science analysts—were represented in even smaller numbers in the five major statistical centers. The five centers accounted for 1% of the operations research employees, 6% of the actuaries, and 11% of the social science analysts. The Department of Defense, by contrast, employed 77% of the operations research professionals. Statistical assistants, the paraprofessional statistical occupation series, were employed in 105 agencies; 34% of them were employed in the five major statistical centers. The Department of Defense had 23%. The Census Bureau and BEA in SESA had the most (663), followed by Army (445), BLS and the rest of Labor (346), Navy (239) and SRS in USDA (236). These were the only agencies with more than 200 statistical assistants. NCHS and the rest of HRA had 43; NCES and the rest of OE had 15. In summary, the five statistical centers employed the following percentages of the statistical employees in the Federal Government: statistical professionals and statistical support employees than those with centers. The number of auxiliary statistical professionals seems independent in this comparison. The Departments with the oldest statistical centers-Agriculture, Commerce, and Labor-have the greatest number of statistical professionals. DHEW with two relatively new statistical centers has a greater number and proportion of auxiliary statistical professionals. Table 3 shows the distribution of the seven occupational series of statistical personnel in the 38 major statistical agencies. The percentages of the total Federal Government employment in the seven occupational series in these 38 major agencies are: Statisticians ....... .84 Mathematical statisticians 50 Economists........ .46 Operations research employees .. 11 Actuaries 69 Social science analysts 74 Statistical assistants. 61 TABLE 1. PERCENTAGES OF FULL-TIME STATISTICAL PERSONNEL IN THE FIVE MAJOR STATISTICAL CENTERS, BY OCCUPATIONAL SERIES: DECEMBER 1974 These numbers can be compared with Table 1 to see the increase which the 33 agencies that are not statistical centers make to the totals. They account for 21 to 27% more of the total in the Federal Government of statisticians, mathematical statisticians, economists, and statistical assistants. Distribution of Statistical Personnel in the Federal Government Table 2 shows the distribution of statistical professionals (statisticians, mathematical statisticians, and economists), auxiliary statistical professionals (operations research employees, actuaries, and social science analysts), and statistical assistants by Departments with and without statistical centers. Number and Distribution of Statistical Personnel in Table 4 shows the number and distribution by type of agency of statistical personnel in 37 of the 38 major statistical agencies (the Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards, the central coordination agency, is omitted). At least 10 and probably 12 of the 14 statistical collection agencies have 40 or more statistical professionals (statisticians, mathematical statisticians, and economists). Only the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) in Justice have a smaller resource of statistical professionals with none and five, respectively. At least seven and probably The five major statistical centers are SRS in USDA, the Census Bureau in Commerce, NCES and NCHS in DHEW, and BLS in Labor. This table shows that the Departments without statistical centers (excluding Defense and State) have far fewer TABLE 2. NUMBER OF FULL-TIME STATISTICAL PERSONNEL IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, BY DEPARTMENTS WITH AND WITHOUT STATISTICAL CENTERS: DECEMBER 1974 TABLE 3. NUMBER OF STATISTICAL PERSONNEL IN THE 38 MAJOR STATISTICAL AGENCIES, BY OCCUPATIONAL SERIES: DECEMBER 1974 TABLE 3. NUMBER OF STATISTICAL PERSONNEL IN THE 38 MAJOR STATISTICAL AGENCIES, BY OCCUPATIONAL SERIES: DECEMBER 1974(Continued) 7 HEW/Assistant Secretary for Human (S..... Production and Mortgage Credit and Housing Management) Administration Administration Safety Administration .. Service .. Secretary (including Office of Revenue Sharing)... Totals (8,522) .. 7 81 22 5 3 23 54 420 2,143 7 5 163 31 11 2,338 18 18 1,842 72 240 68 1,471 1 Staffing numbers are given for all of OMB. SPD is but one Division in OMB. nine of the 14 have 40 or more statistical support Staffing figures for the five statistical centers and BEA in Commerce were given for fiscal years 1976, 1977 (estimate) and 1978 (estimate) in Special Analysis G, "Principal Federal Statistical Programs,” of the Budget of the U.S. Government-Fiscal Year 1978."The fact that these numbers are much larger than those shown in Table 4 may be substantially accounted for by the inclusion of employees in other than statistical occupational series in these counts. Unlike the congressional data, "Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, Special Analyses—Budgel of the United States Governmeni-Fiscal Year 1978. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977. TABLE 4. NUMBER OF STATISTICAL PERSONNEL IN 37 OF THE 38 MAJOR STATISTICAL AGENCIES, ‘BY TYPE OF AGENCY: DECEMBER 1974 2 Statistical collection: USDA/Statistical Reporting Service . Federal Reserve System? USDA/Economic Research Service ... including Office of Research and Statistics ... DOT/Office of the Secretary Health Administration. National Center for Health Statistics) Development Mortgage Credit and Housing Management) Office of Revenue Sharing) 3 (3) 363 (8) 17 5 'Excluded is the Statistical Policy Division of the Office of Management and Budget. See HEW/ASPE. Figures for all of the HEW/Office of the Secretary are shown under HEWIASPE. OS includes ASPE, ASHD, etc. N 672 LSDA/SRS ..... Only 15.1% of the Census Bureau and BEA professionals majored in statistics or mathematics, while another 22.4% majored in economics, yielding a total of 37.6% professionals with majors in one of the three areas. The rest had a wide variety of majors with none comprising over 10% except “business and management" (11.7%). In contrast, 70.4% of the retirees with a bachelor's degree or more majored in statistics, mathematics or economics, that is, the statistical personnel with tenure in the statistical system had a seemingly closer match between their academic training and their employment. Only 23.0% of the Census Bureau and BEA professionals had a master's or higher degree. As many as 17.7% of the professionals had less than a bachelor's degree. Of the retirees 38.0% had a master's or higher degree, that is, a larger proportion than those in the Census Bureau and BEA in November 1974. Only 6.0% of the retirees had a Ph.D. while 10.0% had less than a bachelor's degree. Again, retirees on the average had a higher educational attainment level at the time of their retirement than those remaining in the statistical system. This analysis does not indicate, however, how many of the retirees obtained graduate level degrees at later stages in their employment, a factor which could affect the seeming disparities in educational levels. Another index of the skill level of statistical personnel is their repertoire of applied skills. Statistical professionals to be most versatile and ready for management responsibility should have experience in all aspects of statistical programs including design, collection, processing, and analysis of statistical data. Many statisticians are not exposed to this diversity of experience. They may, therefore, be limited in their ability to assume management positions or to be fully utilized in their employment in the Federal Statistical System. 1,799 1 1,303 4,091 560 191 542 2,372 (65)* (224)* (1,435)* • Personnel numbers include not only those for the statistical agency but also for the rest of the organization of which it is a component part, i.e., 65 includes all of OE, 224 all of HRA, and 1,435 all of DOL. 'Total for Census and BEA. In a November 1974 analysis of professional employment in the Bureau of the Census and the Bureau of Economic Analysis, 14.0% of the professionals were in GS-5-7, 44.9% in GS-9-12, 31.7% in GS-13-14, and 9.4% were GS-15 and above." 70.6% of the GS-5-7 professionals were statisticians, mathematical statisticians, or economists; 63.4% of the GS-9-12 professionals; 64.0% of the GS-13-14 group; and 83.3% of the GS-15 and above group. These statistics show that a larger percent of the entry level professionals were statistical professionals or specialists than those at the GS-9-12 and GS-13-14 levels. In a January 1975 analysis of GS-14 and above retirements during calendar year 1974 in nine selected agencies (the five major statistical centers, the Bureau of Economic Analysis in Commerce, the Social Security Administration's Office of Research and Statistics in DHEW, the Internal Revenue Service's Division of Statistics in Treasury, and the Federal Reserve Board) in the Federal Statistical System, it was found that replacements had less formal education (38.0% of the retirees had a masters degree or more compared with only 20.0% of the replacements). Also, fewer replacements majored in economics, mathematics or statistics (70.4% of those retired compared with 64.3% of their replacements). These statistics point to the problem of continuing the level of statistical expertise which now exists in the major statistical agencies. "'"Comments on Professional Employment at SESA Report." Unpublished memorandum, Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, November 14, 1975. |