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an action for it is continually occurring to the player, "If I move this piece, what will be the "advantage of my new fituation? what use can my adversary make of it to annoy me? "What other moves can I make to fupport it, and to defend myself from his attacks?"

II. Circumfpection, which furveys the whole chefs-board, or fcene of action, the relations of the feveral pieces and fituations, the dangers they are refpectively expofed to, the feveral poffibilíties of their aiding each other, the probabilities that the adversary may take this or that move, and attack this or the other piece, and what different means can be ufed to avoid his ftroke, or turn its confequences against him.



III. Caution, not to make our moves too haftily. This habit is beft acquired by obferving strictly the laws of the game, fuch as, "If you touch "a piece, you must move it somewhere, if you "fet it down, you must let it stand :" and it is therefore beft that thefe rules fhould be obferved, as the game thereby becomes more the image of human life, and particularly of war; in which, if you have incautiously put yourself into a bad and dangerous pofition, you cannot obtain your enemy's leave to withdraw your troops, and place them more fecurely, but you muft abide all the confequences of your rafhnefs.

And, laftly, we learn by chefs the habit of not being difcouraged by prefent bad appearances in the fate of our affairs, the habit of hoping for a favourable change, and that of persevering in the fearch of refources. The game is fo full of events there is fuch a variety of turns in it, the fortune of it is fo fubject to fudden viciffitudes, and one fo frequently, after long contemplation, discovers the means of extricating onefelf from a fuppofed infurmountable difficulty, that one is encouraged


to continue the contest to the laft, in hopes of victory by our own skill, or at least of giving a ftale mate, by the negligence of our adverfary. And whoever confiders, what in chefs he often fees inftances of, that particular pieces of fuccefs are apt to produce prefumption, and its confequent inattention, by which the lofs may be recovered, will learn not to be too much difcouraged by the prefent fuccefs of his adversary, nor to defpair of final good fortune, upon every check he receives in the pursuit of it.

That we may, therefore, be induced more frequently to choose this beneficial amusement, in preference to others, which are not attended with the fame advantages, every circumstance which may increase the pleasure of it fhould be regarded; and every action or word that is unfair, difrefpectful, or that in any way may give uneafinefs, fhould be avoided, as contrary to the immediate intention of both the players, which is to pass the time agreeably.

Therefore, firft, if it is agreed to play according to the ftrict rules; then thofe rules are to be exactly obferved by both parties, and fhould not be infifted on for one fide, while deviated from by the other-for this is not equitable.

Secondly, If it is agreed not to obferve the rules exactly, but one party demands indulgencies, he should then be as willing to allow them to the other.

Thirdly, No false move fhould ever be made to extricate yourself out of a difficulty, or to gain an advantage. There can be no pleasure in playing with a perfon once detected in fuch unfair practice.

Fourthly, If your adverfary is long in playing, you ought not to hurry him, or exprefs any uneafinefs at his delay. You fhould not fing, nor

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whiftle, nor look at your watch, nor take up a book to read, nor make a tapping with your feet on the floor, or with your fingers on the table, nor do any thing that may difturb his attention. For all these things difpleafe; and they do not fhew your fkill in playing, but your craftiness or your rudeness.

Fifthly, You ought not to endeavour to amufe and deceive your adverfary, by pretending to have made bad moves, and faying that you have now loft the game, in order to make him fecure and carelefs, and inattentive to your fchemes: for this is fraud and deceit, not kill in the game.

Sixthly, You muft not, when you have gained a victory, ufe any triumphing or infulting expreflion, nor fhow too much pleafure; but endeavour to confole your adverfary, and make him lefs diffatisfied with himself, by every kind of civil expreffion that may be ufed with truth, fuch as, "You underftand the game better than

I, but you are a little inattentive;" or, "you play too faft;" or, "you had the beft of the game, but fomething happened to divert your thoughts, and that turned it in my favour." Seventhly, If you are a fpectator while others play, obferve the most perfect filence. For if you give advice, you offend both parties; him against whom you give it, because it may caufe the lofs of his game; him in whofe favour you give it, becaufe, though it be good, and he follows it, he lofes the pleafure he might have had, if you had permitted him to think until it had eccurred to himfelf. Even after a move, or moves, you must not, by replacing the pieces, fhow how it might have been placed better: for that difpleafes, and may occafion difputes and doubts about their true fituation. All talking to the players leffens or diverts their attention, and





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is therefore unpleafing. Nor fhould you give the leaft hint to either party, by any kind of noise or motion. If you do, you are unworthy to be a fpectator. If you have a mind to exercife or fhew your judgment, do it in playing your own game, when you have an opportunity, not in criticifing, or meddling with, or counselling the play of others.

Laftly, If the game is not to be played rigoroufly, according to the rules above mentioned, then moderate your defire of victory over your adversary, and be pleased with one over yourfelf. Snatch not eagerly at every advantage offered by his unfkilfulnefs or inattention; but point out to him kindly, that by fuch a move he places or leaves a piece in danger and unfupported; that by another he will put his king in a perilous fituation, &c. By this generous civility (fo oppofite to the unfairnefs above forbidden) you may, indeed, happen to lose the game to your opponent, but you will win what is better, his efteem, his refpect, and his affection ; · together with the filent approbation and goodwill of impartial fpectators.






As a great part of our life is spent in fleep, du

ring which we have fometimes pleafing, and fometimes painful dreams, it becomes of fom confequence to obtain the one kind, and avoid the other; for, whether real or imaginary, pain is pain, and pleasure is pleasure. If we can fleep without dreaming, it is well that painful dreams are avoided. If, while we fleep, we can have any pleasing dreams, it is, as the French fay, tant gagné, fo much added to the pleasure of life.

To this end it is, in the first place, necessary to be careful in preferving health, by due exercife, and great temperance; for, in fickness, the imagination is disturbed; and disagreeable, fometimes terrible, ideas are apt to present themselves. Exercise fhould precede meals, not immediately follow them the firft promotes, the latter, unlefs moderate, obftructs digeftion. If, after exercife, we feed fparingly, the digeftion will be eafy and good, the body lightfome, the temper cheerful, and all the animal functions performed agreeably. Sleep, when it follows, will be natural and undisturbed. While indolence, with full feeding, occafion night-mares and horrors inexpreffible: we fall from precipices, are affaulted by wild beafts, murderers, and demons, and expe

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