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approve of Captain Walter Grant McGregor, of the Higbland Light Infantry Militia, being granted the honorary rank of major.

War Office, Pall Mall, Jan. 20. COMMISSIONS SIGNED BY LORDS

LIEUTENANT. Cambridgeshire Regiment of Militia-Lieut. Francis William Wragg; Jan. 14.

Duke of Lancaster's Own Regi. ment of Yeomanry Cavalry-Cor. Herbert Cross, gent., to be lieut.; Jan. 9.

Royal London Militia-Captain George Barnes Hobson to be maj., vice John Harrison Allan, promoted ; Jan. 18. Charles Latham, gent., to be lieut.; Jan. 18.

MEMORANDA. Her Majesty has been pleased to approve of Lieut. Col. Robert G. Wale, of the Cambridgeshire Regiment of Militia, being granted the honorary rank of col.; Dec. 27, 1870.

Her Majesty bas been pleased to approve of Major Ashton Mosley of the 1st Derbyshire Regiment of Militia, being granted the honorary rank of lieut. col.

Egan, gent., to be assist. surg., vice Ryan, promoted; Dec. 31, 1870.

1st Somersetshire Engineer Volunteer Corps—Joseph Nash, Esq., M.D., to be capt., vice Bramble, promoted; Jan. 12. James Gre. gory, gent., to be sec. lieut., vice Wiltshire, promoted ; Jan. 12.

1st Surrey Artillery Volunteer Corps--James Hare, gent., late First Lieut. Tower Hamlets Artillery Volunteer Corps, to be first lient.; Aug. 28, 1870.

lst Surrey Rifle Volunteer Corps-Ens. Henry Francis to be lieut., vice S. C. Child, resigned; Oct. 1, 1870. Ens. Cbarles Henry Nevill to be lieut., vice Godden, promoted ; Oct. 1, 1870. Thomas William Croker, gent., to be ens., vice Francis, promoted; Oct. 1, 1870. George Waterall, gent., to te ens., vice Nevill, promoted ; October 1, 1870. Sidney Clulow Child, gent., to be hon. quarter. master, vice E. C. Bigmore, resigned ; Oct. 1, 1870.

4th Surrey Rifle Volunteer Corps--Edward Horsman Bailey, gent., to be ens.; Jan. 6.

9th Elginshire Rifle Volunteer Corps-James McGregor, gent., to be capt., vice Stewart, resigned ; Jan. 9.

THE VOLUNTEER GAZETTE. WAR OFFICE, Pall Mall, Jan. 17. COMMISSIONS SIGNED BY LORDS

LIEUTENANT. 3rd Forfarshire Artillery Volunteer Corps - David Alexander McCorqudale, gent., to be second lieut, ; Jan. 12.

1st London Engineer Volunteer Corps - Sec. Lieut. Edward W. Stilwell to be first lieut.; Dec. 21, 1870. William John Hodges, gent., to be first lieut. ; Dec. 21, 1870.

2nd London Rifle Volunteer Corps-Donald Frederick Durant Maclean, gent., to be ens.; Dec. 21, 1870.

2nd Middlesex Rifle Volunteer Corps-Assist. Surg. Martindale Ward to be surg., vice Ree, re. signed; Dec. 31, 1870. Assist. Surg. William Burke Ryan, M.D., to be surgeon; Dec. 31, 1870. George Vinicombe Coates, gent., to be assist. surg., vice Ward, promoted; Dec. 31, 1870. Francis

War OFFICE, Pall Mall, Jan. 20. COMMISSIONS SIGNED BY LORDS

LIEUTENANT. 3rd Anglesey Artillery Volunteer Corps-Sec. Lieut. William Evans to be capt., vice Weldon, resigned ; Jan. 16. Evan Richard Thomas, to be first lieut., vice Williams, resigned ; Jan. 16. Ed. win Whittaker, gent., to be sec. lieut., vice Evans, promoted ; Jan. 16. Robert Edward Owen, gent., to be hon. hon, assist, surg., vice Williams, resigned ; Jan. 16. Rev. David Thomas, B.A., to be hon. chap., vice Priestly, resigned ; Jan. 16.

6th Cinque Ports Artillery Vo. lunteer Corps-Thomas S. Plomley Vores, gent., to be sec. lieut. Jan. 12.

16th Durham Rifle Volunteer Corps – Ens. James Tait to be

lieut., vice Matthews, resigned; Dec. 31, 1870.

1st Midlothian Rifle Volunteer Cocps-Amedee James, gent., to be ens.; Jan. 4.

12th Essex Rifle Volunteer Corps-William Neville Tufnell, gent., to be captain; April 29, 1869.

4th Lancashire Rifle Volunteer Corps -Stanley Smith, gent., to be sec. lieut.; Jan. 2.

15th Lancashire Artillery Vo lunteer Corps — Collins Sempill Overend, gent., to be sec. lieut. ; Jan. 2.

1st Lancashire Engineer Volun. teer Corps – Edward Jackson, gent., to be first lieut. ; Jan. 2.

]st Lancashire Rifle Volunteer Corps — John Robert Haldenby Keyworth, gent., to be lieut.; Jan. 7. Charles Alder, gent., to be ens.; Jan. 7. Charles Thomas Newstead, gent., to be ens. ; Jan.

6th Lancashire Rifle Volunteer Corps-John Emery, gent., to be ens.; Dec. 22, 1870. Alfred Lockwood, gent., to be ens.; Dec. 22, 1870. Louis Arthur Lucas, gent., to be ens.; Dec. 22, 1870. Henry Warburton, gent., to be ensigo; Jan. 2.

24th Lancasbire Rifle Volunteer Corps – Ens. Frederick Nassau Molesworth to be lieut.; Dec. 22, 1870.

THE ESTIMATES FOR THE ARMY AND RESERVE

FORCES.

“ We have been always too ready to disarm, as in 1856, and when the Indian Mutiny broke out a few months afterwards, it caught us at a disadvantage which it took millions to rectify. The highest bounties could not bring back the soldiers we had shortly before so readily got rid of. Men of five feet two inches in height were hurriedly enlisted and sent out to augment our Indian cavalry, where their want of stature gained them the name of the Dumpy Pice, and their want of stamina an early grave, or a passage home to England. Soldiers over three years service are valuable articles, and we could better spare even more intelligent servants of the Government than they. At present we are playing the 1856 tactics over again ; we only hope that the game will not be so expensive a one now as then.”

The above, which concluded our paper on the Army Estimates for last year, is no unfitting comment when commencing a review of the same subject this year. The words uttered then with no prephetic intent have undoubtedly come as true, as our saving of silver has cost us gold. Having consistently, and at all times called attention to the futility of this penny-wise and poundfoolish fit of economy which periodically seems to seize upon the British Government, usually at a time by the way which subsequent events prove was one for expenditure--to increase our war establishment, and not reduction—we hail with sincere satisfaction the steps which the authorities are now taking. At the same time we must protest against any halting in this opward movement, for if we spent thirty millions instead of three, enlisted two hundred thousand in place of twenty thousand men, and increased our brigades of artillery tenfold, yet if we neglected to give our soldiers the sound practical teaching which service in the field confers, and to place officers over them fit to lead and instruct, all the outlay would be of less benefit than had the millions of pounds been poured upon the Goodwin Sands.

The Government Bill is on the whole, however, then a good one, but until some better method of getting soldiers than the ordinary system by recruiting has been introduced, we fear that we will never get either the quantity or the quality of the material sought after. Mr. Cardwell shows, or rather attempts to show, that recruiting was never more brisk than it is now, and that since the no-bounty method of enlistment has been introduced, over 18,000 recruits have joined the ranks of our army. Now we wonder has Mr. Cardwell ever seen a sample in any regiment of this eighteen thousand and odd recruits ? we should

U. S. Mag No.508, Marcu, 1871.

imagine not, for had he seen the specimens that have recently joined crack corps even, he would not have been so hasty with his assertion. “On the whole I am sure that you will feel that the recruiting has been carried on in a very satisfactory man. ner.” We are not exaggerating when we state that at no time in our history has there been such a per-centage of rascality drafted into the ranks of the service under the names of recruits than bas been within the last six months. Next with regard to the militia, and their being periodically trained in the counties to which they belong, most people are aware that the militia-man of the period is usually an idle skulking fellow, who looks forward to the annual drill — as a month's drinking bout, and during the period he is up, is the terror of his neighbourhood. Take the same person away from his usual surroundings of pot-house companions; an enforced idleness of so many hours a day; and place him in a large camp where he would not only be away from much evil influence, but have a healthy employment either on outpost duty, throwing up intrenchments, marching to overtake or surprise an enemy, cooking for his comrades, or any occupation which he would be required to follow in war, and we will engage that after six weeks of such work he would return to his native town, not only a better soldier, but a far better citizen than when he left it.

Then with respect to getting soldiers to give their services either for the militia or the regular service, we feel that the end might be attained without making such service compulsory. In the first place government should put before the labouring classes all the advantages which a so.dier's life possesses to theirs. His good food, lodging, fuel and light; his library, recreation-rooms, and good pay, together with pension on discharge, and certainty of further employment under government, and last though not least the chance of promotion which all well conducted men of average ability can fairly now rely upon. The private soldier now-a-days is as much better off than the common day-labourer, as the latter is superior to the pauper, if not more so, and this fact not being put sufficiently forward by the authorities is more against enlistment than anything else. Again, if drill was made compulsory in all schools, not only would our youths grow up healthier and more active, but knowing all simple formations from their childhood, would be able to take their place in the ranks at any period of their after life, for any knowledge acquired young is seldom if ever forgotten.

The boldest part of Mr. Cardwell's proposed reformation is cer. tainly the abolition of promotion by purchase, and we are glad to see that no extraordinary attempts at cheese-paring has been made, but a really liberal programme introduced, which will give every officer who wishes to retire, what he gave for his commissiou. And if promotion were to go by merit, we mnight expect that in a very few years a very superior class of officers, so far as military attainments go, would have entered the service, who really soldiers at heart, would do more to popularize their profession, and make ours an army of efficiency as well as strength, than any money grants would ever be able to effect. But while we advocate promotion by merit, we should also like to see introduced a system of brevet, which would entitle the regimental subaltern of twelve years, service to the rank of captain with a slight increase of pay, and other promotion to follow in the same manner at stated intervals. For even in any corps, however clever its officers might be, promotion must necessarily go slow, and this brevet would be the means of causing many to retire after they had gained captain's rank, that could not have done so had they remained subalterns. As doubtless much stricter inspections will now be made than there used to be, it will imperative for every general to become more acquainted with the captains and field-officers under his command, so that he may gain a better knowledge of their respective abilities than has been thought necessary for an inspecting officer to do. For instance, a general by employing in turn two regimental officers weekly as assistant aides-de-camp and brigade major, would soon find out the cleverest officers in his command; and if a colonel weekly appointed his subalterns in turn to be acting adjutants, and instructors of musketry, he would in a like manner not only give his officers a healthy sound practical education, but know the individual merits of each. At present the frothy officer is too often credited with qualities which he does not possess and the system we advocate here, together with competitive examinations, should give us officers second to none in the world. We may however remark that a superabundance of officers does not improve the growth of discipline but retards it. It is the old adage of “ too many cooks," and wherever there are more officers than is necessary, the work is sbirked by them all, discipline relaxes, crime increases, and the whole corps degenerates in a marked degree.

It will be noticed, perhaps, that in this brief review of our army arrangements, no allusion has been made to the Foot Guards who have been fitly termed the “ aristocrats of the army.” Now when promotion by purchase is to be done away with altogether, it will be difficult to find an excuse for why one portion of our service are given the rank of colonels while the remaining portions are only captains. We should imagine that this anomaly will not be allowed long to exist, in short that the captain-subalterns and the colonel-captains will be allowed to disappear along with the purchase of commissions.

Mr. Cardwell's proposed system of reserves are as yet only on paper, and until it has been tried and failed, we are scarcely justified in passing an adverse opinion upon it. We, thinking " that the proof of the pudding is in the eating,” are willing to

degree.

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