diverts their attention, and


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is therefore unpleasing. Nor should you give the least hint to either party, by any kind of noise or motion. If you do, you are unworthy to be a spectator. If you have a mind to exercise or shew youri jadgment, do it in playing your own game, when you have an opportunity, not in criticising, or meddling with, or counselling the play of others.

Lastly, If the game is not to be played rigorously, according to the rules above mentioned, then moderate your desire of victory over your adversary, and be pleased with one over yourself. Snatch not eagerly at every advantage of féred by his unskilfulness or inattention; but point out to him kindly, that by fuch a move he places or leavés a piece in danger and unsupported; that by another he will put his king in a perilous situation, &c. By this generous civi. lity (so opposite to the unfairnefs above forbida den) you may, indeed, happen to lose the

game to your opponent, but you will win what is bet. ter, his efteem, his respect, and his affection; together with the silent approbation and goodwill of impartial spectators.






As a great part of our life is spent in fleep, during which we have sometimes pleasing, and sometimes painful dreams, it becomes of some consequence to obtain the one kind, and avoid the other ; for, whether real or imaginary, pain is pain, and pleasure is pleasure. If we can sleep without dreaming, it is well that painful dreams are avoided. If, while we sleep, we can have any pleasing dreams, it is, as the French fay, tant gagné, so much added to the pleasure of life.

To this end it is, in the first place, necessary to be careful in preserving health, by due exercise, and great temperance; for, in sickness, the imagination is disturbed; and disagreeable, sometimes terrible, ideas are apt to present themselves. Exercise should precede meals, not immediately follow them : the first promotes, the latter, unless moderate, obstructs digestion. If, after exercise, we feed sparingly, the digestion will be easy and good, the body lightsome, the temper cheerful, and all the animal functions performed agreeably. Sleep, when it follows, will be natural and undisturbed. While indolence, with full feeding, occasion night-mares and horrors inexpressible: we fall from precipices, are aflaulted by wild beasts, murderers, and demons, and expe

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