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highway program and assess the impacts of different highway investment programs.

The reports describe the miles of highways by functional classification; physical condition of roadways; highway performance characteristics; highway finance data; current and forecasted travel by highway system and area; and the cost and location of current and future needed highway improvements.

Federal Airports Program.—The information collected under this program covers airport inventory, planning, operations, and programming. This information includes: (1) airport location, physical characteristics, services, and activity; (2) planning data and environmental impact statements for support of certain airport planning and development and design and construction standards; (3) records on airport grant projects and compliance status; (4) surplus property transfer deeds and information; (5) relocation assistance guidance; (6) airport certification standards, guidance, compliance, and violations; and (7) information on rescue equipment and airport safety matters.

of all ongoing and planned pipeline safety activities in the State during the ensuing calendar year.

Program information includes on-site inspections, hiring of safety personnel, accident investigations and reports, adoption of safety regulations, training of staff personnel, lowering of number of gas incidents in each State, monitoring of gas operations, review of inspection and maintenance plans, maintenance of records, State statutes, and procurement of safety equipment.

Financial information includes estimated, actual, and variances of gas pipeline safety expenses categorized by cost codes.

Financial information represents subsidiary or supporting documentation for an accounting system maintained in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration. There is no routine reporting of the information collected in this system. The information collected is unclassified, for internal use, and is available to the public. Planning and Program Development

National Transportation Needs Studies. These surveys are conducted on 2- to 4-year intervals to collect information on the plans and programs of State and local governments with respect to their transportation capital improvement program and operation and maintenance of public sector facilities and services related to transportation. The 1972 study collected information on transportation investment needs and capital improvement programs under three alternative Federal funding assumptions over a 20year period. The 1974 study focused on improvement plans to the year 1990 and a funding program to 1980 under a specified Federal funding assistance program.

In addition to the planning information, the 1972 and 1974 studies collected substantial amounts of inventory and performance data in the following data categories: physical facilities, physical capacity, utilization of facilities by vehicles, passenger utilization safety performance (fatalities, injuries), land use, air pollution, and financial information (annual capital and operating costs, revenues). The modes for which the information was collected included: urban highways; rural highways; urban public transportation; airports; marine terminals, waterways, and harbors; parking facilities; intercity bus, railway, and trucking terminals, and other transportation systems.

National Highway Needs.—The objectives of the reporting process are to: (1) inform the Congress of the extent, condition, and performance of the existing highway network and future highway needs, and (2) develop policy on the direction of the Federal

Both internal and external sources are used to derive this information. Basic data on airport physical characteristics are collected by FAA personnel. National Airport System Plan data are derived by FAA field offices, in large measure from airport management, planning agencies, and various other non-FAA aviation sources. Planning grant and development grant data are obtained from sponsors and supplemented by FAA inspections, audits, correspondence, and so forth. Airport certification data are submitted by applicant airports and verified and supplemented by FAA visits. Illustrative uses of this information include providing support for Federal involvement in the identification and planning of a National System of Airports; providing grant-in-aid support for airport master planning and development; and providing support for analysis and policymaking in the area of airport ground safety.

National Aviation System Plans.—The data in this information category are planning requirements, program funding plans, and intermodal transportation planning. The National Aviation System Plan serves aviation users, aviation manufacturers, and FAA personnel who are developing and maintaining the System. Information is derived from the aviation community through the annual Aviation Review Conference and other consultative sessions. The National Aviation System Ten-Year Plan is published annually as a guide to those responsible for formulating future program plans and budget submissions.

Recommended Program Modifications and The recommended statistical program Additions

modifications and additions presented below are

designed to fill the data gaps created by the Transportation is a component of the economy

aforementioned changing conditions and to that is subject to fairly rapid changes over the years in strengthen methodological techniques in collecting, terms of new services provided through advancing

analyzing, and reporting the information. technology and changes in consumer, industry, and government demands. It is an area substantially

National Urban Transportation Reporting System affected by public policy programs and regulations

(UMTA/FHWA) originating at the Federal, State and local levels of government. Safety, convenience, transportation cost The National Urban Transportation Reporting and taxpayers' burden are directly related to these System (UTRS) contains certain key data elements policies, programs and regulations. The decision to which describe the characteristics and performance of construct the interstate system, for example, affects urban transportation systems. The information is to not only highway users but railroads, urban be used for Federal level policy and budget decisions, development, industrial location and many others. program monitoring, and program evaluation. The The advent of the jet aircraft further stimulated an major data elements are: already dynamic and growing industry. The growth in automobile use affected the demand for mass

-Highway Data: road miles, lane miles, vehicle transit services and urban land use patterns.

miles of travel, passenger occupancy, traffic volContainership development substantially improved

ume, and congestion; maritime freight service as well as impacting port -Public Transit Data: access to transit, trip economies. Significant changes in basic economic

characteristics (purpose, time, distance), rider relationships such as these generate major national characteristics, transit operating characteristics issues, which are translated into new policy (vehicle miles, vehicles in use, etc.); initiatives, legislation, programs or regulations.

-Demographic Data: population, dwelling units, If the Federal responsibilities and challenges

employment, passenger vehicle registrations, land associated with these changing conditions are to be met effectively, a continuous monitoring of the transportation system, the demands for trans -Measures of System Performance: highway and portation services, and the performance of the system

public transit travel time contours from specified is required. Moreover, the information systems

major activity centers. designed to provide this continuous flow of

Several features of the design of the UTRS should information must be flexible enough to provide the

be pointed out. First, the analysis of a number of necessary data to meet these changing conditions and

urban transportation issues, particularly energy and emerging issues.

environmental issues, depend upon reliable estimates

of changes in vehicle miles of travel, vehicle The transportation statistics information systems

occupancy, and the general effectiveness of urban must also be adaptable to the developments in

transportation systems. Although a number of analytical methodology and technology. For

studies of these variables have been made in the past, example, advances in statistical analysis such as the

currently there is no program that periodically coldisaggregated modeling techniques have affected the

lects this information on a uniform basis from urban type of data required as well as the quantity. General

areas where the major urban transportation problems ly, these techniques require an increase in the depth

exist. The UTRS is designed to fill this important of information required from individual respondents which adds to the individual respondent's burden. However, the methods require much smaller samples of observations which decreases the total burden on

Second, many of the data elements in the system the community. These techniques allow certain types

are collected regularly by Metropolitan Planning of analyses which have the potential of providing new

Organizations (MPO's) or other local planning knowledge and understanding of causal factors.

agencies. However, current local data collection

procedures are not uniform among localities, and this The changes in analytical methodology also affect seriously impairs comparative and aggregative the resources required for data collection as well as analyses needed at the Federal level. By adopting the respondent burden. For example, computer UTRS specifications in their normal data collection assisted interview techniques may permit interviews programs, the local agencies will automatically to be conducted more quickly and accurately. generate the needed uniformity.

area; and

data gap.

Third, the UTRS is designed to complement the census program, needs to be expanded to cover adFARE Reporting System for reporting public trans ditional goods shipped, for instance, shipments of portation information. However, the FARE Re farm products (other than fruits and vegetables), and porting System requirements apply only to recipients additional shippers such as agricultural assemblers. of UMTA Section 5 funds; therefore, in some areas the basic operational information needed for analyses

The 1977 Commodity Transportation Survey at the Federal level would not be available for those

provided for a significant expansion over prior

efforts, but more coverage is still needed. New data operations that do not receive Section 5 funds. The UTRS, therefore, fills an important data gap with

collected in 1977 on receiving establishments are a

potentially rich source of information for (1) more respect to transit operations. In addition, the UTRS collects accessibility, trip, and rider characteristics

sophisticated and reliable economic impact analyses information which is not supplied by the FARE Re

for industries and economic areas and (2) a porting System. This additional information is usual

systematized procedure for crosschecking the prodly collected by operators and/or urban planning

uct shipments data in the censuses of manufacturers. agencies, but, again, there is a need for uniform

These are only potentially significant data because

lack of funding prevents any definite plans for their procedures.

tabulation. National Travel Survey (OST, FHWA, UMTA, Other recent research has suggested that freight NHTSA, Census)

flow data might be more effectively and efficiently

collected if the sample population were the receivers The National Travel Survey (NTS) is part of the

of shipments rather than the shippers. This approach quinquennial census of Transportation. For the 1977

would potentially yield better data with which to survey, the NTS was expanded to include

calibrate disaggregative models. This modeling information on short trips that had previously been

technique, if current research efforts prove successful, collected in the Nationwide Personal Transportation

would substantially improve analytic capabilities for Survey (NPTS) sponsored by the FHWA and

forecasting freight movement by mode. It could also NHTSA. The NTS was also expanded to obtain more reduce the amount of data collection (sample size) information on long trips (over 75 miles) than had

needed for analytic purposes. Additional research is been collected in the 1972 NTS, and the survey

needed to further determine the scope of this type of procedure was changed from a mail questionnaire to

survey in terms of the length of haul (i.e., intercity a home interview. Preparation for the 1982 NTS

versus urban local goods movement). should include research into the feasibility of simulating intercity travel using disaggregate demand

Data on commodity flows represent an important modeling techniques. If successful, this could allow a

aspect of interindustry (input-output) and regional substantial reduction in the sample size required for

economic analysis. The commodity transportation the 1982 NTS, as well as an increase in the trans

survey is especially useful for development of missing portation related information to be collected. The

inputs for commodity sectors and some service NPTS expansion of the NTS should be continued as

sectors in addition to the transportation sectors. The an integral component of the quinquennial census.

necessary adjunct to the CTS would be the Standard CAB Ten-Percent Sample Data Program (CAB)

Industrial Classification definition of the receiver as

well as the shipper. This would be possible to achieve This program should be expanded to include fare or in the 1977 Census of Transportation if the receiving ticket prices of the sample data base because that plant is identified by name and address and then information is unaudited at the time of processing and matched with the computer files of the Census subject to further change. However, the value of the Standard Statistical Establishment List. However, missing data to the Department of Transportation far there is a fairly sizable cost associated with this exceeds the difficulties presented by the error in the matching and the preparation of the associated tables data. Supplemental data on the aggregate error rates which has not been funded. occurring in the data should be useful in compensating for the errors that may be caused by in

Moreover, these data could be very useful for cluding prices in the original sample.

multiregional input-output studies, and regional

analysis generally, if they indicated State to State Expansion of the Commodity Transportation Survey

flows instead of flows between production areas. (Census)

Some States are not included in the Census produc

tion areas, even though the sample has doubled to aIf technically possible, this survey, conducted by bout 50 areas for 1977. The regional flows give the Bureau of the Census as part of the economic estimates of regional exports and imports (excluding

Commodity Movement in Rural Areas.-Most agricultural transportation performed in rural areas and from rural areas is exempt from economic regulation; therefore, information on volume, rates, origins or destinations is not available on a systematic basis. There is a need to fill this data gap to insure its consideration when formulating national policy.

Rail Carload Waybill Sample (ICC)

Changes are needed in the Interstate Commerce Commission's one-percent waybill sample provided for the submission and processing of machine readable input. Also, the content of the sample should be expanded to include additional information such as date of delivery.

Air Freight Data (CAB)

Historically, the programs of the Civil Aeronautics Board have been directed toward collecting detailed market data, costs and operational information only with respect to passenger service. No such information is presently available concerning the character and geographic markets of air freight movements. Data recurrently collected with respect to freight have been limited to the most basic tonmile and revenue indicators of volumes in combination and all cargo services, respectively. This situation has posed difficulties for the Board in connection with its rate-making functions, inasmuch as the domestic and international air freight rate structures are highly differentiated, embracing a wide variety of rates for different commodities, shipment sizes, types of service, markets, and directional applications. There is a need, therefore, to expand the freight information developed by the CAB programs.

Census of Government Data on State and Local
Transportation Finance (Census)

The Governments Division of the Bureau of the Census conducts a quinquennial census of State and local government finance and employment and supplements this information with an annual sample survey. The data set already contains very rich information about State and local government revenues, expenditures and debt for transportation purposes, and especially on the intergovernmental transfers between Federal, State and local governments. However, some major gaps exist in the data set, especially with respect to general-purpose governments, which limit the usefulness of the data to the Department of Transportation and other users. The Census of Government Data on State and Local Transportation Finance should be expanded to obtain

foreign trade flows). Actually, some of the data in the present commodity transportation survey give information which can help on exports to foreign countries as well.

One aspect of many regional studies is the development of specialized transportation coefficients such as gravity flow coefficients. These coefficients can help in deciding the extent to which commodities should move from region to region on a cost effective basis. The costs of the commodity and the transportation necessary to move it to a receiving area are evaluated in terms of the cost of a commodity produced in the receiving area. This is not completely foolproof, because there are differences in products of even 4-digit SIC industries; also, there are quality differences, temporary inventory and output shortages, and loyalties to given suppliers. To some extent all of these tend to obviate the accuracy of gravity-type models in terms of the real business world, but the coefficients are developed to suggest targets and efficient approaches to commodity flows that could be incorporated in economic models with a regional dimension.

National Truck Commodity Flow Study (OST,
FHWA)

This survey was conducted by the Office of the Secretary of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration in 1972, and represents the only comprehensive study of commodity movements via the truck mode. Improvements need to be made in the identification of commodity classifications and land use and/or interconnecting modes, and the origin/destination of shipments. Two alternative collection methodologies need to be explored: (1) with the Bureau of the Census in conjunction with the Truck Inventory and Use Study, and (2) with the FHWA through the State highway and transportation agencies.

This survey should be conducted on a periodic frequency of at least 5 years and yield geographic data at the State level. It should be noted that if the Commodity Transportation Survey is expanded to cover all shipments (through appropriate samples) then the data on shipment by mode should be an automatic by-product obviating the need for a separate truck commodity flow study.

Survey of Non-ICC Regulated Motor Bus Carriers (Census)

This survey is supplemental to data collected by the Interstate Commerce Commission on regulated carriers. Some progress has been made, but more is needed to make the results of these two efforts more compatible.

more detailed and comprehensive financial (and possibly employment) information on highways, mass Transit, airports and marine terminal facilities. The definitions of the items should also be made consistent with other data sets collected in the Highway Statistics Program, FARE system and other data systems. Although some redundancy exists, the Census data on State and local governments serves as a consistent and comprehensive benchmark for other more detailed and specialized data sets.

and investigation/enforcement programs. Computerized data identifying the type of aircraft, pilot qualifications, type of flying, and location of the accident are presently maintained by the Federal Aviation Administration for safety analysis and evaluation of air agencies, airmen, aircraft, and so forth. Interchanging of data among the areas would make the existing system more responsive to the information requirements of the accident prevention programs.

Aircraft Statistical Information

Much aircraft information is collected as part of the annual aircraft registration process. Some statistical sampling techniques can be used to collect the data, thereby reducing the public reporting burden and the agency's cost in handling large volumes of data. The Federal Aviation Administration has designed a project to develop sampling techniques, the procedures, and the system needed to assemble and analyze the results. This program should be implemented.

Truck Inventory and Use Study (Census)

This survey, which is part of the quinquennial census of transportation, should be expanded to include other vehicles in addition to registered trucks and trailers. Specifically, the survey population should include buses (including school buses) and truck and bus vehicles owned and/or operated by Federal, State and local governments which are not registered.

National Highway Performance Monitoring (FHWA).—Many of the key statistics now collected for highways, such as vehicle miles of travel, system description, congestion, and so on, are generated by State highway agencies and other units of government. However, the statistical methodology varies from State to State, and are noncomparable between States. Some key data items are not collected because of the burden imposed by the current data collection procedures.

This program could rationalize the existing data collection of highway statistics and develop a system of national sampling to be implemented by State highway agencies. Procedures would also be included for supplementing the system for individual States that have requirements for data at the State and substate level. These would include the adoption of standards in all States which would make local area data consistent throughout the Nation. Frequency of data collection would vary depending on the nature and use of the statistics. The work under the National Highway Performance System would be coordinated with that required under the Urban Transportation Reporting System.

Airmen Information

The goal of a comprehensive airmen information system has not been achieved by the present certification and recordkeeping process. The Federal Aviation Administration has a project designed to make recordkeeping more efficient and effective. As a result of this project, airmen information supplied would be more valuable for use in planning, safety analysis, and other statistical purposes.

Aviation Activity Information

Aviation activity information is obtained both internally, from the FAA air traffic facilities, and externally, from aircraft owners and operators, the aviation community, and special studies. Two separate projects are underway to address problems encountered in each of these data areas. For internally generated information, ways are being considered to update collection procedures by eliminating the collection of data no longer needed, by reducing manual workload required for data entry and error correction, and by eliminating duplicate data collection and processing in the FAA regions and at FAA headquarters. For externally generated data, a project is underway to edit and store non-FAA aviation activity data and to provide the processes and controls necessary to consolidate it with data collected internally. The data will be related to records in the airport data base and made consistent with the Air Traffic Activity System, thus permitting merged data analyses.

Aviation Accident, Incident, and Violation Information (FAA)

Although some accident, incident, violation data are automated, much of the data collected and maintained by FAA Flight Standards related to flight safety are kept manually, resulting in nonidentification of some potential problem areas. There is a need for a project designed to integrate these sources. This would facilitate the assessment of the safety impact of the certification, surveillance,

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