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science analysts—were represented in even smaller numbers in the five major statistical centers. The five centers accounted for 1% of the operations research employees, 6% of the actuaries, and 11% of the social science analysts. The Department of Defense, by contrast, employed 77% of the operations research professionals.

Statistical assistants, the paraprofessional statistical occupation series, were employed in 105 agencies; 34% of them were employed in the five major statistical centers. The Department of Defense had 23%. The Census Bureau and BEA in SESA had the most (663), followed by Army (445), BLS and the rest of Labor (346), Navy (239) and SRS in USDA (236). These were the only agencies with more than 200 statistical assistants. NCHS and the rest of HRA had 43; NCES and the rest of OE had 15.

In summary, the five statistical centers employed the following percentages of the statistical employees in the Federal Government:

statistical professionals and statistical support employees than those with centers. The number of auxiliary statistical professionals seems independent in this comparison. The Departments with the oldest statistical centers-Agriculture, Commerce, and Labor-have the greatest number of statistical professionals. DHEW with two relatively new statistical centers has a greater number and proportion of auxiliary statistical professionals.

Table 3 shows the distribution of the seven occupational series of statistical personnel in the 38 major statistical agencies.

The percentages of the total Federal Government employment in the seven occupational series in these 38 major agencies are: Statisticians .......

.84 Mathematical statisticians

50 Economists........

.46 Operations research employees ..

11 Actuaries

69 Social science analysts

74 Statistical assistants.

61

TABLE 1. PERCENTAGES OF FULL-TIME STATISTICAL PERSONNEL IN THE FIVE MAJOR STATISTICAL CENTERS, BY OCCUPATIONAL

SERIES: DECEMBER 1974

These numbers can be compared with Table 1 to see the increase which the 33 agencies that are not statistical centers make to the totals. They account for 21 to 27% more of the total in the Federal Government of statisticians, mathematical statisticians, economists, and statistical assistants.

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Distribution of Statistical Personnel in the Federal Government

Table 2 shows the distribution of statistical professionals (statisticians, mathematical statisticians, and economists), auxiliary statistical professionals (operations research employees, actuaries, and social science analysts), and statistical assistants by Departments with and without statistical centers.

Number and Distribution of Statistical Personnel in
Major Statistical
Collection, Analysis and Program Agencies

Table 4 shows the number and distribution by type of agency of statistical personnel in 37 of the 38 major statistical agencies (the Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards, the central coordination agency, is omitted). At least 10 and probably 12 of the 14 statistical collection agencies have 40 or more statistical professionals (statisticians, mathematical statisticians, and economists). Only the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) in Justice have a smaller resource of statistical professionals with none and five, respectively. At least seven and probably

The five major statistical centers are SRS in USDA, the Census Bureau in Commerce, NCES and NCHS in DHEW, and BLS in Labor. This table shows that the Departments without statistical centers (excluding Defense and State) have far fewer

TABLE 2. NUMBER OF FULL-TIME STATISTICAL PERSONNEL IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, BY

DEPARTMENTS WITH AND WITHOUT STATISTICAL CENTERS: DECEMBER 1974

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TABLE 3. NUMBER OF STATISTICAL PERSONNEL IN THE 38 MAJOR STATISTICAL AGENCIES, BY

OCCUPATIONAL SERIES: DECEMBER 1974

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TABLE 3. NUMBER OF STATISTICAL PERSONNEL IN THE 38 MAJOR STATISTICAL AGENCIES, BY

OCCUPATIONAL SERIES: DECEMBER 1974(Continued)

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HEW/Assistant Secretary for Human
Developments

(S.....
HUD/Policy Development and Research
HUD/Community Planning and Development
HUD/Housing (formerly Housing

Production and Mortgage Credit

and Housing Management)
Interior/Bureau of Mines .
DOJ/Law Enforcement Assistance

Administration
DOJ/Federal Bureau of Investigation
DOL/Bureau of Labor Statistics
DOL/Employment and Training

Administration
DOT/National Highway Traffic

Safety Administration ..
DOT/Office of the Secretary
DOT/Federal Highway Administration.
Treasury/Internal Revenue

Service ..
Treasury/Office of the

Secretary (including Office of

Revenue Sharing)...
Federal Reserve System ®
Federal Energy Administration
National Science Foundation
Veterans Administration
U.S. International Trade Commission
Environmental Protection Agency

Totals (8,522) ..

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7 81

22 5 3

23

54 420 2,143

7

5 163 31

11 2,338

18

18 1,842

72 240

68

1,471

1

Staffing numbers are given for all of OMB. SPD is but one Division in OMB.
Staffing numbers are shown for SESA which was composed of the Bureau of the Census and BEA.
'See HEWINCES. Staffing numbers shown for NCES include OE. NCES used to be part of OE.
*See HEWINCHS. Staffing numbers shown for NCHS include HRA (excepi NCHS).
* See HEWIASPE. Staffing numbers shown for ASPE include ASPE, ASHD, and other components of OS.
• All of HUD is shown together. HUD=PD&R, CPD, H, etc.
'All of DOL is shown together. DOL=BLS, ETA, etc.
Data are missing for the Federal Reserve System.
• Part or all of the numbers shown can be attributed to these agencies.
Source: U.S. Civil Service Commission

nine of the 14 have 40 or more statistical support
personnel. Those below this level are the National
Center for Education Statistics (NCES) with 15,
Policy Development and Research in HUD (with 33
for all of HUD), LEAA with none, the
Environmental Protection Agency with 11 and the
Federal Energy Administration with seven. The need
for additional statistical personnel in these agencies
should be examined. The five analysis agencies ap-
pear to be appropriately staffed with professional
expertise.

Staffing figures for the five statistical centers and BEA in Commerce were given for fiscal years 1976,

1977 (estimate) and 1978 (estimate) in Special Analysis G, "Principal Federal Statistical Programs,” of the Budget of the U.S. Government-Fiscal Year 1978."The fact that these numbers are much larger than those shown in Table 4 may be substantially accounted for by the inclusion of employees in other than statistical occupational series in these counts. Unlike the congressional data,

"Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, Special AnalysesBudgel of the United States Governmeni-Fiscal Year 1978. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977.

TABLE 4. NUMBER OF STATISTICAL PERSONNEL IN 37 OF THE 38 MAJOR STATISTICAL AGENCIES, ‘BY TYPE

OF AGENCY: DECEMBER 1974

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Statistical collection:

USDA/Statistical Reporting Service .
Commerce/Bureau of the Census 2
HEW/National Center for Education Statistics 3
HEW/National Center for Health Statistics •
HUD/Policy Development and Research
Interior/Bureau of Mines
DOJ/Federal Bureau of Investigation
DOJ/Law Enforcement Assistance Administration
DOL/Bureau of Labor Statistics 56....
DOL/Employment and Training Administration
Treasury/Internal Revenue Service .
Environmental Protection Agency
Federal Energy Administration

Federal Reserve System?
Analysis:

USDA/Economic Research Service ...
Commerce/Bureau of Economic Analysis
HEW/Social Security Administration/

including Office of Research and Statistics ...
HEW/Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation

DOT/Office of the Secretary
Program:
HEW/Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental

Health Administration.
HEW/Center for Disease Control
HEW/Food and Drug Administration.
HEW/Health Resources Administration (except

National Center for Health Statistics)
HEW/Health Services Administration.
HEW/National Institutes of Health
HEW/National Institute of Education
HEW/Office of Education
HEW/Social and Rehabilitation Service
HEW/Assistant Secretary for Human

Development
HUD/Community Planning & Developments
HUD/Housing (formerly Housing Production and

Mortgage Credit and Housing Management)
DOT/Federal Highway Administration
DOT/National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Treasury/Office of the Secretary (including

Office of Revenue Sharing)
National Science Foundation
U.S. International Trade Commission
Veterans Administration

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(3) 363

(8) 17

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'Excluded is the Statistical Policy Division of the Office of Management and Budget.
* See Commerce/Bureau of the Census. Figures for Commerce/SESA which included the Bureau of the Census and BEA are shown under the Bureau of the Census.
"See HEW/NCES. Figures for both HEW/NCES (which used to be part of OE) and OE are shown under HEW/NCES.
*See HEW/NCHS. Figures for both HEWINCHS (part of HRA) and HRA (excepi NCHS) are shown under HEW/NCHS.
See HUD/PD & R. All of HUD is shown under PD&R. HUD includes PD&R, CPD, H, etc.
.See DOL/BLS. All of DOL is shown under BLS. DOL includes BLS, ETA, etc.
'Data are missing for the Federal Reserve System.

See HEW/ASPE. Figures for all of the HEW/Office of the Secretary are shown under HEWIASPE. OS includes ASPE, ASHD, etc.
* Part or all of the numbers shown can be attributed to these agencies.
Source: U.S. Civil Service Commission

N

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672

LSDA/SRS .....
Commerce/Census Bureau
Commerce/BEA
DHEW/NCES
DHEW/NCHS
DOL/BLS

Only 15.1% of the Census Bureau and BEA professionals majored in statistics or mathematics, while another 22.4% majored in economics, yielding a total of 37.6% professionals with majors in one of the three areas. The rest had a wide variety of majors with none comprising over 10% except “business and management" (11.7%). In contrast, 70.4% of the retirees with a bachelor's degree or more majored in statistics, mathematics or economics, that is, the statistical personnel with tenure in the statistical system had a seemingly closer match between their academic training and their employment.

Only 23.0% of the Census Bureau and BEA professionals had a master's or higher degree. As many as 17.7% of the professionals had less than a bachelor's degree. Of the retirees 38.0% had a master's or higher degree, that is, a larger proportion than those in the Census Bureau and BEA in November 1974. Only 6.0% of the retirees had a Ph.D. while 10.0% had less than a bachelor's degree. Again, retirees on the average had a higher educational attainment level at the time of their retirement than those remaining in the statistical system. This analysis does not indicate, however, how many of the retirees obtained graduate level degrees at later stages in their employment, a factor which could affect the seeming disparities in educational levels.

Another index of the skill level of statistical personnel is their repertoire of applied skills. Statistical professionals to be most versatile and ready for management responsibility should have experience in all aspects of statistical programs including design, collection, processing, and analysis of statistical data. Many statisticians are not exposed to this diversity of experience. They may, therefore, be limited in their ability to assume management positions or to be fully utilized in their employment in the Federal Statistical System.

1,799 1

1,303 4,091

560 191

542 2,372

(65)* (224)* (1,435)*

• Personnel numbers include not only those for the statistical agency but also

for the rest of the organization of which it is a component part, i.e., 65

includes all of OE, 224 all of HRA, and 1,435 all of DOL. 'Total for Census and BEA.

In a November 1974 analysis of professional employment in the Bureau of the Census and the Bureau of Economic Analysis, 14.0% of the professionals were in GS-5-7, 44.9% in GS-9-12, 31.7% in GS-13-14, and 9.4% were GS-15 and above." 70.6% of the GS-5-7 professionals were statisticians, mathematical statisticians, or economists; 63.4% of the GS-9-12 professionals; 64.0% of the GS-13-14 group; and 83.3% of the GS-15 and above group. These statistics show that a larger percent of the entry level professionals were statistical professionals or specialists than those at the GS-9-12 and GS-13-14 levels.

In a January 1975 analysis of GS-14 and above retirements during calendar year 1974 in nine selected agencies (the five major statistical centers, the Bureau of Economic Analysis in Commerce, the Social Security Administration's Office of Research and Statistics in DHEW, the Internal Revenue Service's Division of Statistics in Treasury, and the Federal Reserve Board) in the Federal Statistical System, it was found that replacements had less formal education (38.0% of the retirees had a masters degree or more compared with only 20.0% of the replacements). Also, fewer replacements majored in economics, mathematics or statistics (70.4% of those retired compared with 64.3% of their replacements). These statistics point to the problem of continuing the level of statistical expertise which now exists in the major statistical agencies.

"'"Comments on Professional Employment at SESA Report." Unpublished memorandum, Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, November 14, 1975.

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