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similar agencies that provide their own financing required for collecting and publishing data for substate geographic areas.
The ESCS also performs data collection on a reimbursable basis for Federal agencies outside USDA, but this type of work is dominated by two surveys for the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the farm labor and hired workers surveys. ESCS plays a minor role as a data processing agent for State departments of agriculture.
Mission. The principal mission of the Statistics Units in ESCS is serving as suppliers of current general-purpose agricultural statistics at the national and State levels. In particular, ESCS is the supplier of the official national estimates of acreage, yield, and production of crops, stocks and value of farm commodities; and numbers and inventory of livestock. A secondary mission is developing statistical methodology and statistical standards with particular reference to agricultural statistics. In addition to the impact on the ESCS statistics, this activity takes the form of reimbursable work for the Agency for International Development in technical assistance and training.
Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce
The Bureau of the Census (Census) is one of the 12 independent operating units of the Department of Commerce. By almost any measure, Census is the most significant agency in the U.S. Federal Statistical System. Its most important activity, the decennial census of population, is specified in the Constitution and is the only program in the Federal Government which, in principle, attempts to contact every inhabitant of the country. (The Internal Revenue Service and the Social Security Administration also collect information from a large proportion of the population.) Census has broad program authorization in Title 13, United States Code (the "Census Code"). Its budget ($94.9 million in 1977) and staff (4,444 permanent positions) are the largest among the statistical agencies.
Census officially serves as a consultant in the design of statistical undertakings of all Commerce agencies. In addition, Census performs special surveys, tabulations, and a variety of other statistical services for other Commerce agencies on a reimbursable basis such as special tabulations of export data for the Industry and Trade Administration. The most important statistical relationship within Commerce is the bilateral one between Census as a producer and the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) as a consumer of statistics. This involves continual liaison relating to BEA needs in preparing and
interpreting the economic accounts of the United States in relation to the Census responsibility for planning of economic statistics programs.
A major additional portion of work done by Census is performed on a reimbursable basis for Federal agencies outside Commerce. The estimated cost of such work in 1977 was $62 million. Some projects require developing and conducting an individual survey; other projects use existing surveys as a vehicle for collecting additional data or for preparing special tabulations. The projects of most significant scale include the Health Interview Survey for the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, the Annual Housing Survey for the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Survey of Crime Victimization for the Department of Justice, longitudinal manpower data and labor force data from the Current Population Survey for the Department of Labor, and the National Travel Survey for the Department of Transportation. The Bureau prepares population estimates and projections for other agencies such as the Agency for International Development (AID) and the Department of State, and operates an international statistical training center funded by AID.
In addition, Census has numerous ties to State and local governments and the private sector. One example of this is the series of intergovernmental seminars on accessing statistical resources held for State and local government officials and representatives of university research services, chambers of commerce, and others. Another is the network of public advisory committees of experts on particular topics (such as small area data) or representing cognizant professional groups (such as the American Statistical Association). A third is the Federal/State cooperative program for population estimates and projections.
Mission The primary Census mission is that of a general-purpose statistical collection agency meeting a very wide range of needs for data. Significant secondary missions derive from the Bureau's primary mission, and include demographic analysis; extensive research in statistical methodology, data processing techniques, and equipment; and programs to improve access and utilization of statistical information.
Census collects and publishes basic statistics concerning the population and the economy of the Nation in order to assist the Congress, the executive branch, and the general public in the development and evaluation of economic and social programs. Periodic censuses include the Census of Population and Housing which is taken at 10-year intervals and
the census of agriculture, the census of governments, and the economic censuses which are taken at 5-year intervals. Current surveys and programs are conducted to collect data on various economic activities and demographic changes. Data are collected and published on foreign trade, housing, construction, governments, certain agricultural commodities, industrial output, retail and wholesale trade, and transportation. The Current Population Survey provides data and reports on a variety of demographic characteristics as well as providing employment and unemployment data to the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department of Labor.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of Labor
Within the Department of Labor, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is the agency to which the Secretary of Labor's responsibility for collecting and analyzing data on labor and price statistics has been delegated. Labor statistics are defined in a very broad fashion and hence BLS has a clear mandate to produce general-purpose statistics and related analyses in this field.
are compiled and published by the BLS, depend upon Federal-State program relationships. In specialized areas, such as farm labor, the BLS does not duplicate the activities of other agencies such as ESCS in USDA, which has the required specialization, in order to round out the basic labor statistics program.
In addition to programs for collecting employment and earnings data, the Occupational Employment Survey to obtain State level intercensal data is a significant Federal-State cooperative program. Participating States share in the financing and also in the design of optional detail for the individual States. BLS retains technical oversight and is the collection agent. Finally, BLS does intermittent data collection on a reimbursable basis for local government and private industry.
Mission. The primary BLS mission is to be the statistical collection agency for labor statistics, including price statistics. Its secondary missions, which are substantial, derive from the primary one.
One secondary mission is to be an analytic agency. A major analytic program is the Family Budget Studies, which makes use of data from many sources; these data are updated annually. Results of special analytic studies are published regularly by BLS in the Monthly Labor Review.
Simultaneously, BLS is the collection agency for the major program agencies of the Department of Labor. Through the Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical (PATC) surveys, it is also a collection agency for the Civil Service Commission and the Office of Management and Budget, acting jointly as the President's pay agent.
The subject matter areas in which the BLS operates are generally those which fit logically within the broad category of labor statistics, i.e., employment, unemployment, occupational health and safety, employee compensation, wages, productivity and labor relations. In addition, prices (wholesale, retail, and export and import), while not usually classified as labor statistics, are clearly general-purpose statistics.
BLS is also the principal statistical collection agency serving the statistical needs of other agencies within the Department of Labor. In particular, BLS functions as the collection agent for:
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration for its major survey of occupational safety and health, and The Employment Standards Administration for surveys in connection with the Service Contract Act and Fair Labor Standards Act.
The BLS relationship to the Employment and Training Administration (ETA) is more complex, but BLS provides statistical support for programs administered by ETA. In addition, ETA provides BLS funds for analytic work in conjunction with the development of the matrix of occupational employment by industry.
BLS also does reimbursable work for other agencies-particularly data collection. Generally, this occurs in cases where a requirement exists which is closely related to the BLS general-purpose program.
The BLS itself relies on other agencies for the collection of some of the data integral to its program. For example, the Census Bureau is the collecting agent for the Current Population Survey (which has funding from both BLS and Census). Furthermore, monthly and quarterly employment and earnings data and local area unemployment statistics, which
Subject Matter Multipurpose Collection
Energy Information Administration, Department of Energy
Prior to the Energy Organization Act of 1977, there were approximately 50 government agencies involved in the collection and/or analysis of energy data. That Act combined energy data collection and
analysis functions of the Bureau of Mines, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Energy Administration, and the Federal Power Commission into the Energy Information Administration (EIA) within the new Department of Energy. EIA has broad responsibilities for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information. The scope includes any data or information which is relevant to energy resource reserves, energy production, demand, and technology, and related economic and statistical information, or which is relevant to the adequacy of energy resources to meet demands in the near and longer term future for the Nation's economic and social needs.
Two other important provisions were included in the mandate of the EIA Administrator by this Act. The bill provides that prior to publication of any statistical or forecasting technical report or in connection with the collection or analysis of information, the Administrator need not obtain the approval of any other official in the DOE or the U.S. Government. Second, the Administrator shall continue to be subject to review by the Professional Audit Review Team established upon the passage of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA).
The Conference Report to P.L. 95-91 further clarifies the intent of this legislation. It states: “It is the intent of the conferees, by the establishment of this Energy Information Administration, to eliminate duplication and overlap now existing in energy information programs. It is also the conferees' intent to assure and maximize the independence of the data collection and analysis functions within the Department.... This provision makes it clear that the Administrator is to exercise his independent professional judgment with respect to the methodologies he uses in the collection or analysis of energy information."
the aggregate volume share of both branded and nonbranded independent dealers as well as company. operated outlets.
EIA conducts broad ranging analyses of energy sources dealing with resource availability, exploration, extraction and processing, transmission and distribution, costs and pricing, imports and exports, and the integration of short-term supply/demand balances. It also provides forecasts and analyses of the extent and location of energy use by sector and fuel type for various geographic areas and scenarios, energy market analyses concerned with competition and the implications of government actions related to energy prices, demand, and supply, and integrative analyses related to broad energy issues.
EIA supplies information to other organizations within the Department of Energy and works closely with other agencies collecting and analyzing energy and mineral resource data such as USGS, Bureau of the Census, Department of Defense, MSHA (Department of Labor), and the Corps of Engineers as well as with State and local governments. EIA reports are important sources of information to both State and local government offices and industry for energy planning and policymaking. Finally, EIA operates a National Energy Information Center, which acts as a clearinghouse for specific requests for energy data and statistics.
Mission. The EIA has primary responsibility for collecting and analyzing data concerning the sources of supply, distribution, and use of energy resources. A second important function of EIA is the analytical work which includes frequent reporting of analytical studies, forecasts,' and appraisals of the energy situation. The analytical function also provides requested analyses of policy alternatives for other parts of DOE. The third important function of EIA resides in the Office of Energy Information Validation which is involved in all aspects of the EIA program to improve quality in reporting, procedures, standards, etc.
National Center for Education Statistics, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
EIA is both a collection and analytical agency. It collects and publishes statistics on petroleum supply, production, and stocks, and statistics on refineries, primary terminals, pipeline companies, and importers. (These programs were initiated by the Federal Energy Administration.) It also collects, compiles, and publishes statistics on all phases of domestic and foreign energy mineral resource developments (formerly the responsibility of the Bureau of Mines), and on electrical energy production and distribution. EIA sponsors the Bureau of the Census survey of retail gasoline stations to measure
The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), established in 1965, is located in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Education which oversees the two major components of the Education Division-the Office of Education (OE) and the National Institute of Education (NIE). This location makes it possible for NCES to service the policy needs of the Assistant Secretary and the basic statistical needs of OE and NIE. In addition, the
Center is available to other Federal agencies for survey advice and consultation.
NCES has had a continuous involvement with the State Education Agencies and through them with the local education agencies. The Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) has advised NCES and other Federal agencies (especially in the Education Division of HEW) on their proposals to conduct surveys in the public elementary and secondary schools of the Nation.
data in sufficient geographic detail to serve State and local data needs through its relatively new and evolving Cooperative Health Statistics System (CHSS).
Mission. In addition to collecting generalpurpose health statistics, the Center collects some program statistics, but most program statistics are collected elsewhere in the Public Health Service. Likewise, it does some research, though basically its research focuses on statistical and survey methodology.
The Center conducts several major surveys on a continuing basis to determine such things as health costs, insurance coverage, nutritional status, the
supply of health manpower, prevalence of chronic diseases, disability, basic morbidity and mortality data, and utilization of health services. From the Center's vital statistics program the Nation's official statistics on births, deaths, marriages, and divorces are developed.
Mission. In the past, NCES has been basically a general-purpose statistical collection agency. Since the passage of the Education Amendments of 1974, however, NCES' mission has expanded to include an analysis function. NCES is charged with compiling, from time to time, a report on the condition of education in the United States. NCES assists State and local education agencies in improving and automating their statistical and data collection activities. It also prepares the annual Data Acquisition Plan for the Education Division and promotes statistical standards-standardized terminology and definitions-appropriate to the publications of the Education Division and those of State and local governments and educational institutions. The Center also houses the National Assessment of Educational Progress program where samples of the general population of various ages are surveyed.
The National Center for Health Statistics, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), established in 1960 as an arm to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service in his immediate office, is now located in the office of the Assistant Secretary for Health.
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy Development and Research, Department of Housing and Urban Development
The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy Development and Research (PD&R) administers the Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) program of improving the availability of statistics and information on housing and mortgage financing as part of the Department's research and development effort. The data collections and their dissemination are designed to aid public officials, homebuilders, realtors and financial organizations in their assessment of housing and mortgage markets. Virtually all data collection is performed by other agencies under HUD contracts, chiefly by the Census Bureau. The data are used directly by PD&R and other components in the Department in assessing the impact of programs and in developing alternative policies and programs.
Mission. PD&R oversees the statistical collections by other agencies, including the Annual Housing Survey, surveys of new home completions and sales, market absorption of apartments, new mobile home placements, and mortgage lending. It also coordinates the surveys of mortgage lending and commitment activity and, together with the Veterans Administration, collects statistics on effective interest rates on home loans.
NCHS performs reimbursable work for a number of organizations ranging from the Air Force, Army, and Veterans Administration to the Department of Transportation, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, and the Agency for International Development (AID). Most of these activities involve copies of computer data tapes or special runs from available data. NCHS is reimbursed by AID for training statistical personnel in other countries.
The Center is the only Federal agency established specifically to collect and disseminate data on health in the United States. It cooperates with other agencies in the Federal Government and in State and local governments and with foreign countries in activities to increase the availability and usefulness of health data. The Center is building a coalition of Federal, State, and local agencies, working to provide
The Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior
The Bureau of Mines (BOM) collects data from industry. BOM also has a number of reimbursable statistical programs with other agencies. Among the
agencies which collect data for BOM are the U.S. 1969, local police agencies reported crimes directly to
Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, and the Bureau of Reclamation.
Department of Justice Mission. BOM is both a collection and analytical
The statistical activities of the Law Enforcement agency. It collects, compiles, and publishes statistics Assistance Administration (LEAA) in the on all phases of domestic and foreign mineral Department of Justice are housed in the National resource developments (except fuels), including
Criminal Justice Information and Statistics Service reserves, production (primary and secondary), (NCJISS). It is one of the major funders of statistical consumption (by end use), inventories, prices, and
activities in the Government, with an estimated 1977 imports and exports. BOM's statistical products are budget of $35.1 million. also used to develop policy on issues of national
A great part (nearly 40 percent) of NCJISS' work is interest such as the effects of potential economic
conducted under contract to the Census Bureau in developments on resource availability. In doing this,
the Department of Commerce. The Census Bureau it works closely with other agencies collecting and
performs a number of separate projects for NCJISS, analyzing energy and mineral resource data such as
including the approximately $10 million a year EIA, FERC, USGS, the Office of Minerals Policy
National Crime Panel program and other smaller and Research Analysis (Department of the Interior)
programs such as national prisoner statistics, and the Corps of Engineers as well as with State and
expenditures and employment data, and juvenile local governments. BOM published reports are im
justice statistics. portant sources of information to both State and local government offices and industry in their NCJISS helps develop State statistical capabilities planning and policymaking functions.
by supporting developmental work and planning
projects and providing technical assistance-all The Bureau of Mines is also a research organiza
through its Comprehensive Data Systems (CDS) protion, which deals with problems relating to mining
gram. In addition, NCJISS assists States and other and metallurgy. In the course of this work, special
LEAA grantees in meeting confidentiality analytical surveys are developed dealing with mining
requirements for research and statistical data in acand metallurgy problems. In addition, the Bureau of
cordance with the Crime Control Act of 1973. Mines administers the provisions of the law dealing with helium and regularly collects data on the Mission. NCJISS’ primary activity is that of receipts and distribution of helium. Because of the statistical collection rather than analytical activity. It close relationship between the Mine Safety and supports the collection, tabulation, evaluation, pubHealth Administration (MSHA) and the Bureau of lication, and dissemination of statistics on the Mines, special surveys are conducted for MSHA on condition and progress of law enforcement within the various safety aspects of mining.
United States and administers programs to protect
the privacy and security of research data and criminal Federal Bureau of Investigation, Department of history record information. Statistics are compiled on Justice
criminal victimization, law enforcement, judicial
administration, corrections, and overall criminal The Federal Bureau of Investigation is responsible justice functions such as manpower, employment, for a major basic statistics program which provides and personnel. NCJISS identifies national, State, and data on crimes known to the police, arrests, offenses local criminal justice statistical needs and supports cleared by arrest, law enforcement employees, law the development of prototype criminal justice enforcement officers killed, and other aspects of law information systems which are designed to increase enforcement. Data provided to the FBI through this the effectiveness of criminal justice planning and system are used to produce an annual report on crime operation of the judicial system. in the United States, and to assist State and local agencies in the operation, management, and planning
Employment and Training Administration, of law enforcement programs.
Department of Labor Mission The FBI assembles and publishes data The Employment and Training Administration on crime provided by State and local agencies. Until (ETA) has two offices which are concerned with