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Doctor SHATARA. Yes, sir.
Mr. COOPER. Now, after the Jews of the world relied upon that and many of them entered the war, many of them were killed in battle. Now, they propose to repudiate what they promised in the dark days of the war. Is that the idea?
Doctor SHATARA. May I answer that?
Mr. COOPER. That is one of the suggestions that comes to me as I heard the statement.
Doctor SHATARA. I did not say the British Government. I said the British Parliament. I distinguish between the British Government and that, The coalition government is not in fulll sympathy with Parliament, and the Parliament and the British Government are two entirely different bodies.
Mr. COCKRAN. No.
Mr. COOPER. I thought on the contrary, that if the British Parliament did not sustain the policies of the Government, the Government immediately resigned.
Doctor SHATARA, I think this is a matter of record that the British Parliament has not yet ratified the mandate or the Balfour declaration, the same as the French senate. As regards this promise being given in the dark days of the war, I can do no better than to quote Sir Abraham Powell published in the London Times of December, in which he said that he did not regard the Balfour declaration as a contract, that he thought that many people thought that it was a contract, but that since all contracts were bilateral, the public, the British public were entitled to know for what value received the Balfour declaration was given if it was a contract, and every contract was bilateral and if the British Government gave them a pledge for their value received.
Mr. COOPER. Did they have a contract with Egypt when they returned Egypt if she put her soldiers in to protect the Suez Canal, made by many of their most prominent men, including the King himself in a letter. Was that a promise which the British Government ought to keep when the peace had been declared as they have kept it, and established a kingdom in Egypt. Do you think that was what they ough do in the case of Egypt.
Doctor SHATARA, I am not prepared to speak about that.
Doctor SIATARA. Yes, sir; but I might also mention that there were promises made in regard to Palestine, which I can quote both prior to and after the Balfour declaration.
Mr. COCKRAN. What were they?
Doctor SHATARA, I will read them from the Edinburgh Review of January, 1922, volume 235, No. 479, page 7, from an article written by Vivian Gabriel, financial secretary in Palestine, as follows:
Mr. COCKRAN. Is that an official document?
" It was at a very early stage of the hostilities that special efforts were initiated to detach the Arab population from its suzerains, the Turks, and, largely through the instrumentality of Lord Kitchener, who knew Palestine and Syria as no other living Englishman, negotiations were opened with his friend, Sherif Husain of Mecca. In a letter to the high commissioner in Egypt in July, 1915, the sheriff asked, before taking up arms for the Allies.”
That was two years before the Balfour declaration.
Doctor SHATARA. A letter from the Sherit to the British high commission, Henry McMahon---
" That England should acknowledge the independence of the Arab countries bounded on the north by Adana and Mornina up to the thirty-seventh degree of latitiude, on the east by the frontiers of l'ornia up to the Persian Gulf, on the south by the Indian Ocean with the exception of Aden, and on the west by the Red Sea and the Mediterranean up to Mersing,"
"Replying in October, 1915, the high commissioner wrote:
"I am empowered in the name of the (tovornment of Great Britain to give the following assurances: Great Britain is prepared to recognize and support the independence of the Arabs within the territories included in the limits and boundaries proposed by the Sherif."
Palestine is included in these limits proposed by the Sherif. There was another statement issued that those boundaries that are given here include Palestine,
Mr. COOPER. He says he is authorized by the English Government. Is there an official document which was official authorization there?
Doctor SHATARA. This is just quoted from the document.
Mr. COOPER. It is not even quoted. He says he is authorized, but does not quote the authorization.
Doctor SHATARA. There are two quotations. This is a quotation from Sir Henry McMahon :
“Great Britain is prepared to recognize and support the independence of the Arabs within the territories included in the limits and boundaries proposed by the Sherif.”
This is from the letter.
Doctor SHATARA. No; he was empowered by the Government of Great Britain to issue this.
Mr. COOPER. Where in that article, if anywhere, appears the Government document it quotes from or quotations from it?
Doctor SHATARA. There are quotations here.
Doctor SHATARA. There is another quotation. He wrote and he also quoted from a letter.
Mr. COOPER. Your impetuosity has got the better of your clearness.
Mr. LINTHICUM. Now, you want to interject all these questions, when before you suggested for a statement to proceed without interruption.
Mr. COOPER. The gentleman from Maryland is entirely mistaken in that; nothing of the kind. What I said was this, that when a man is making a prepared speech the interruptions should be germane to the point which he is making a speech upon or discussing. I interrupted yesterday two or three times, but each time I questioned the witness on a point which he brought out? I did not intend to interrupt except to ask questions concerning a particular point which he then was discussing, and if this is to make it appear anything else it indicates a lapse of memory or I will not say what else.
Mr. LINTHICUM. I think we ought to let him finish his quotation.
The CHAIRMAN. The gentleman is not a lawyer, and therefore does not realize the importance of some authorization to this British agent to make this agreement. As a matter of fact, I suppose you did not have any such written authorization to this British agent? That is the point of Mr. Cooper.
Mr. COOPER. Yes.
Mr. MOORES. He not only says it but undertakes to quote from his authority. That drew Mr. Cooper's attention to the point of the authority quoted in his letter.
Mr. COOPER. Let us see. I want to get this clearly before the witness. I was not attempting to take any advantage of the witness at all. He did not seem to understand what I mean. In a letter to the high commissioner of Egypt, in July, 1915, the sherif asked :
“ Before taking up arms for the Allies,” now comes the inside quotation :
“That England should acknowledge the independence of the Arab countries bounded on the north by Adana and Mersina up to the thirty-seventh degree of latitude, on the east by the frontiers of Pers'a up to the Pers'an Gulf, on the south by the Indian Ocean with the exception of Aden, and on the west by the Red Sea and the Mediterranean up to Mersina.''
Doctor SHATARA. Yes, sir.
Mr. COOPER. The article continues—this was the article in October, 1915, that the high commissioner wrote:
I am empowered in the name of the Government of Great Britain to give the following assurances :
Doctor SHATARA (interposing). There is a colon and a dash.
Mr SCOOPER. It is quoted. It is a colon and a dash, but no quotation.
* Great Britain is prepared to recognize and support the independence of the Arabs within the territories included in the limits and boundaries proposed by 11. Sherif."
He says, “ I am empowered in the name of the Government of Great Britain to give the following assurances.” He expresses it from the same document which he has received as empowering him to give those assurances. Where is the document of authorization from the Government signed by the Government officially authorizing him, the high commissioner, to make those assurances ?
The CHAIRMAN. The witness says he knows of no such document.
Mr. COCKRAN. It seems to me the question before us is what the equity of this situation demands. I do not think it is very important what England promised. It is what we should do that should concern us. I think it is important that this gentleman should finish and give us his idea of the status of Jerusalem and Palestine.
Mr. FISH, I think so, too; but we want to be fair to the witness, and the witness wants to be fair to the authorities. He mentions, and I think in writink, his denial of that statement. That is what has brought about this argument. I think is much better to let him present his case.
The CHAIRMAN. I was speaking only for myself. I regard this as a valuable piece of testimony.
Mr. COOPER, One thing more, and then this ends it as far as I am concerned. The high commissioner wrote the sheriff that he was empowered by the Government to make certain assurances. That is his interpretation of the author11y which has been granted. I want to see the document which he so interpreted that gives him the authority to make those assurances.
The ('ITAIRMAN. We would all like to see it, but the witness is not able to
Mr. (OPR. Ile did not catch my idea.
Doctor SILATARA. I have not any official document at all. May I just read one moro quotation? I have no official documents here at all. This is on the 7th of November. It is on page 12 of the Edinburgh Review, from which I dunia alredly quoted, I will read it:
On the 7th of November, 1918, therefore, the British Government issued a proclamation, which was published in every village throughout Palestine, Teclaring that the object of England and France 'in carrying on in the Near Won the war let loose by Germany's ambition is to assure the complete and dhon liberation of the people so long oppressed by the Turks and the establishwont of movernments and administrations deriving their authority from the intimtine and free choice of the native populations. They are far from wishind in impose any form of government on the people against their will and muy ding to insure, by their moral and material assistance, the proper workInna moneeruments and of the forms of administration which shall be while the people themselves. Their task in the liberated regions is to Non llll administration of Justice based on impartiality and equality, the Hanna Havlument or the country by encouraging and promoting local internet and of education, and the termination of those internal dis
en het huis long been exploited by the Turks.'” The me
pune in Palestine I can do no better than to quote from Il mar Ile Kiler who is acting chairman of the Zion'st com
Ho N #quotation thum Dr. Eder: Huniani hapo natin? houe in Palestine, and that the Jewish one, 11111 110 Hpah berween Jews and Arabs, but a Jewish With the pill the 'P'N of that race are sufficiently increased." HP No hi ha aller chairman of the Zionist Commission
ht Hinahews and whole lot about what we think about il
para tu lawrine but they weris are from Doctor Eder, 114 0714 Allah hari And the Palestine as Jewish as England Tin lille tumling af equality there if Palestine is to be
Plestine is only a small part of the all lil the part of it hus heut te square miles. 401 Titlul de la Mare 4* Sunny the Jews came in and by
Issure that in England all
people are equals, that I as an American may live and have property there which would be protected in England, and I do not see that if it became a Jewish state, and the Jews became a majority that they would not take care of the Arabs and give them the same right to hold property and live in peace with the rest of the community.
Doctor SHATARA. Doctor Eder states that if the Jews are to become predominant there will be no equality between the Arabs and the Jews.
Mr. COCKRAN. When their numbers predominate.
Doctor SHATARA. We are a majority now, but we do not want any people to come into Palestine and become a majority. This is our national home, the national home of the Palestinians, and I think those people are entitled to priority as the national home of the Palestinians and not aliens who have come in and have gradually become a majority.
Mr. COCKRAN. Suppose they do come in. You do not object to them coming in and buying land and settling.
Doctor SHATARA. I would summarize the demands of the Arab delegation in London. They have touched upon that point.
Mr. COCKRAN. That is an important point.
Doctor SHATARA. I have here some demands submitted to the British Government and I will summarize them. Palestine has about twice as many people per square mile as has the United States. This summary shows that no country has more people per square mile than Palestine and there is more justification for admitting immigration into this country and into Texas than admitting immigration into Palestine, because the Palestinians are there, and Palestine is pretty well populated.
Mr. COCKRAN. Carrying that out, the Indians would have the right to object to the coming here of the whites.
Doctor SHATARA. If you carry that out, you will notice you will allow the Arab to claim Spain.
Mr. COCKRAN, Let us have the report.
Doctor SHATARA. Those demands have been submitted by Palestine Arab delegation in London. The Arab people of Palestine ask, first, that a national government shall be created that will be responsible to a parliament elected by those inhabitants of Palestine who live there Christians, Mohammedans, and Jews. Second, the abolition of the present policy in Palestine to regulate the immigration, which is to be controlled by this national government according to the capacity of the country to support new immigrants. Those people say, “We are judges of the capacity of our country. It is for us to say who we shall admit and refuse from coming into our country."
The CHAIRMAN. Applying the same rule that the United States applies?
Doctor SHATARA. Yes, sir. The majority want to have a say in the question of immigration, and I do not think anybody would deny that.
Third, the holy places for all religions to be left to the entire control of present guardians, but no national parliament or any other authority be allowed to effect any changes therein.
Fourth, that a local gendarmerie be greated for policing purposes, the expenses of this body to be met by the Palestine government. This would save the British taxpayer the huge amount he is now expending on the country.
They finally asked :
“Let Parliament send out a commission to Palestine to inquire into the question and report."
They are willing to abide by the report of any neutral commission to the country reporting about Palestine. We are all willing to abide by the report of a neutral commission into the affairs of Palestine prior to settling this question, and I would again urge that you gentlemen lock over the report of the commission which was sent there.
Mr. Fish. Do you belong to any organization? Do you represent any organization?
Doctor SHATARA. I represent the Palestine National League.
Mr. Fish. You have been in touch with the French ambassador? Did you send any telegram to any other senators ?
Doctor SHATARA. In France ?
Doctor SHATARA. No.
PARIS 20. PALESTINE NATIONAL LEAGUE,
85 Washington Street New York: Mes amis senateurs tres opposes mandat anglais Palestine qui lese France.
DOMINIQUE DELAHAYE. Mr. LINTHICUM. Read the interpretation of it. Mr, COCKRAN. Qui lese France means dishonors or slights France. Dr, SHATARA. Translated it would be:
My friends the senators of France are very much opposed to the English mandate over Palestine which slights France."
Mr, COCKRAN. Qui lese France means slights France.
MI, FINII, It might be of interest to the committee to know that France has a mandate already over Syria and there is some friction there. France is somewhat jenlous of England having a mandate over Palestine and it is supposed that some of this opposition to this very proposition emanates from French
MI, LINTHICUM, You brought out a difference between the Government issuing The Balfour declaration and the same not having been approved by the British Parliament. In it necessary that the Balfour declaration be approved by Par
Mr. (OKRAN, There is no relation between the British Government and the Parliament so far as foreign affairs are concerned. Treaties are made and kalbomilled to the Parliament and they can overthrow the Government, but the fronties are made by the Government.
MI LINTUICUM, The treaties are made and submitted by the Government.
P. MITATANA, They had a conference on the 9th of March and I understand That Hoing to be submitted asaras the Balfour declaration and mandate, there Imam domand throughout l'arliament that it be submitted.
MO (HAN. They will have to submit it and defend it but that does not for the validity of the mandate or the validity of the act itself. The 197 ATRALAN. Are there any further questions?
I HALATI, There is just one po'nt. In one of the articles of the League of Nunun ilus that any member who undertook to perform an agreement prior I looming # member of the League of Nations shall, on becoming a member up the longue of Nations, annul that agreement and leave it to the League of pintimes. The Balfour declaration was made prior to the time that Great inmin was # meniher of the league of Nations Article XXII of the League of Nations guarantees to the people of Palestine the right to determine their own maana and in romulate their own immigration.
Ne ore. Would not the giving of a mandate to England by the conference punte the Balfour declaration ?
car SHATIRA. Not necessarily Me pell. But they can Tacnr Sumut, the payment mei,, sir,
Why op so then in the lopatlles trenty did not obligate England to it, she had alreach rutined
Top SH***, Nr. 1* **fequente here which I want to leave for the
Me Tell I Will the momento che question which he was discussing in line with 40 m he called to the fact that the Vermalila mullafox MAN HM 467 who had entered into an agree
A wen of the 1148*** N Hanul any such agreement. That w In win met 4
ftohtade muuul the Balfour declaration;