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statistical support for Department of Labor programs. These are the Office of Policy and Planning and the Office of Research and Development. The former is particularly concerned with statistical support for Department of Labor major operating programs. In this role it conducts and sponsors (through contracts) major evaluation studies and improvements in both current and periodic statistical data. An example of this latter activity is the support of the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) matrix. Within the Department, however, BLS rather than ETA has the responsibility for the technical control of these data.

vehicles for data other than those which are needed in support of the tax collection function. There are rare exceptions to the general policy. The IRS Form 1040, for example, has included information on exact place of residence, which was needed for equitable allocation of funds under the general revenue sharing program.

Environmental Protection Agency

The Office of Research and Development provides statistical support, i.e., research data associated with its responsibilities for research in the manpower area.

Mission. The ETA has responsibility for programmatic data relating to manpower policy, Federal funding of training activities in local labor market areas, and related programs.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an independent agency which has the role of developing, setting, and enforcing environmental quality standards in the areas of air, water, pesticides, radiation, noise, solid waste, and toxic substances. The two largest agency programs are in air and water. In air, EPA has the responsibility of setting and regulating ambient standards. To accomplish this the agency conducts research on the health, economic, and ecological impacts of air pollution and uses data collected by other agencies in these areas. The EPA pollution effects research program is the Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS). Among the agencies which supply EPA with environmental health effects data are the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA).

Division of Statistics, Internal Revenue Service,
Department of the Treasury

The Internal Revenue Service's (IRS) Division of Statistics has one of the major data collection programs in the Federal Government. It is based on the principal tax forms for individuals, businesses, and corporations. As the tabulator of the tax returns, the Division of Statistics plays an important statistical support role for other offices within the Treasury Department which are concerned with analysis and forecasting of tax receipts and development of tax policy. In addition, the Division is the supplier of income and related data to other analytical offices. The Bureau of Economic Analysis, for example, makes use of profit, income, and inventory data from the IRS tabulations in providing annual revisions of the national income and product accounts. IRS has also been the supplier of information for statistical list building, but has restricted this role to its interaction with the Bureau of the Census, which has the most rigorous legislation protecting confidentiality, and to the Federal Trade Commission, which has responsibilities for the Quarterly Financial Report.

Mission. IRS is classified as a functional multipurpose collection agency because of the comprehensive program data it collects. The IRS' primary statistical mission is collection of the vast amount of data produced as a byproduct of the tax collection process. It is also responsible for analysis of these data. In particular, analysis includes the design and publication of useful tabulations. The tax forms as a matter of policy are not used as collection

EPA also maintains national inventories of air pollutant emissions data (NEDS system) and ambient air quality data (SAROAD system). The ambient air quality data are collected primarily by State and local governments using Federal guidelines.

In water quality, EPA also has the lead role for the development and setting of standards. The agency, however, shares its water quality monitoring responsibilities with several other agencies. For example, both the U.S. Geological Survey and EPA monitor river basins and both the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and EPA monitor coastal and estuarine waters.

Another major program administered by the agency is in the regulation and registering of pesticides. The agency also monitors pesticide residues in human populations. Other agencies involved in monitoring pesticide levels are:

NOAA-in surface water and in oysters and clams. The Fish and Wildlife Service-in birds and fish. The U.S. Department of Agriculture—in meats and poultry.

The Food and Drug Administration-in foods and

crops.
Other EPA responsibilities are:

With the Federal Aviation Administration, the
development of Federal noise standards.
With ERDA, the monitoring of radiation.
The collection and analysis of solid waste data.

Mission. The EPA has basic responsibilities for statistics relating to air, water, pesticides, radiation, noise, solid waste, and toxic substances.

principal analytical role for data relating to farms and the farm population. The ESCS conducts the Annual Economic Survey, the single most comprehensive data collection vehicle required for economic analysis relating to the farm sector. Furthermore, within the Department of Agriculture (USDA), ESCS publications and other analytic outputs are essential to the individuals and offices concerned with agricultural policy issues. Outside of USDA, significant users of its products include the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Council of Economic Advisers, and the Federal Reserve Board, all of which need to analyze the farm sector as a part of a broader economic and financial picture.

Mission. The Economics Units have a broad mission for analyses and publications on all aspects of agricultural economics, including inputs and outputs, income, and the costs of farm family living. In addition, ESCS is concerned with analysis of later stages in fabrication and distribution, i.e., food processing and food marketing, and with data on rural land, including real estate values and ownership patterns.

Statistical Agencies With Primarily

Analytical Functions A number of agencies play an important role in the Federal system of economic and social statistics primarily through extensive analysis or interpretation of statistical data from other sources-governmental and nongovernmental. Their estimates, analyses, or forecasts are an important product of the Government's statistical system. In some instances they also engage in direct collection of basic statistics.

The principal agencies in this category (again, arranged alphabetically by Department) are:

Bureau of Economic Analysis, Department of Com

merce

1. Agriculture-Economics Units in the

Economics, Statistics and Cooperatives

Service. 2. Commerce-Bureau of Economic Analysis. 3. Health, Education, and Welfare

Office of Research and Statistics, Social
Security Administration.
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning

and Evaluation. 4. Transportation-Research and Special Pro

grams Administration. 5. Federal Reserve Board.

These six agencies differ in some respects. The first four of them and the last fulfill analysis needs in more than one subject area for more than one Department and are here known as Core Multipurpose Analysis agencies. The fifth-the Research and Special Programs Administration in the Department of Transportation provides analysis in a specific subject area which is of interest across Departments.

Although the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) budget ($12.5 million) is not especially large among statistical agencies, the broad analytical use and impact of its work make it one of the major agencies in the U.S. Federal Statistical System. BEA provides analytical support based on the national economic accounts to the Secretary and other elements of the Department as well as key governmental units such as the Council of Economic Advisers. Its work is widely used by academic and business analysts.

In preparing the national income and product accounts, BEA is a major user of statistics collected by other agencies. More than one-third of the data used by BEA comes from the Census Bureau, and the interactive relationship between these sister agencies is one of the important factors shaping economic statistics in the Federal Government. The data needs identified with and by the national economic accounts and related BEA work are a major consideration in planning for the economic censuses and the census of agriculture. (BEA, in turn, supplies the Census Bureau with adjusted personal income data used as an input to the intercensal demographic estimates program.) BEA also provides under contract a variety of special analytical tabulations on such topics as migration and personal income for the regional economic commissions which are constituent units of the Department of Commerce.

Economics Units; Economics, Statistics and Cooperatives Service; Department of Agriculture

The Economics Units in the Economics, Statistics and Cooperatives Service (ESCS) provide the

The measures and analyses produced by BEA are analytical statistical agency. Within the Department, used by business to plan production, price, and its role is also one of statistical support for the major investment programs. This information is essential operating programs of the Social Security also for economic decisionmaking by State and local Administration, including Supplementary Security governments, labor, and other economic groups. Income (SSI) and Aid to Families with Dependent BEA, over and above its main-line products, prepares Children (AFDC). Its statistical support and analysis analyses bearing on the formulation of fiscal, activities are closely related to those of the Health monetary, and other economic policies for the Care Financing Administration because of the Council of Economic Advisers, the Treasury overlap in their constituencies. Department, the Office of Management and Budget, and the Federal Reserve System. BEA does a limited

Because the role of ORS, however, is considerably amount of reimbursable work for other Federal

more than statistical support, it is a significant user of agencies, State and local governments, and the

data from other agencies. In addition, Social Security

administrative records provide data which have been private sector.

utilized in analytic efforts by other agencies. For Mission. The primary BEA mission is analysis example the Continuous Work History Sample and research related to the preparation and (CWHS) from Social Security records has been used interpretation of the economic accounts of the by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, Department of United States. The economic accounts provide a Commerce, to develop an analysis of employment realistic quantitative view of the economic process in and migration patterns. The CWHS is also used terms of the production, distribution, and use of the extensively by other government agencies and by Nation's output. The accounts consist of the national universities for various types of socioeconomic income and product accounts, summarized by the research on earnings and income. In addition, Social gross national product (GNP); wealth accounts Security quarterly employment reports have been for which show the business and other components of many years a principal source to the Bureau of the national wealth; interindustry accounts which trace Census in developing county data on employment the interrelationships among industrial markets; and payrolls. regional accounts which provide detail on economic

As a data user, ORS has been particularly activity by region, State, metropolitan area, and

interested in income data from other agencies. It has county; and U.S. international transactions accounts

been an active participant with the Internal Revenue which give detail on U.S. transactions with foreign

Service and the Bureau of the Census in the project to countries.

obtain more comprehensive personal income data by A derivative and relatively limited secondary establishing linkages between income tax, Social mission is the direct collection of data from Security, and Current Population Survey data. Finalrespondents when there is a close link between the ly, it should be noted that Social Security is a sponsor data and the analytical function as, for instance, the for household surveys conducted by the Census collection of international investment data and data Bureau, particularly of questions concerning receipt for the balance of payments accounts.

of benefits under the SSI and Medicare programs and

more general questions relating to retirement history The work on the economic accounts is sup

and health and work characteristics. plemented by the preparation and analysis of other measures of economic activity, including various In addition to tabulating and analyzing data tools for forecasting economic developments such as available from SSA's program statistics, ORS surveys of the investment outlays and plans of U.S. periodically supplements these data through surveys business, econometric models of the U.S. economy, such as the Retirement History Survey (RHS) and the and a system of economic indicators. The measures series of disability and low income population and analyses prepared by BEA are disseminated surveys. ORS has also conducted various mainly through its monthly publication, the Survey of experiments and evaluation studies under Section 222 Current Business (including periodic supplements to of P.L. 92-603 and under the National Health the Survey).

Resources Planning Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-641). These

activities are now the responsibility of the Office of Office of Research and Statistics, Social Security

Policy, Planning and Research in HCFA. Among Administration, Department of Health, Education,

other aims, these efforts are designed to determine and Welfare

the relative advantages and disadvantages of various

methods of setting rates on a prospective basis under The Office of Research and Statistics (ORS) within Title VII of the Social Security Act and under State the Social Security Administration (SSA) is a major plans approved under Titles XIX and V of the Act.

Mission The Office of Research and Statistics provides the basic tabulations and publications concerning the benefits associated with Social Security programs. Also, through arrangements with other statistical offices, it is enabled to do further analysis of Social Security program beneficiaries and the impact of the programs on them. Beyond that, it works on analysis of the general economic impact of Social Security programs.

elements. RSPA collects information directly, and also utilizes contractors (both private and other agencies), such as the Census Bureau (e.g., commodity transportation). RSPA operates a statistical system that provides DOT's Office of Air Transportation, the Federal Aviation Administration, the Civil Aeronautics Board, and the U.S. Travel Service, with special tabulations and analyses of Immigration and Naturalization Service records on international air passenger origins and destinations.

Mission. The primary RSPA statistical mission is in development and analysis of intermodal transportation data. This involves collection, data base management, and related functions.

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) has contact with all parts of the Department since it oversees policy formulation, planning, analysis, and evaluation. It is the office which coordinates the annual statistics plan and evaluation plan of each part of the Department for the Secretary.

Mission. ASPE coordinates the Department's activities in economic and social analysis, program analysis and planning, and evaluation activities and ensures that the results of these activities are appropriately reflected in Department policy and program planning. ASPE is basically an analytic agency although it sponsors some data collection efforts.

ASPE funds a variety of statistical efforts, including questions on noncash income on the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey, the longitudinal study of family economics which determines factors that cause some families to move into or out of poverty, a survey of the institutionalized population, statistical support to the health insurance experiment, and seed money for the development of the forthcoming Survey of Income and Program Participation.

Division of Research and Statistics, Board of
Governors of the Federal Reserve System

The Division of Research and Statistics and the Division of International Finance are major statistical and economic analytic offices. Within the Federal Reserve System, their major function is to provide analyses and information required by the Board of Governors and the Open Market Committee. In the exercise of these major responsibilities, Board staff are not only consumers of a very wide range of statistical data but also participate in the design and processing of some highly important reports that produce statistical information. Board staff are also active participants in interagency committees and other efforts aimed at the improvement of Federal statistics over a very wide range including nonfinancial world, such as labor market, output, capacity utilization, and prices; financial and monetary statistics; and balance of payments statistics.

Mission. As noted, the two Divisions are primarily analytical groups, but the Division of Research and Statistics and the Division of International Finance are also producers of highly important statistics as noted above. Some of the key data produced at the Board rely heavily on other sources as major inputs, e.g., the index of industrial production relies on Census Bureau and other data.

The System is also a primary source of information in other statistical areas, such as consumer credit, money supply, and a large array of banking data (with the basic underlying numbers collected by the 12 Federal Reserve Banks).

Research and Special Programs Administration,
Department of Transportation

Although several components of the Department of Transportation have statistical activities, the major programs are in the Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA). RSPA has the lead agency responsibilities regarding transportation statistics and data collection and provides the secretarial representation to the Statistical Policy Coordination Committee of the Department of Commerce. RSPA endeavors to pool resources and knowledge on transportation data collection efforts, to encourage uniform standards, and to avoid duplication. RSPA statistics are compiled for direct use in its programs but they are also used by other departmental

the

Program Agencies Most agencies of the Government collect some statistical information in the course of their administrative operations. Some of these statistics are

Public Health Service (except National Center for Health Statistics), Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

of limited general interest and are used primarily to aid the agency in planning, monitoring or evaluating a specific program. Others, obtained as a byproduct of operating responsibilities in a specific field, not only serve administrative purposes within the agency, but also contribute importantly to the store of statistical information which is of interest and value to other agencies and to the public.

For purposes of this review, only those agencies with 50,000 man-hours of reporting burden for statistical reports or $3 million in identified budget expenditures for statistical activities are included (exceptions will be noted later).

program collection and analysis agencies described below include the following: 1. HEW:

Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health
Administration.

Each of the six components of the Public Health Service (PHS)—the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA), the Center for Disease Control (CDC), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Health Resources Administration (HRA), the Health Services Administration (HSA), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-conduct statistical activities. The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) is the only Federal agency with the sole specific purpose to collect and disseminate data on health in the United States.

Center for Disease Control.

Food and Drug Administration.
Health Care Financing Administration.
Health Resources Administration.

Health Services Administration.

National Institutes of Health.

National Institute of Education.

Many of these activities are conducted cooperatively with State and local governments. In fact, the CDC's morbidity data, like NCHS' vital statistics data, are compiled from State and local reports. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) in ADAMHA work through single state agencies in each area to collect their data.

Mission. CDC and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the third component of ADAMHA, collect general-purpose population statistics. NIDA, NIAAA, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in CDC, and HSA primarily collect program data on populations of drug abusers, alcohol abusers, persons with occupational illness and disease, and statutory beneficiaries treated in Public Health Service facilities and those in grantee operations. NIH, FDA, and the rest of HRA collect data incident to their research functions such as scientific and administrative data to determine the causes, diagnosis, prevention, and cure of specific diseases; data on drugs and other consumer products regulated by the agency; and data on a host of experimental subjects, supply of health manpower, demand for health manpower, and other health manpower issues.

Office of Education.

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Human

Development Services. 2. HUD:

Two program Assistant Secretaries:
Community Planning and Development.

Housing.
3. Transportation:

Federal Highway Administration.
National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration.

4. Treasury:

Office of the Secretary, including the Office of Revenue Sharing and the Office of Tax Analysis.

5. Independent Agencies:

National Science Foundation.

Education Division (except the National Center for Education Statistics), Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

The Education Division of HEW, except the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) which is in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Education, is composed of the Office of Education (OE) and the National Institute of Education (NIE). Both OE and NIE reimburse NCES for the design and conduct of some of their statistical activities—in

particular, many of those mandated by Congress.

U.S. International Trade Commission.

Veterans Administration.

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