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J. And let it form a separation between the waters that are above, and the waters that are below.

: 0. And the Lord made the firmament, and caused a separation of the waters which were below the firmament, from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.

P. J. And the Lord formed the firmament, which sustaineti him, with three fingers breadth between the uttermost part of the heaven, and the waters of the ocean : and he made a separation between the waters which are under the firmament, and the waters which are above in the tabernacle of the firmament: and it was so.

8. O. And the Lord called the firnament Heaven. And it was evening and it was morning, the second day.

P. J. And the Lord called the firmanient Heaven. And the evening was, and the morning was the second day.

. 9. 0. And the Lord laid : Let the waters under the heaven be collected into one place, and let the dry land appear : and it was so.

P. J. And the Lord fäid : Let the lower waters, which are left beneath the heaven, be gathered into one place, and let the earth be dried up, to that the dry land may be seen : and it was 1o.

10. O. And the Lord called the dry land Earth : and the* assemblage of the waters called he Seas : and the Lord saw that it was good.

P. J. And the Lord called the dry land Earth; and the place of afsembly of the waters called he Seas : and the Lord saw that it was good.

11. 0. And the Lord said : Let the earth cause to spring up the tender herb, t whose feed may be fown : the fruit tree producing fruit after its kind, † whole feed is in itselt upon the earth : and it was so.

P. J. And the Lord said : Let the earth abundantly bring forth the tender herb, whose feed is sown : and the fruit tree yielding fruit after its kind, whose feed is in itself upon the earth : and it was so.

12. O. For the earth brought forth the tender herb, whose feed is sown after its kind : and the tree bearing fruit, whose feed is in itself after its kind : and the Lord law that it was good.

P. J. For the earth brought forth graíles : the tender herb whose feed is fown, and the tree producing fruit after its kind, and the Lord law that it was good.

13. 0. And the evening was, and the morning was, the third day. P. J. And it was evening, and it was morning, the third day.

14. 0. And the Lord said : Let there be lights in the expanse of heaven to distinguish between the day and the night, and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for to measure by them days and years.

P. J. And the Lord said : Let there be lights in the expanse of lieaven, to make a division between the day and between the night: and let them be for signs and for the seasons of folemn fcaits, and for mea. * House of assembly. t The son of whose seed.

suring

suring by them the computation of days, and for hallowing the new moons and the new years, the intercalation of months and the intercalation of years, and the revolutions of the fun and the new moons and cycles.

J. And let them be for signs and for stated seasons, and for to sanctify in them the beginnings of months and years.

15. 0. Ånd let them be for lights in the expanse of heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.

*P. J. And let them be for lights in the expanse of heaven to give light upon the earth : and it was so.

16. O. And the Lord formed the two great lights: the greater light to rule in the day, and the lefser light to rule in the night : together with the stars.

P. J. And the Lord made the two great lights: and they were equal in their glory twenty and one years, subtracting from these fix hundred and seventy parts of an hour. But after this, the moon brought a * calumnious accusation against the sun, and she was made less : and he appointed the fun, which was the greater light, to rule in the day, and tho moon, which was the lefser light, to rule in the night : with the stars allo.

17. i . O. And the Lordt placed them in the expanse of heaven to give light upon the earth. · P. J. And the Lord ordained them over their presidencies in the expanse of heaven to give light upon the earth.

18. · O. And to rule in the day and in the night, and to make a distinction between the light and between the darkness: and the Lord saw that it was good.

P. J. And to minister in the day and in the night, and to make a diftin&tion between the light of the day, and the darkness of the night: and the Lord saw that it was good. '

19.

0. And the evening was, and the morning was, the fourth day.. P. J. And it was evening, and it was morning, the fourth day.

.

20. 0. And the Lord said : Let the waters produce the creeping thing endowed with the principle of life, and fowl that may fly over the earth upon the face of the expanse of heaven,

P. J. And the Lord faid : Let the pools of water bring forth the creeping thing of animated life, and fowl that may fly: and let its nest be upona the earth, and the path of its flight upon the expanded air of heaven.

21. 0. And the Lord created the huge whales, and every living thing which creepeth, which the waters brought forth after their kind, and every bird which flieth after its kind: and the Lord saw that it was good.

* A third tongue. Vide Buxtorf's Synag. Jud. c. 17. vel Talmud. Babylo tract, Cholin, C. 3 t Gave.

P. J. And

Þ. J. And the Lord created huge whales, the * Leviathan and its confort, who are prepared for the day of consolation : and every living thing which creepetli, which the deep waters brought forth after their kinds, species that were clean, and species that were not clean : and every fowl which Aieth with wings after its kind, species that were clean, and species that were unclean: and the Lord saw that it was good.

22.

·0. And the Lord blessed them, saying : Increase and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth. · P. J. And he blessed them, saying: Increase and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let its fowl multiply upon the earth.

23. 0. And the evening was, and the morning was, the fifth day. P. I. And it was evening, and it was morning, the fifth day. .

1 24. -0. And the Lord faid, Let the earth bring forth the living animal after its kind, cattle and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after its kind : and it was fo.

P. J. And the Lord said : Let the clod of the earth bring forth the living creature after its kind, fpecies that are clean, and species that are unclean, cattle and creeping thing and beast of the earth after its kind : and it was fo.

26. -0. And the Lord formed the beaft of the earth after its kind, and cattle after its kind, and every creeping thing of the earth after its kind : and the Lord saw that it was good. ' · P. J. And the Lord made the beast of the earth after its kind, species that were clean, and species that were unclean, and cattle after its kind, and every creeping thing of the earth after its kind, species that were clean, and species that were unclean : and the Lord saw that it was good.

26.

: 0. And the Lord said : Let us make man in our image, after our likeness ; and let them rule over the fishes of the sea, and over the fowl of the heaven, and over the cattle, and over all the earthi, and over every reptile which creepeth upon the earth

P. J. And the Lord said to the angels who ministered before him, who were created on the second day of the creation of the world : Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them bear rule over the fishes of the fea, and over the fowl in the air of heaven, and over the çattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing which creepeth upon the earth.

27.

. 0. And the Lord created man in his own image : in the image of the Lord created he him : male and female created he them.

P. J. And the Lord created man in his own likeness : in the image of the Lord created he him, with two hundred and forty-eight members, and three hundred and fixty-five sinews, and clothed him with a ikin, and filled him with flesh and blood : male and female in their body, ereated he them.

J. And the word of the Lord created man in his likeness : in the en Vide Buxtorf's Syn. Jud. c. 36. vel. Talmud. Bab. tract. Bava Bathra. c. 5. Vol. II. Churchm, Mag. April, 1802, Cc:

likeness

likeness of the Lord created he him: male and his confort created he them.

28.

0. And the Lord blessed them, and the Lord said unto them, Increase, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and be powerful upon it, and bear rule over the fishes of the sea, and over the fowl of the heaven, and over every living thing which creepeth upon the earth.

P. J. And the Lord blessed them, and the Lord said unto them, Increase, and multiply, and fill the earth with fons and with daughters, and be powerful upon it in wealth, and have rule over the fishes of the sea, and over the fowls of the heaven, and over every living reptile which creepeth upon the earth.

29.

0. And the Lord said: Behold, I have given unto you every tender herb, whose feed is sown, which is upon the face of all the earth: and every tree in which is the fruit of the tree, whose feed is sown, to you it shall be for food.

*P. J. - And the Lord said, Behold, I have given unto you every tender herb, whose feed is fown, which is upon the face of all the earth : and all barren trees for the necessary purpose of building and burning : but those trees in which there is fruit, whose seed is sown, unto you they shall be for food.

i 30. O. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the heaven, and to every thing which creepeth upon the earth in which is the principle of life, every green herb for food : and it was so.

P. J. And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the heaven, and to every thing which creepeth upon the earth, in which is animal life, I have given all the green herbs : and it was fo.

31. 0. And the Lord contemplated every thing which he had made, and, behold, it was exceedingly good. And the evening was, and the morning was, the sixth day.

P. J. And the Lord contemplated all that he had made : and it was exceedingly good. And it was evening, and it was morning, the sixtb

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A GENERAL ACCOUNT OF THE NATURE OF THE TALMUD. THE word topo Talmud is derived from the root 75 to learn,

and signifies properly learning', or instruction derived from a teacher, but is now * commonly understood to signify, “ that grand body of doctrine, compiled from the traditions and comments of divers moft learned Rabbins, which comprises the ecclesiastical and civil law of the Jews, and is to regulate their moral and religious duties.”

This consists of two parts; 1. The Mishna, or Secondary Law. 2. The Gerama, or Complement.

1. Of the Mithna.

The Jews distinguish their law into two parts: the anaw 7710 (Torah fciebi&tat) the written law, and then byau inn (Torah

* It is fometimes, even by the Jews, though very improperly, used to denote the Geniara alone.

schebeal

fchebeal peh) the oral law: to each of which they attribute equally a divine origin. For they pretend, that, when Mofes was called up into the mount, God gave him the law which he was injoined to commit to writing, and likewise an * interpretation of it which he was to deliver down by oral tradition to succeding generations. And these traditions they call ''D ou ob sodbo (Hilcoth lemosheh mislinai) The Constitutions given to Mofes from Sinai, as conceiving them to have been actually given to and delivered by him.

Moses, therefore, in compliance with the order he had received, delivered these interpretations of the written law to Aaron and his sons, and to the seventy elders, and through them to the people; and a short time before his death, repeated them again to Joshua. Joshua, in like manner, delivered them to the elders, his successors, and they to the prophets, who, in their turn, delivered them to Ezra; from which they were handed down, through the men of the great fynagogue, to Simon the Juft, and from him, in regular succession, through the presidents of the Sanhedrin to Rabbi Juda Hakkadosh.-Such is the Jewith account very concisely stated.

But, as in the Mishna, we find no opinion quoted of any person who lived before Simon the Juft, the more probable supposition is, that this fiction of an oral law was not invented till some time after the building of the second temple, when the sect of the Pharisees began to gain ground; who, as they endeavoured to display an exterior appearance of functity, superior to that of other men, ingrafted many ceremonies and superititious observances on the law of Moses; and in order to give them an high fanction, pretended, that they were subjoined to the writien law, as an explanation of it by God himself. And the principal men of this feet and heads of the schools, vying with each other in this outward holiness, delia vered each to their respective disciples, new constitutions, under this pretended sanction, till, as our Saviour rebukes them, “ they had made the word of God of none effect thro' their traditions :" and these traditions were thus continued and propagated, while the second temple stood : but on the capture of Jerusalem, and the destruction of the temple, when the Jews were difperfed and driven into exile, there was reason to fear that these traditions would be lost. In order, therefore, to prevent this, Rabbi Juda Hannafi, (or the prince so called, from his being president of the Sanhedrin ; surnamed likewise Hakkadoth, or the saint, from his superior holiness about the year of our Lord 150, collected, from the notes and memoirs of the disciples of the different schools, into one body, those various traditions which form what is now called the Mishna.

§ 2. Of the divisions of the Mishna.

The Mishna is divided into two parts, each containing three ongo sedarim or orders, which may be recollected by the technical words par upa Zeman Nekat.

1. pirn Zeraim. Of Seeds, and the fruits of the earth. - 2. in Moed. Of Solemn Feafts, and the time and manner of

their celebration.

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* R. Behcai, on the 34th Deuteronomy, very gravely asks this question--" Since it is said, that Mofes was with the Lord for 40 days and 40 nights, how was be able to distinguish day from night?" To which he returns an equally ingenious apswer, . “ When God taught him the written law, then he knew it to be day, but when he Laught him the oral law, then he knew that it was night."

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