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mind with general knowledge. His principal power was in moving the passions, to which Dryden in his latter years left an illustrious testimony. He appears, by some of his verses, to have been a zealous royalist, and had what was in those times the common reward of loyalty; he lived and died neglected".

But Otway fail'd to polish or refine, And fluent Shakespeare scarce effac'd a line.'

POPE, Imit. Hor., Epis. ii. 1. 276.

In his preface to Fresnoy's Art of Painting. JOHNSON. It was published in 1695. Dryden writes of the power of expressing the passions:-'We call it the gift of our Apollo-not to be obtained by pains or study, if we are not born to it; for the motions which are studied are never so natural as those which break out in the height of a real passion. Mr. Otway possessed this part as thoroughly as any of the ancients or moderns.' Works, xvii. 325; post, DRYDEN, 325. For Fresnoy see ib. 146.

Otway in the Preface to Don Carlos (1676) alludes to Dryden :"Don Carlos never failed to draw tears from the eyes of the auditors; I mean those whose souls were capable of so noble a pleasure... though a certain writer, that shall be nameless (but you may guess at him by what follows), being asked his opinion of the play, very gravely cock'd, and cried :-'I'gad, he knew not a line in it he would be author

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of.'" Malone's Dryden, i. 501.

'Otway has admirably succeeded in the tender and melting part of his tragedies.' ADDISON, The Spectator, No. 39. 'Tender' is the epithet often applied to Otway. In Gay's Three Hours after Marriage, 1717, pp. 19, 22, the writer of a tragedy and a player talk of the tender Otway'; 'the tenderness of Otway.'

Thomson, in the Prologue to Tancred and Sigismunda, mentions 'soft Otway's tender woe.' Voltaire twice speaks of him as known in England as 'le tendre Otway.' Euvres, xlii. 129, 144. 'I once asked Dr. Johnson if he did not think Otway a good painter of tender scenes, and he replied, "Sir, he is all tenderness."

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DR. BURNEY, Hist. of Music, 1789, iii. 598 n.

'Otway has written but two tragedies, out of six, that are pathetic. I believe he did it without much design; as Lillo has done in his Barnwell. 'Tis a talent of nature rather than an effect of judgment to write so movingly.' POPE, Spence's Anec. p. 215.

'Otway's excellencies lay in painting directly from nature, in catching every emotion just as it rises from the soul, and in all the powers of the moving and pathetic.' GOLDSMITH, iii. 127.

Borrow, joining Otway with Milton and Butler, says :-'They have left a fame behind them which shall never die.' Lavengro, 1888, p. 133.



Otway, dedicating Venice Preserved to the king's mistress, the Duchess of Portsmouth, wrote: 'When I had enemies, that with malicious power kept back and shaded me from those royal beams whose warmth is all I have or hope to live by, your noble pity and compassion found me where I was far cast backward from my blessing; down in the rear of fortune; called me up, and placed me in the shine, and I have felt its comfort.'

Hume ends his Hist. of England with the following sentence:-'Otway, though a professed royalist, could not even procure bread by his writings; and he had the singular fate of dying literally of hunger. These incidents throw a great stain on the memory of Charles, who had discernment, loved genius, was liberal of money, but attained not the praise of true generosity.'

For the neglect of Butler see ante, BUTLER, 18, and of 'Dr. Hodges who, in the height of the Great Plague, continued in London,' see Boswell's Johnson, ii. 341 n.



DMUND WALLER was born on the third of March, 1

1605, at Colshill in Hertfordshire 2. His father was Robert Waller, Esquire, of Agmondesham in Buckinghamshire, whose family was originally a branch of the Kentish Wallers3, and his mother was the daughter of John Hampden, of Hampden in the same county, and sister to Hampden, the zealot of rebellion *.

His father died while he was yet an infant, but left him an 2 yearly income of three thousand five hundred pounds, which, rating together the value of money and the customs of life, we may reckon more than equivalent to ten thousand at the present time.

He was educated by the care

I n.

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''Waller,' wrote Johnson, never had any critical examination before.' John. Letters, ii. 68; ante, COWLEY, Among Johnson's authorities for this Life are the Life of Waller prefixed to his Poems upon Several Occasions, 1711, and Observations on some of Mr. Waller's Poems in Fenton's Works of Waller, 1729 (my references are to the edition of 1744).

'In the Life of Waller, Johnson gives a distinct and animated narrative of publick affairs in that variegated period, with strong yet nice touches of character; and having a fair opportunity to display his political principles, does it with an unqualified manly confidence, and satisfies his readers how nobly he might have executed a Tory History of his country.' Boswell's Johnson, iv. 39.

He was born at Winchmorehill in the parish of Agmundesham, commonly called Amersam [now Amersham], in Bucks, on March 13, 1605-6. Ath. Oxon. iii. 46. 'Though Coleshill be in Agmundesham 'tis in the county of Hertford.' Life, p. 3. Winchmoor Hill is close to Coleshill. 'He was baptized on March 9.' Cunningham's Lives of the Poets, i. 219.

3 For his grandfather's will see

of his mother at Eaton, and 3

N.& Q. I S. v. 619. The Kentish
Wallers were 'of Groombridge and
Speldhurst, near Tunbridge Wells.'
Cunningham's Lives of the Poets,i.219.

Hampden's father, William by name, not John, and Waller's mother were children of Griffith Hampden. Hampden's mother was a daughter of Sir Henry Cromwell, the Protector's grandfather. Hampden therefore was first cousin to Oliver Cromwell and to Edmund Waller. Ath. Oxon. iii. 47 n.

'Waller derived his poetick witt from the Hamdens; severall of them have been poets.' AUBREY, Brief Lives, ii. 279. Johnson in his Dictionary defines zealot as 'one passionately ardent in any cause. Generally used in dispraise.'


Life, p. 3. His paternall estate and by his first wife was 3,000 li. per annum.' Brief Lives, ii. 274.

6 6

'He sayes that he was bred under severall ill, dull, ignorant schoolmasters, till he went to Mr. Dobson at [High] Wickham, who was a good schoolmaster, and had been an Eaton scholar.' Ib. ii. 278. In the Life of Waller, p. 7, it is said he went to Eton. It is accepted at Eton that he was educated there; but, on inquiry, I cannot learn that there is any proof.


removed afterwards to King's College in Cambridge'. He was sent to parliament in his eighteenth, if not in his sixteenth year2, and frequented the court of James the First, where he heard a very remarkable conversation, which the writer of the Life prefixed to his Works, who seems to have been well informed of facts, though he may sometimes err in chronology, has delivered as indubitably certain 3.

! 'He found Dr. Andrews, bishop of Winchester, and Dr. Neale, bishop of Durham, standing behind his Majesty's chair; and there happened something [very] extraordinary, continues this writer, in the conversation those prelates had with the king, on which Mr. Waller did often reflect. His Majesty asked the bishops, "My Lords, cannot I take my subjects money, when I want it, without all this formality of [in] parliament ?" The bishop of Durham readily answered, "God forbid, Sir, but you should: you are the breath of our nostrils." Whereupon the King turned and said to the bishop of Winchester, "Well, my Lord, what say you?" "Sir," replied the bishop, "I have no skill to judge of parliamentary cases." The King answered, "No put-offs, my Lord; answer me presently." "Then, Sir," said he, "I think it is lawful for you to take my brother Neale's money; for he offers it." Mr. Waller said the company was pleased with this answer, and the wit of it seemed to affect the King; for, a certain lord coming in soon after, his Majesty cried out, "Oh, my lord, they say you lig with my Lady."' 'No, Sir," says his Lordship in confusion, "but I like her company, because she has so much wit." "Why then," says the King, "do you not lig with my Lord of Winchester there?"'

Waller's political and poetical life began nearly together. In his eighteenth year he wrote the poem that appears first in his works, on the Prince's Escape at St. Andero, a piece which justifies the observation made by one of his editors, that he attained, by a felicity like instinct, a style which perhaps will

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never be obsolete; and that 'were we to judge only [barely] by the wording, we could not know what was wrote at twenty, and what at fourscore'.' His versification was in his first essay such as it appears in his last performance. By the perusal of Fairfax's translation of Tasso, to which, as Dryden relates3, he confessed himself indebted for the smoothness of his numbers, and by his own nicety of observation, he had already formed such a system of metrical harmony as he never afterwards much needed or much endeavoured to improve. Denham corrected his numbers by experience, and gained ground gradually upon the ruggedness of his age; but what was acquired by Denham was inherited by Waller.

The next poem, of which the subject seems to fix the time, is 6 supposed by Mr. Fenton to be the Address to the Queen, which he considers as congratulating her arrival, in Waller's twentieth year 5. He is apparently mistaken; for the mention of the nation's obligations to her frequent pregnancy proves that it was written when she had brought many children'. We have therefore no date of any other poetical production before that which the murder of the Duke of Buckingham occasioned': the steadiness with which the King received the news in the chapel deserved indeed to be rescued from oblivion. Neither of these pieces that

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seem to carry their own dates 7

Godfrey of Bulloigne, which was
turned into English by Mr. Fairfax.'
DRYDEN, Works, xi. 210. See also
Life, p. 65.


When he was a brisque young sparke, and first studyed poetry, Methought," said he, "I never saw a good copie of English verses; they want smoothnes; then I began to essay." AUBREY, Brief Lives, ii. 275. Post, WALLER, 142.

The queen arrived on June 12, 1625.

The mistake is Johnson's, who has confused two poems-one To the Queen, the other of the Queen. The first was written to congratulate her arrival; in the second the nation's obligations' are thus expressed :'Joy of our age and safety of the next, For which so oft thy fertile womb is

vext.' Eng. Poets, xvi. 30, 34. ? On Aug. 23, 1628. Eng. Poets, xvi. 23; post, WALLER, 124.


could have been the sudden effusion of fancy. In the verses on the Prince's escape, the prediction of his marriage with the princess of France must have been written after the event'; in the other, the promises of the King's kindness to the descendants of Buckingham2, which could not be properly praised till it had appeared by its effects, shew that time was taken for revision and improvement. It is not known that they were published till they appeared long afterwards with other poems 3.

Waller was not one of those idolaters of praise who cultivate their minds at the expence of their fortunes. Rich as he was by inheritance, he took care early to grow richer by marrying Mrs. Banks, a great heiress in the city, whom the interest of the court was employed to obtain for Mr. Crofts. Having brought him a son, who died young, and a daughter, who was afterwards married to Mr. Dormer of Oxfordshire 6, she died in childbed, and left him a widower of about five and twenty, gay and wealthy, to please himself with another marriage.

9 Being too young to resist beauty, and probably too vain to think himself resistible, he fixed his heart, perhaps half fondly and half ambitiously, upon the Lady Dorothea Sidney, eldest daughter of the Earl of Leicester, whom he courted by all the poetry in which Sacharissa is celebrated: the name is derived from the Latin appellation of sugar, and implies, if it means any thing, a spiritless mildness and dull good-nature, such as excites rather tenderness than esteem, and such as, though always treated with kindness, is never honoured or admired 7.


Yet he describes Sacharissa as a sublime predominating beauty, of lofty charms and imperious influence, on whom he looks with

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