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GRAMMAR

OF

ENGLISH GRAMMARS ;

OR

ADVANCED MANUAL OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND LANGUAGE,

CRITICALLY AND HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED.

WITH NUMEROUS EXERCISES.

SPECIALLY ADAPTED TO THE TUITION

OF PUPIL-TEACHERS, QUEEN SCHOLARS, AND ALL PERSONS PREPARING

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302. q.245

LONDON:
LONGMAN, GREEN, LONGMAN, ROBERTS, & GREEN.

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PREFACE.

THE power of giving sounds to thought, and of expressing all that the mind can conceive by combinations of intelligible tones addressed to the ear, is one of the most marvellous faculties, and at the same time one of the greatest privileges of our nature, And closely connected with this, as one of the most valuable of human discoveries, is the art of representing these thoughts to the eye by legible characters. By the former we are rendered capable of social intercourse, of receiving and conveying ideas, of enjoying the endearments of friendship and the communications of wisdom. By the latter we converse where the ear is far out of the reach of sound, and transmit our thoughts to the remotest parts of the earth; we treasure up what might otherwise escape our memories, become acquainted with the transactions of former ages and distant countries, with all the learning of the ancients and improvements of the moderns; and can read the laws which the Great Creator of the Universe has given for the government of our passions and the regulation of our conduct.

It has been observed, that language is to the mind what painting and sculpture are to the sight. However, the difference in favour of the former is very considerable. The most finished pieces of imagery are at best but dull and unaffecting, when compared with the energy of words. By such masterly productions of art we bave indeed the object presented before us, but language can set it in all varieties of view, under every combination of circumstances. The utility of language, therefore, will always entitle it to a considerable share of attention in civilised communities, and to an important place in all systems of education.

In introducing the present work to the notice of our readers, we deem it advisable to make special allusion to the circumstances of its publication. It was the Author's original intention to combine it in one volume with a smaller work, published during the past year under the title of a Companion to English Grammar,' which, being distinct from this, yet closely related to it in subject,* was to have formed the Second Part. This will account for the occasional references made in these pages to the companion volume. The two, conjointly, form what the Author has striven to make a Complete Manual of English Grammar and Language, specially adapted to the requirements of pupils preparing for Government Examinations.

The treatise here submitted to the public is not the result of untried speculation, but of long experience. For nearly twenty years, the Author has been engaged in teaching the English language, and during the last fourteen years he has been accustomed to preparing pupils for Government Examinations. In the preparation of this volume, the author has kept in view the questions set on grammar and language at the Annual Government Examinations, and his object is to produce a work which, in a concise form, will contain suitable information to answer such questions. Among the numerous publications already in existence, the Author sought in vain for a work of this description : he has therefore attempted to supply the deficiency by the work now offered to the public, and for this purpose has consulted and compared most of the grammatical treatises already published, of which a chronological list is given in one of the introductory chapters.

* The Companion to English Grammar' embraces the Analysis of Sentences, Paraphrasing, Higher Order of Parsing, Punctuation, Composition or Style, Figurative Language, &c.

Grammatical rules, strictly speaking, give but little occasion for dispute, most grammars, in this respect, being substantially reprints of each other. Considerable diversity, however, prevails with regard to classification and nomenclature. We have taken note of this diversity; points of difficulty are dwelt upon largely, and the differences of grammarians on disputed points are set forth fully in the notes and remarks. Quotations are sometimes adduced on both sides from authors of repute, our wish being to make our readers acquainted with the grammars of others, as well as with that which we may venture to call our own.

An attentive reader will notice several valuable features not common in works of this kind. We invite special attention to our introductory historical sketch of the language from the time of the Saxons to the present age, which we have illustrated by specimens in every stage of its history, We also call attention to the synopsis of the principal writers of English literature, with the chief works of each, arranged under the respective reigns and periods to which they belong. For the importance of such an arrangement we need only refer to the Government Questions at the end. Our space demanded brevity, but sufficient, we hope, is given to excite the interest of our readers in a subject of such utility, and to invite them to a more extensive research.

Appended to the different chapters are Questions for Examination, which are recapitulations in an interrogatory form of the rules previously inculcated. These will prove eminently serviceable both to teachers and to students. They will furnish the former, at one glance, with all the principal questions on any given part; while to the latter they will form, on all occasions, a convenient exercise for

the memory

At the end of the work will be found a collection of General Questions and Exercises, selected from the Government Examination papers during the last ten or twelve years. These exercises will be found particularly useful to advanced students. On perusing them it will be seen that a person may be well acquainted with several of the

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