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ly acute, attended with a cough and laborious breathing. During this ftate, when the feverity of his pains sometimes drew forth a groan of complaint, he would observe--that he was afraid he did not bear them as he ouglıt-acknowledged his grateful sense of the many blessings he had received from that Supreme Being, who had raised him from small and low beginnings to such high rank and consideration among men--and made no doubt bat his present afflictions were kindly intended to wean him from a world, in which he was no longer fit to act the part assigned him. In this frame of body and mind he continued till five days before his death, when his pain and difficulty of breathing entirely left him, and his family were flattering themselves with the hopes of his recovery, when an impofthumation, which had formed itfelf in his lungs, suddenly burft, and discharged a great quantity of matter, which he continued to throw up while he had sufficient strength to do it, but, as that failed, the organs of respiration became gradually oppressed—a calm lethargic state succeeded--and, on the 17th of April 1790, about eleven o'clock at night, he quietly expired, closing a long and useful life of eighty-four years and three months.

“ It may not be amiss to add to the above account, that Dr. Franklin, in the year 1735, had a fevere pleurisy, which terminated in an abscess of the left lobe of his lungs, and he was then almost fuffocated with the quantity and suddenness of the discharge. A second attack of a fimilar nature happened some years after this, from which he soon recovered, and did not appear to fuffer any inconvenience in his respiration from these diseases."


The following epitaph on himfelf, was written by him many years previous to his death;



(Like the cover of an old book,

Its contents torn out,
And Itript of its lettering and gilding)

Lies here, food for worms;
Yet the work itself shall not be lost,
For it will (as he believed) appear once more,

In a new
And more beautiful edition,
Corrected and amended

The Author.

EXTRACTS from the loft Will and Testament of


WITH regard to my books, those I had in France, and those I left in Philadelphia, being now assembled together here, and a catalogue made of them, it is my intention to dispose of the same as follows:

My history of the Academy of Sciences, in fixty or seventy volumes quarto, I give to the philosophical society of Philadelphia, of which I have the honour to be president. My collection in folio of Les Arts de les Metiers. I give to the American philofophical society, established in New England, of which I am a member. My quarto edition of the famc Arts & Metiers, I give to the library company of Philadelphia. Such and so many of my books as I shall mark, in the said catalogue, with the name of my grandson Benjamin Franklin Bache, I do hereby give to him: and such and so many of my books, as I shall mark in the said catalogue with the name of my grandson William Bache, I do hereby give to him : and such as shall be marked with the name of Jonathan Williams, I hereby give to my coufin of that name. The residue and remainder of all my books, manuscripts and papers, I do give to my grandson William Temple Franklin. My share in the library company of Philadelphia ! give to my grandson Benjamin Franklin Bache, confiding that he will permit his brothers and fifters to share in the use of it.

mark many

I was born in Boston, New England, and owe my first instructions in literature to the free grammar-schools established there. I therefore give one hundred pounds sterling to my executors, to be by them, the survivors or survivor of them, paid over to the managers of the free schools in my native town of Boston, to be by them, or the person or persons who fall have the superintendence and management of the said schools, put out to interest, and fo continued at interest for ever; which interest annually shall be laid out in silver medals, and given as honorary rewards annually by the directors of the said free schools, for the encouragement of scholarship in the said schools, belonging to the said town, in such man. ner as to the discretion of the select men of the said town shall seem meet.

Out of the salary that may remain due to me, as president of the state, I give the sum of two thousand pounds to my executors, to be by them, the survivors or survivor of them, paid over to fuch person or persons as the legislature of this ftate, by an act of assembly, shall appoint to receive the same, in trust, to be employed for making the Schuylkil navigable.

During the number of years I was in business as a stationer, printer, and post-master, a great many small fums became due to me, for books, advertisements, postage of letters, and other matters, which were not collected, when, in 1757, I was sent by the assembly to England as their agent--and, by subsequent appointments, continued there till 1775—when, on my return, I was immediately engaged in the affairs of congress, and sent to France in 1776, where I remained nine years, not returning till 1785; and the said debts not being demanded in such a length of time, are become in a inanner obsolete, yet are nevertheless justly due.These, as they are stated in my great folio leger, E, I bequeath to the contributors of the Pennsylvania hofpital; hoping that thofe debtors, and the descendants of such as are deceased, who now, as I find, make some difficulty of fatisfying such antiquated demands as just debts, may however be induced to pay or give them as charity to that excellent inftitution. I am sensible that much muft inevitably be loft; but I hope something confiderable may be recovered. It is poflible too that fome of the parties charged may have existing old unfettled accounts against me: in which case the managers of the faid hospital will allow and deduct the amount, or pay the balance, if they find it against me.

I request my friends Henry Hill, Efq. John Jay, Esq. Francis Hopkinson, Esq. and Mr. Edward Duilield, of Bonfield, in Philadelphia county, to be the executors of this my last will and testament, and I hereby nominate and appoint them for that purpose.

I would have my body buried with as little ex. pence or ceremony as may be.

Philadelphia, July 17, 1788.


Codicil. I Benjamin Franklin, in the foregoing or afie nexed last will and teftament, having further considered the same, do think proper to make and publish the following codicil, or addition thereto:

It having long been a fixed political opinion of mine, that in a democratical state there ought to be no offices of profit, for the reasons I had given in an article of my drawing in our constitution, it was my intention, when I accepted the office of president, to devote the appointed salary to fome public use: Accordingly I had already, before I made my last will, in July laft, given large fums of it to colleges, schools, building of churches, &c.; and in that will I bequeathed two thousand pounds more to the state, for the purpose of making the Skuylkil navigable; but understanding since, that such a sum will do but little to. wards accomplishing such a work, and that the project is not likely to be undertaken for many years to come—and having entertained another idea, which I hope may be more extensively useful, I do hereby revoke and annul the bequest, and direct that the certificates I have for what remains due to me of that falary, be sold towards raising the sum of two thousand pounds sterling, to be disposed of as I am now about to order.

It has been an opinion, that he who receives an estate from his ancestors, is under fome obligation to transmit the same to posterity. This obligation lies not on me, who never inherited a fhilling from any ancestor or relation. I shall, however, if it is not diminished by some accident before my death, leave a confiderable estate among my descendants and relations. The above observation is made merely as fome apology to my family, for my making bequests that do not ap


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