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abutments action appears applied arch arranged bars beam béton blocks bottom breaking brick bridge cast iron cause cement centre chord clay common compression concrete connected consists construction courses cross curved depth diameter direction durability effect engineer equal experiments face feet force foundation give given greater hard heat horizontal hydraulic hydraulic lime inches increase interior joints kiln laid latter layer length less lime lower manner masonry mass material means metal mixed mortar natural nearly obtained ordinary pass paste pieces piles placed plates portion present pressure proportion receive resistance rest ribs roadway sand secured sheeting side slaked soil solid square inch steel stone strain strength strong structure subjected sufficient suitable surface termed thickness timber tion tube upper usually vertical wall weight yield
Page 136 - ... elasticity ; and judging from its slow increase afterwards, I was persuaded that it had not come on by a sudden change, but had existed, though in a less degree, from a very early period.
Page 419 - ... long. The fascines are laid in alternate layers crosswise and lengthwise, and the layers are either connected by pickets, or else the withes, with which the fascines are bound, are cut to allow the brushwood to form a uniform and compact bed. This method of securing a good bed for structures on a weak wet soil has been long practised in Holland, and experience has fully tested its excellence.
Page 175 - For the coping and top courses of a wall, the same objections do not apply to excess in length : but this excess may, on the contrary, prove favorable ; because the number of top joints being thus diminished, the mass beneath the coping will be better protected, being exposed only at the joints, which cannot be made water-tight, owing to the mortar being crushed by the expansion of the blocks in warm weather, and, when they contract, being washed out by the rain.