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A DICTIONARY OF
UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE FOR THE PEOPLE
GOOD, JOHN Mason, a physician and author, was the recognizance is forfeited, then the party may born at Epping in Essex, 1764, and died in London be again punished. in 1827. He commenced practice as a surgeon in GOOD-CONDUCT PAY is an addition made Sudbury in 1784, but meeting with little success, in the British army to the daily pay of corporals he removed to London in 1793, principally with the and private soldiers, in consideration of long service view of obtaining literary employment.
unaccompanied by bad behaviour. The amount In addition to The Book of Nature, the work by awarded at one time is ld. a day, with one white which he is now chiefly known, and which only chevron on the arm as a badge of distinction. Sucappeared shortly before his death, he published cessive awards of good-conduct pay may raise the various poems, translations, and professional treatises. total grant to 6d. a day, with a corresponding Of his original poems we need say nothing. Amongst number of stripes on the arm. his translations we may notice his Song of Songs, In each regiment there is kept a 'Regimental or Sacred Idylls, translated from the Hebrew, 1803 ; Defaulters' Book,' in which the commanding officer his translation of Lucretius, in verse, in 1805; of is bound to enter the name of every soldier in the the Book of Job, in 1812; of the book of Proverbs, corps who shall have been convicted by courtin 1821; and of the Book of Psalms, which was martial of any offence, or who, in consequence of just completed at the time of his death. His chief misconduct, shall be subjected to forfeiture of pay, professional work, his Study of Medicine, in four either with or without imprisonment, or to any volumes, was published in 1822. It is a learned other punishment beyond seven days' confinement and musing work, but by no means a trust- to barracks. No first or subsequent ld. of good. worthy guide to the medical student. He likewise
conduct pay can be awarded to a soldier, unless two published, in conjunction with Olinthus Gregory continuous years have elapsed without his name and Bosworth, the Pantologia, or Encyclopædia, being thus recorded ; and if he have the misfortune comprising a General Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, | to come within the provisions of this black book and General Literature, in twelve volumes, which while actually in receipt of good-conduct pay, he were completed in 1813, and contributed largely loses for each offence ld. per diem, which can only to various periodicals. His friend, Dr Olinthus be restored after one uninterrupted year of good Gregory, published a Memoir of his Life in service, during which his name has not been recorded 1828.
in the defaulters' book. The loss of the ld. is of GOOD BEHAVIOUR, a phrase rather popular course accompanied by the loss of the corresponding than legal. It is used chiefly as synonymous with distinguishing mark or stripe. keeping the peace. Thus, if one person assaults The first ld. is obtainable after three years' service, another, or threatens or provokes him to a breach of the last two having been passed through without the the peace, the offence is punishable summarily by name once appearing in the defaulters' book; the justices of the peace, who, besides inflicting a fine, second, after 8 years; the third, after 13 years ; may, and often do bind over the offending party to the fourth, after 18 years; the fifth, after 23 years; keep the peace, and be of good behaviour for a and the sixth, after 28 years; the service being period of six or twelve months. The mode of doing only reckoned in any case from the age of 18, and two this is by requiring the offending party to enter years of uninterrupted good conduct immediately into his recognizances with or without sureties, before the time at which the award is granted which is, in fact, the giving a bond for a specified being requisite in every instance. As an addi. sum to the crown, and if it is broken, that is, if I tional inducement to continuous good behaviour,
14 uninterrupted years without an adverse entry construction of the ceremony. See IDOLATRY ; entitles a soldier, after 16, 21, or 26 years' service, IMAGES. The very striking office of “Tenebra' is to the award for which he would only otherwise be held upon Good Friday, as well as on the preceding eligible after 18, 23, or 28 years.
two days: it consists of the matins and lauds of Non-commissioned officers do not receive good- the office of Holy Saturday, and has this peculiarity, conduct pay, an addition instead thereof of 2d. per that at the close all the lights in the church are diem having been made to their regular pay a few extinguished except one, which for a time (as a years since. A sum, however, not exceeding £4400 symbol of our Lord's death and burial) is hidden a year is distributed among sergeants of long ser- under the altar. vice and good conduct, in the way of annuities, not in the English Church, Good Friday is also celeover £20 each. The annuity is receivable during brated with special solemnity. Anciently, a sermon active service, and also in conjunction with the was preached at St Paul's Cross on the afternoon of pension on retirement.
this day, at which the lord mayor and aldermen In the Ceylon Rifles, the Gold Coast Artillery, and attended. The practice of eating upon this day the Malta Fencible Artillery, good-conduct pay is | cross buns'--cakes with a cross impressed upon allowed to the native soldiers for similar periods of them is a relic of the Roman Catholic times, but service, but to only half the above amount.
it has lost all its religious significance. In England A considerable increase of the army causes a and Ireland, Good Friday is by law a dies non, and large decrease in the sum payable for good-con- all business is suspended. In Scotland, the day duct pay, as the older soldiers become non-com- meets with no peculiar attention, except from missioned officers, and the ranks are swelled by members of the Episcopal and Roman Catholic young recruits, who have not yet had time to earn communions. these extra rewards. The total charge in the army
GOOD HOPE. See CAPE OF Good Hope. for good-conduct pay during the year 1862–1863 is estimated, exclusive of the annuities to sergeants,
GOODALL, FREDERICK, an eminent English at £105,622.
artist, the son of Edward Goodall, an engraver Good-conduct pay and badges are also awarded of reputation, was born in London, September 17, in the navy to seamen of exemplary conduct ; but 1822. His first oil-picture was entitled, • Finding the periods for obtaining, and the rules under which the Dead Body of a Miner by Torchlight,' for which it is granted and forfeited, so nearly resemble those the Society of Arts awarded him the large silver in force for the army, that a separate description medal. During the summers of 1838-1812, he is unnecessary. The leading differences are, that visited Normandy and Brittany, and in 1839, when the grant is limited to three badges, and 3d. a but 17 years of age, he exhibited his first picture day; that petty officers continue to hold it; and at the Royal Academy, ‘French Soldiers Playing that it is of no account in the pension given at the Cards in à Cabaret.' His 'Entering Church, as expiration of active service.
well as “The Return from a Christening,' which GOOD FRIDAY, the Friday before Easter,
received a prize of £50 from the British Institution, sacred as the commemoration of the crucifixion of
and others of his early pictures, were purchased our Lord. This day was kept as a day of mourning
by Mr Wells. The Tired Soldier,' exhibited in and of special prayer from a very early period. It
1842, was purchased by Mr Vernon, and is now was one of the two paschal days celebrated by the
in the Vernon Gallery. Some of his French scenes Christian Church, and in memory of the crucifixion,
are, Veteran of the Old Guard describing his was called by the Greeks Pascha Staurosimon, or
Battles,' 'La Fête du Mariage,' •The Wounded the ‘Pasch of the Cross.' That it was observed as
Soldier Returned to his Family, The Conscript.' a day of rigid fast and of solemn and melancholy
In 1844, he went for subjects to Ireland, and subceremonial, we learn from the apostolic constitutions
sequently visited North Wales. Among his Irish (b. v. c. 18), and from Eusebius (Eccl. Hist. b. ii.
scenes are, “Irish Courtship,' The Irish Piper,' c. 17), who also tells that, when Christianity was
and the Departure of the Emigrant Ship.' His established in the empire, Constantine forbade the
later efforts have chiefly been directed to English holding of law-courts, markets, and other public
subjects. The Village Festival,' one of the best of proceedings upon this day. In the Roman Catholic
them, exhibited in 1847, was purchased by Mr Church, the service of this day is very peculiar;
Vernon. His ‘Hunt the Slipper' (1849), Raising instead of the ordinary mass, it consists of what
the Maypole' (1851), 'An Episode of the Happier is called the Mass of the Presanctified, the sacred
Days of Charles I. (1853), “Arrest of a Peasant host not being consecrated on Good Friday, but
Loyalist-Brittany, 1793' (1855), and "Cranmer at reserved from the preceding day. The priests
the Traitor's Gate' (1856), also added greatly to his and attendants are robed in black, in token of
reputation. In 1852, G. was elected an Associate mourning; the altar is stripped of its ornaments ;
of the Royal Academy. the kiss of peace is omitted, in detestation of the GOODENIACEÆ, a natural order of exogen. kiss of the traitor Judas ; the priest recites a long ous plants, of which about 150 species are known, series of prayers for all classes, orders, and ranks mostly herbaceous plants, although a few are shrubs, in the church, and even for heretics, schismatics, and mostly natives of Australia and the islands pagans, and Jews. But the most striking part of of the Southern Ocean, a few being also found the ceremonial of Good Friday is the so-called in India, the south of Africa, and South America. • adoration of the cross,' or, as it was called in the order is allied to Campanulaceæ and Lobelithe old English popular vocabulary, 'creeping to acece, but is destitute of the milky juice which is the cross. A large crucifix is placed upon the found in both of these. The corolla is monoaltar with appropriate ceremonies, in memory of petalous, more or less irregular. A remarkable the awful event which the crucitix represents, and character of this order is that the summit of the the entire congregation, commencing with the cele- style bears a little cup, in the bottom of which brant priest and his ministers, approach, and upon the stigma is placed. The flowers of some of their knees reverently kiss the figure of our crucified the species are of considerable beauty. The young Lord. In the eyes of Protestants, this ceremony leaves of Scævola taccada are used as a salad by appears to partake more strongly of the idolatrous the Malays; and the pith furnishes a kind of character than any other in the Roman Catholic rice-paper, which they make into artificial flowers ritual; but Catholics earnestly repudiate all such and other ornaments.
GOODS AND CHATTELS GOODWIN SANDS.
GOODS AND CHATTELS, a legal as well as England he can. See other incidents of this distincpopular phrase in common use, to signify personal tion in Paterson's Compendium of English and Scotch property. It is not unfrequently used in wills, but | Law, ss. 673, 738. If there is a marriage-contract or seldom in any other legal instrument; and when antenuptial settlement between the husband and used in wills, it generally includes all the personal wife, the rights both of the wife and children may property of the testator. In Scotland, the corres be materially varied, for the rule then is, that the ponding phrase is goods and gear.
parties may make what arrangement they please by GOODS IN COMMUNION, the name given way of contract, and in such settlements a fixed in the law of Scotland, France, and some other sum is generally provided both to the wife and countries, to the personal property of a married children, in lieu of what they would be entitled couple, which is not subject to any deed, but left to to at common law, i. e., where no express contract the operation of the common law. In England, is made. such a phrase is unknown, for upon marriage, all the
GOOD-WILL is rather a short popular exprespersonal property which previously belonged to the
sion than a legal term. It means that kind of woman (which is not secured by any deed or will),
interest which is sold along with any profession, as well as what was previously his own, becomes
trade, or business. In reality, it is not the business and continnes the husband's absolutely-he is entire
that is sold, for that is not a distinct thing recogmaster of it, and can do what he likes with it,
nised by the law, but the house, shop, tixtures, regardless of the wishes of his wife or children, and
&c., are sold, and the trade debts ; and along with he may even bequeath it away to strangers. In
transferring these, the seller binds himself, either by Scotland, the theory is not so liberal towards the
covenant or agreement, to do everything in his husband, though in practice there is not much
power to recommend his successor, and promote his difference. By the law of Scotland, the husband
interests in such business. If the seller acts concan also do what he likes with the personal property trary to such agreement. he is liable to an action. of both parties, if there is no previous marriage. But the more usual course is for the seller to enter contract or other deed governing the subject matter.
into an express covenant not to carry on the same He can almost squander it at will. It is only at his
| business within 30, 40, or 100 miles, or some death that the theory of a kind of partnership, or of
specified moderate distance from the place where the a communion of goods, comes into play.
purchaser resides. At first, such a covenant was Until 1855, when the law was altered, this theory
y sought to be set aside as invalid, on the ground prevailed when the wife died, for formerly, at her
that it tended to restrain the natural liberty of death, the goods were divided into two parts, if there
trade; but the courts have now firmly established were no children, and one-half went to the next of
of that if a definite radius of moderate length is fixed kin of the wife, however distant the relationship,
upon, it does not sensibly restrain trade, inasmuch and not to the husband. But now, by statute 18
as the person covenanting can go beyond those Vict. c. 23, s. 6, when a wife dies before the husband, limits, and trade as much as he pleases. Hence. her next of kin takes no interest whatever in the
such limitations are a fair matter of bargain, and goods in communion ; and the law in this respect upheld as valid. If the party break his covenant. 18 now the same as it is in England. Hence the
| he is liable to an action for damages. phrase goods in communion is less appropriate than it was before 1855. If, however, the husband die, the GOODWIN SANDS, famous banks of shifting goods in communion suffer a division on the principle sands stretching about 10 miles, in a direction of a partnership. Thus, if there are no children, north-east and south-west, off the east coast of half goes to the widow, and the other half to the Kent, at an average distance of 54 miles from the next of kin of the husband. If there are children, shore. The sands are divided into two portions by a then one-third goes to the widow, and is often called | narrow channel, and at low water, many parts are her Jus Relicta (q. v.), and the other two-thirds to uncovered. When the tide recedes, the sand the children equally, if there is no will; or if there becomes firm and safe ; but after the ebb, the water is a will, then one-third to them, called the Legitim permeates through the mass, rendering the whole (q. v.). The same division also takes place in pulpy and treacherous, in which condition it shifts England, when there is no will ; but this is done in to such a degree as to render charts uncertain from England by virtue of a statute 29 Charles II. c. 3, year to year. The northern portion is of triangular called the Statute of Distributions (q. v.), whereas form-34 miles long, and 2 in its greatest width; this effect is produced in Scotland not by a statute, on the northernmost extremity, known as North but by the common law. Practically, this distinc- Sand Head, a light-vessel marks the entrance on this tion, though important to be known by lawyers, perilous shoal. This light is distant about seven may seem immaterial to laymen.
miles from Ramsgate. In the centre, on the western Another more important distinction, however, side, jutting out towards the shore, is the Blunt both theoretically and practically, is this : The Head, a peculiarly dangerous portion, also marked above division of the goods in communion prevails by a light-ship. The southern portion is 10 miles in Scotland whether the husband has left a will or in length, 24 in width at its northern end, and not; in short, it prevails in spite of his will, and sloping towards the south-west, to a point called all that a husband having a wife and children can South Sand Head, which, being marked by a do by means of a will, is to bequeath one-third of light-vessel, completes the triangle of dangerous his personal estate to strangers, and this third is | proximity recorded for the benefit of mariners. usually called on that account the Dead's Part From the sunken nature of these sands, they have (q. v.). Thus, in Scotland, on the death of the hus- | always been replete with danger to vessels passing band, the wife and children have an indefeasible through the Strait of Dover, and resorting either to interest in two-thirds of his personal property, the Thames or to the North Sea. On the other and this inchoate interest during life gave rise to hand, they serve as a breakwater to form a secure the phrase "goods in communion. In England, on anchorage in the Downs (q. v.), when easterly or the contrary, the will, if there is one, may carry south-easterly winds are blowing. The Downs, away all the personal property to strangers, regard- | though safe under these circumstances, become less of the wife and children. Hence, the result dangerous when the wind blows strongly off-shore, may be stated shortly thus : in Scotland, a man at which time ships are apt to drag their anchors, cannot disinherit his wife and children ; whereas in and to strand upon the perfidious breakers of the
Goodwin, in the shifting sands of which their wrecks into importance, and may be said to date the comare soon entirely swallowed up. Many celebrated mencement of its prosperity from its establishment and terribly fatal wrecks have taken place here, as a bonding-port in 1829. It has commodious among which we have only space to enumerate the ship, barge, and steam-vessel docks, a patent slip three line-of-battle-ships, Stirling Castle, Mary, and for repairing vessels, ponds for bonded timber, a Northumberland, each of 70 guns, which, with other neatly-built custom house, and extensive warehouse ten men-of-war, were totally lost during the fearful accommodation. G. has a considerable trade in ship gale of the 26th November 1703, a gale so tremen- and boat building, sail-making, iron-founding, and dous that vessels were actually destroyed by it agricultural machine-making; it has also several while riding in the Medway. On the 21st December corn-mills, some of which are worked by steam. 1805, here foundered the Aurora, a transport, when Coal is largely exported along the coast, and in 300 perished ; on the 17th December 1814, the considerable quantities to London. In 1861, 3440 British Queen, an Ostend packet, was lost with all vessels, of 267,706 tons, entered and cleared the hands; and recently (January 5, 1857), during a port. Pop. about 5000. gale of eight days' duration, in which several other vessels were lost, the mail-steamer Violet was footed bird of the same genus with those commonly
GOOSANDER (Mergus Merganser), a webdestroyed, involving the sacrifice of many lives in the catastrophe. From these dates, it will be seen
called Mergansers (q. v.), and the largest of the that the greatest dangers are to be apprehended in
ndodhin British species. It is larger than a wild duck ; the winter months.
the adult male has the head and upper part of the • These dangerous sands are said to have consisted
neck of a rich shining green ; the feathers of the at one time of about 4000 acres of low land, fenced
crown and back of the head elongated, the back from the sea by a wall. One well-known tradition
black and gray, the wings black and white, the ascribes their present state to the building of the
breast and belly of a delicate reddish buff colour. Tenterden steeple, for the erection of which the
The female has the head reddish brown, with funds that should bave maintained the sea-wall
a less decided tuft than the male, and much had been diverted : this traditionary account is of
grayer plumage, and has been often described as little, if any value. Lambard, in writing of them,
a different species, receiving the English name says : •Whatsoever old wives tell of Goodwyne,
of Dundiver. Both mandibles are furnished with Earle of Kent, in time of Edward the Confessour,
many sharp serratures or teeth directed backand his sandes, it appeareth by Hector Boëtius,
wards (see accompanying illustration), the nearest the Brittish chronicler, that theise sandes weare mayne land, and some tyme of the possession of Earl Godwyne, and by a great inundation of the sea, they weare taken therfroe, at which tyme also much harme was done in Scotland and Flanders, by the same rage of the water.' At the period of the Conquest by William of Normandy, these estates were taken from Earl Godwin, and bestowed upon the abbey of St Augustine at Canterbury, the abbot of which, allowing the sea-wall to fall into a dilapidated condition, the waves rushed in, in the year 1100, and overwhelmed the whole. How far this account of the formation of this remarkable shoal can be relied on, is a matter of considerable doubt, the documentary evidence on the subject being scanty and unsatisfactory. A colourable confirmation is, however, to be deduced from the fact of the successive inroads which the sea has made for centuries past, and is still making along the whole east coast of England. As a precaution, now, in foggy weather, bells in
Goosander (Mergus Merganser). the light-ships are frequently sounded. Difficulty is experienced in finding firm anchorage for these approach to true teeth to be found in the moutlı vessels ; and all efforts to establish a fixed beacon of any bird. See also BILL The G. is a have been hitherto unsuccessful. In 1846, a light- native of the arctic regions, extending into the house on piles of iron screwed into the sand was temperate parts of Europe, Asia, and America : erected, but it was washed away in the following in the southern parts of Britain, it is seen only year. As soon as a vessel is known to have been in winter, and then only in severe weather, the driven upon the sands, rockets are thrown up from females and young migrating southwards in such the light-vessels, and the fact thus communicated to circumstances more frequently than the
circumstances more frequently than the old males, the shore. The rockets are no sooner recognised, and not unfrequently appearing in small flocks in than a number of boatmen, known all along the the south of Scotland and north of England : coast as "hovellers,' immediately launch their boats but in some of the northern parts of Scotland and make for the sands, whatever may be the state and the Scottish isles it spends the whole year. of wind and weather. These “hovellers' regard the It feeds on fish, crustaceans, and other aquatic wreck itself as their own property, and although animals which its serrated bill and its power of during fine weather they lead a somewhat regard-diving adinirably adapt it for seizing. The flesh less as well as a wholly idle and inactive life, their of the G. is extremely rank and coarse, but the intrepidity in seasons of tempest is worthy of all eggs appear to be sought after by the inhabitants praise.
of some northern countries. GOOLE, a thriving market-town and river-port GOOSE (Anser), a genus of web-footed birds, one of England, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, is of the sections of the Linnæan genus Anas (q. v.). situated on the right bank of the Ouse at its having the bill not longer than the head, more junction with the Dutch River, 22 miles south- high than broad at the base, the upper mandible south-east of York. It has only recently risen slightly hooked at the tip; the legs placed further GOOSE.
forward than in ducks, and so better adapted for of geese are kept in some places in England, walking; the neck of moderate length, with sixteen particularly in Lincolnshire, and regularly plucked vertebræ, a character which widely distinguishes five times a year, for feathers and quills. Geege them from swans. In general, geese spend more intended for the table are commonly shut up for of their time on land than any other of the Ana- a few weeks, and fattened before being killed. tidæ, feeding on grass and other herbage, berries, Great numbers are imported from Holland and seeds, and other vegetable food. Although large Germany for the London market, and fattened in birds, and of bulky form, they have great powers of England in establishments entirely devoted to this flight. They strike with their wings in fighting, purpose. Goose-hams are an esteemed delicacy. and there is a hard callous knob or tubercle at the The gizzards, heads, and legs of geese are also bend of the wing, which in some species becomes a sold in sets, under the name of giblets, to be used spur. The DOMESTIC G. is regarded as deriving its for pies. The livers of geese have long been in origin from the GRAY LAG G. or COMMON WILD G. request among epicures; but the páté de foie (A. ferus) ; but all the species seem very capable d'oie, or pâté de foie gras of Strasburg, is made from of domestication, and several of them have been livers in a state of morbid enlargement, caused by to some extent domesticated. The Gray Lag G. is keeping the geese in an apartment of very high almost three feet in length from the tip of the bill temperature. Large goose-livers were a favourite to the extremity of the short tail. Its extent delicacy of the ancient Roman epicures. of wing is about five feet. The wings do not The Gray Lag G. is the largest of the native reach to the extremity of the tail. The weight of British species. The next to it in size, and by the largest birds is about ten pounds. The colour far the most abundant British wild goose, is the of the plumage is gray, varying in some parts to BEAN G. (A. segetum), a very similar bird ; the bill grayish brown ; the rump and belly white, the tail longer, orange, with the base and nail black; the grayish brown and white; the bill is orange, the plumage mostly gray, but browner than in the nail at the tip of the upper mandible white. The Gray Lag G., the rump dark brown. The wings young are darker than the adults. The Gray Lag G. is common in some parts of the centre and south of Europe, also in many parts of Asia, and in the north of Africa, but it is not known in America. It is a bird of temperate rather than of cold climates. In some countries, it is found at all seasons of the year, but it deserts its most northern haunts in severe weather, migrating southward ; its flocks, like those of others of this genus, flying at a great height, beyond the reach of shot, except of the rifle, one bird always leading the flock, the rest sometimes following in a single line, but more generally in two lines converging to the leading bird. The Gray Lag G. was formerly abundant in the fenny parts of England, and resided there all the year, but the drainage of the fens has made it now a rare bird, and only knoyn as a winter visitant in the British Islands. It frequents bays of the sea and estuaries as well as inland waters, and often leaves the waters to visit moors, meadows, and cultivated fields, generally preferring an open country, or taking its place, as remote as possible from danger, in the
Bean Goose (Anas segetum). middle of a field. These excursions are often made by night, and no small mischief is often done by extend beyond the tail. The habits scarcely differ a flock of hungry geese to a field of newly-sprung from those of the Gray Lag G., but the Bean G. wheat or other crop. At the breeding season, the is a more northern species. It is common in all winter-flocks of wild geese break up into pairs; the the northern parts of Europe and Asia ; and great nests are made in moors or on tussocks in marshes ; numbers breed in Nova Zembla, Greenland, and the eggs vary in number from five to eight or other most northern regions. Large flocks are to be rarely twelve or fourteen; they are of a dull white seen in many parts of Britain in winter, particularly colour, fully three inches long, and two inches in during severe frosts, but a few also breed in the diameter.
north of Scotland, and even in the north of England. Although the common G. has been long domesti The Bean G. is easily domesticated, but generally cated, and it was probably among the very first keeps apart from the ordinary tame geese.—The of domesticated birds, the varieties do not differ WHITE-FRONTED G., or LAUGHING G. (A. albifrons), widely from each other. Emden Geese are remark- is a frequent winter visitant of Britain ; a native able for their perfect whiteness; Toulouse Geese, for of Europe, Asia, and America, breeding chiefly their large size. As a domesticated bird, the G. is on the coasts and islands of the arctic seas. It of great value, both for the table, and on account is only about 27 inches in its utmost length. The of its quills, and of the fine soft feathers. The quills plumage is mostly gray; there is a conspicuous supplied all Europe with pens before steel pens were white space on the forehead. It has been often invented, and have not ceased to be in great demand. tamed. -- Similar to it in size is the PINK-FOOTED Geese must have free access to water, and when this G. (A. brachyrhynchus), a species which has a very is the case, they are easily reared, and rendered short bill. In England it is rare, and a mere winter profitable. Two broods are sometimes produced in visitor, but it breeds in great numbers in some of à season, ten or eleven in a brood, and the young the Hebrides. — The Snow G. (A. hyperboreus) is geese are ready for the table in three months after found in all the regions within the arctic circle, but they leave the shell. They live, if permitted, to a most abundantly in America, where it migrates great age. Willughly records an instance of one southward in winter, as far as the Gulf of Mexico. that reached the age of eighty years, and was it is somewhat smaller than the Bean Goose. The killed at last for its mischievousness. Great flocks general colour of the plumage is pure white, the