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The Bureau of the Census in the Commerce Department also conducts several surveys for OE, including surveys of early childhood education, postsecondary education, adult education, and the basic opportunity grants program. OE, like NCES, cooperates with, and receives advice from, the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) in collecting statistical information from the Nation's public elementary and secondary schools. NIE does not have formal relations with State and local governments, although it has considerable contact with the research and academic communities.
Mission. The statutory function of OE is administration of programs of financial assistance to educational agencies, institutions, and organizations. OE also supports research on measurement of poverty, State use of Federal education funds, and participation of disadvantaged children in the Title I Education Program. OE and NIE support evaluations of compensatory education. NIE provides leadership in the conduct and support of scientific inquiry into the educational process, provides knowledge about educational quality, and recommends improvements for education programs. Therefore, OE is a program agency which primarily collects program statistical data, and NIE is also a program agency, but one which collects research data.
systems are designed to assist in the administration and evaluation of health delivery and health care financing
In terms of current activities, the recent placement of the Medicare and Medicaid programs under the aegis of the Health Care Financing Administration should bring about further integration of data systems associated with these programs. Such integration should result in more compatible data on enrollment and eligibility, utilization of services, provider characteristics, expenditures and costs.
Mission The Health Care Financing Administration is responsible for planning, coordination and implementation of Titles XI, XVIII and XIX of the Social Security Act, including Medicare, Medicaid, the Professional Standards Review Organizations, and a variety of related programs designed to control costs, to ensure appropriate utilization of these health services by eligible recipients, and to eliminate program fraud and abuse.
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Human Development Services, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
Health Care Financing Administration
The reorganization of health care services within HEW in 1977 had a direct impact on the statistical organization of the health, welfare and social service agencies of the Department. The creation of the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) led to the transfer of the health care statistical and operating components from the Social Security Administration (SSA) and the Social and Rehabilitation Services (SRS) to the new agency. Statistical and research functions were combined into the Office for Policy, Planning and Research (OPPR) in HCFA. These activities include the statistical systems designed to review and evaluate the Medicare and Medicaid programs.
Medicare program data, a byproduct of the claims review and payment process, are used to answer programmatic questions, such as how much money is being spent, how many people are being served, and what kinds of services are being used. In addition, there is a major research program designed to investigate alternatives to existing health care delivery and reimbursement procedures. Data on the Medicaid program are obtained from the participating state agencies. The Medicaid statistical
The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Human Development Services (ASHDS) focuses attention on special populations of Americans. ASHDS collects data on children in day care, Headstart students, runaway youth, American Indians, persons with developmental disabilities, rehabilitation clients, and persons in the Federal nutrition programs for the aged. Many of these data are program statistics. The Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE) serves as the principal unit in the Office of Human Development Services for the development of a framework for defining program problems and operations research models and other scientific techniques to analyze situations on an objective basis, the presentation of evaluations and alternative solutions to both basic and specific issues, and the assessment and improvement of program and planning systems. OPRE is responsible for directing research and evaluation activities, program analysis, planning, and developing and administering an ASHDS program data systems capability.
Mission. ASHDS focuses the Department's planning and resources on certain groups of Americans with special needs-for example, children and youth, the aged, handicapped persons, American Indians and Alaskan natives, and people living in rural areas. ASHDS collects data on numbers of Americans in each of these populations eligible to receive services throughout the Department. In some ways, ASHDS acts
as an advocacy office for
consideration of the needs of these special pop
focus on statistics about the ulations.
construction, use, cost, financing, and administration
of highways; motor vehicle registrations, taxation, Offices of the Assistant Secretaries for Housing and and fuel consumption; traffic characteristics; Community Planning and Development, Department highway mileage; and motor vehicle accidents. of Housing and Urban Development
Two offices in the Department of Housing and Office of Statistics and Analysis, National Highway Urban Development besides Policy Development Traffic Safety Administration, Department of Transand Research have important statistical activities: portation Housing (H) and Community Planning and Development (CPD). H prepares analyses on housing
The National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration (NHTSA) carries out programs and housing finance, and collects and analyzes statistics that pertain to the operation of the
relating to the safety performance of motor vehicles, Department's housing programs and the
related equipment, and drivers. Its Office of Statistics management of its properties. CPD conducts
and Analysis collects data on highway and motor analyses relating to the Department's community
vehicle safety and on safety program performance to development programs and activities, including
make possible objective planning and evaluation of planning and management assistance, inter
NHTSA's programs. All of NHTSA's statistics are governmental relations, community and
produced for direct use in the agency, but they are environmental standards, urban growth, and land ac
also used by other agencies in the Department, such quisition policies.
as the Federal Highway Administration. NHTSA
collects data both directly from the public (e.g., the Mission. Both of these units provide statistical National Accident Sampling System) and through support to departmental programs. H collects, the medium of police reports and State records (e.g., analyzes, and publishes commitments, dwelling units the Fatality Accident Reporting System). It also started, mortgages issued, and trends of home
contracts with other agencies to add questions to mortgage characteristics. It also collects and analyzes established data collection devices (e.g., with the data on low-rent housing, on those who have applied Census Bureau to add questions on characteristics of for low-rent housing, but not been admitted, and on the driving population to current household surveys). counseling provided to mortgagors defaulting on HUD-insured mortgages. CPD collects, analyzes,
NHTSA works closely with the private National and publishes data on urban renewal operations and
Safety Council on statistical questions and on recipients of Federal block grants for community
extensively uses the Council's comprehensive data on development activities.
accidents, injuries, and fatalities. NHTSA performs a
technical support function for the National Highway Federal Highway Administration, Department of
Safety Advisory Committee (which is a public Transportation
advisory committee to the Department of Trans
portation), and the Committee also advises NHTSA The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on statistical programs. compiles, collects, and analyzes data on highways
Mission and travel for direct use in the program activities of
NHTSA's primary statistical mission the agency, although many data are also used in re
involves collection and analysis of highway and
motor vehicle accident and safety data, and the ports required by statute elsewhere in the
establishment of program information systems. Department and the Federal Government, and by State and local authorities. Some data are collected by the Census Bureau through FHWA sponsorship
Office of the Secretary, Department of the Treasury of portions of the National Transportation Survey
The Office of the Secretary is included among the (cosponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety
statistical offices principally because of its data Administration (NHTSA), the Office of the Assistant
associated with the general revenue sharing program. Secretary for Policy, Plans, and International Affairs, and the Urban Mass Transit Administration
In particular, two reports are required annually from
the approximately 38,000 units of general-purpose (UMTA)). Most statistics are, however, compiled from data collected by States, characteristically in ac
local government which are the direct beneficiaries of cordance with FHWA guidelines and standards.
the program. The two reports are the Planned Use
Report and the Actual Use Report. Because these Mission. The statistical mission of FHWA is col data do not have wide use outside of the Office of lection and analysis of data to support agency pro
Revenue Sharing, the statistical role must be
considered primarily one of statistical support to the Department
Mission. This office provides statistical data related to general revenue sharing. It contributes to policymaking in this special Federal/State relationship.
measures of output resulting from science and technology such as the number of patents granted and the number of citations appearing in published research journals. This particular effort is still in its very early stages of development.
Mission. The major thrust of the NSF statistical effort is the development of the factual and analytical basis for national planning and policy formulation in the area of science and technology resources.
National Science Foundation
U.S. International Trade Commission
The U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC) is an independent agency. Most of the agency's statistical activity is undertaken by the Office of Trade and Industry and the Office of Economic Research. The agency has only a small statistical budget and does not have any reimbursable statistical programs with other agencies.
Mission. The USITC conducts research relating to aspects of commercial policy and international trade. Most of the agency's data collection activities are conducted as special studies. The agency's statistical products form the basis of policy hearings and are frequently collected at the request of the President or Congress.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) plays a key coordinating role in the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data on the development and utilization of scientific manpower, the funding of scientific and technical activities, and selected science and technology output measures.
To carry out this activity the NSF conducts surveys of its own and, in many instances, contracts with other agencies and nonfederal organizations for the collection of data. For example, NSF uses the Census Bureau to collect R&D funding data from industrial organizations. Another example is the National Academy of Sciences which, under contract to NSF, develops statistical information on a doctorate roster of scientists and engineers.
NSF also uses data on science and engineering manpower extracted from data collected by other Federal agencies, including:
Immigration and Naturalization Service in analyzing scientists', engineers', and physicians' migration patterns; Civil Service Commission in analyzing Federal Government employment of scientific and technical personnel; and The National Center for Education Statistics.
Besides conducting regularly scheduled, periodic scientific and technological manpower and funding surveys among the principal economic sectorsgovernment, industry, universities and colleges, and nonprofit institutions—NSF also carries out special surveys and analyses to provide pertinent information related to current science policy issues. Examples of special efforts are a recent survey of young and senior university faculty support, research participation, and tenure; the development of R&D deflators; and statistical projection and evaluation efforts to assess the impact of emerging national programs on the requirements for R&D funds or for scientists and engineers in particular occupations.
NSF also sponsors a program for the identification, development, and collection of
The Veterans Administration (VA) is an independent agency. Most of its statistical activity is housed in the Reports and Statistics Service (RSS) of the Office of Controller, a staff office reporting to the Administrator of Veterans Affairs. RSS is responsible for providing statistical support to the three line Departments (Medicine and Surgery, Veterans Benefits, Data Management) and to other staff offices. In addition, RSS also conducts its own statistical programs which usually involve collecting and analyzing data of general agency interest such as veterans population survey data, which are collected by the Census Bureau under a continuing reimbursable program. The VA also reimburses the National Center for Health Statistics, on an “as needed” basis, for collecting data on the health status of veterans in the Health Interview Survey.
Mission. VA develops policy on the basis of data which it collects and analyzes itself, in large part. The agency deals with education, housing, construction, health, compensation and pension, and population statistics. RSS, as the principal statistical group in VA, also collects and analyzes general-purpose and administrative data.