« PreviousContinue »
Constructing the machinery of peace.
In its efforts toward world cooperation for peace, the United States Goveroment has turned toward the United Nations, which came into existence 3 years ago as a combination of peoples resisting aggression. Formed after many of its member nations had been overrun by the Axis, and the United States had been attacked at Pearl Harbor, the United Nations coalition was designed to stop the enemy and defeat him. But in carrying out the vast world operations necessary to military victory, various types of organized United Nations cooperative activities came into being. Thus the United Nations provide right now the nucleusperhaps the fundamental framework--of a post-war world organization striving to make certain that war does not come again. Already this war coalition has begun to work in various ways toward a partnership for permanent peace. For example, at Dumbarton Oaks, important proposals were agreed upon by the principal United Nations with respect to specific mechanisms for the maintenance of world peace, subject to final approval by the participating nations. The job for radio.
A. Explain to the American people the official view of its Government on the need for cooperative action among nations in order to establish a lasting peace after victory. The following are the informational steps in the argument for cooperation toward peace:
1. All Americans share the profound hope that victory in the present ya will result in permanent peace. Each of us knows that our future happiness and the preservation of the things we value in our daily lives depend on the prevention of new wars after this one.
2. But no single nation can realize this hope of peace for itself alone, no matter how great its desire or how formidable its armament. Modern war tend to spread and become world wars. The United States can be sure ni peace only if the world is at peace.
3. World peace requires world cooperation. The action of the t'nited States alone-or that of any other nation cannot insure the maintenance of peace in the world. To guard the world against war, world organization and cooperation are necessary to solve beforehand the problems that migh: cause wars.
4. But the problems of peace are only in part the respnosibility of statesmen and diplomats. They are, first of all, the responsibility of every peace loving citizen within the world community. As President Roosevelt said in his recent message to Congress: “The firm foundation can be built-and it will be built. But the continuance and assurance of a living peace must, in
the long run, be the work of the people themselves." B. Point out that the United Nations are a group of nations bound to a common war purpose by the United Nations declaration and that we are working with this group and with associated like-minded nations in the interest of future peace-as in the interest of victory in the present war.
1. The United Nations have been, first and foremost, a war team team that has won great success in resisting aggressors and turning the war in our favor.
2. In our fight for victory we have learned to work together and develop machinery for successful cooperation.
3. Today the United Nations, while still a war coalition, have already begun to work as a partnership for the establishment of permanent peace.
SUGGESTED THEME “Let each of us recognize that world peace is of immediate vital concern te every living human being, because the issue means literally life or death for our selves and for our children. Let each of us resolve to make world cooperation for peace our own personal business-study the proposals for attaining it, discurs it, will it, make it succeed."
Program: Valiant Lady.
John. The war situation has certainly been progressing swiftly.
Joan. History's being written every day-John, don't have to be a great thinker, do 1?- I don't have to be patting myself on the back when I say that above all the confusion in this world, I know what we're fighting for.
JOHN (quietly, gently). What do you mean, Joan?
Joan. All of us in America are agreed, aren't we, that we don't want any more wars?
Joan. Then it would seem to me we'd have to cooperate with the other peaceloving nations of the world to see to it that we don't. Some form of world cooperation for peace, including us, has got to come out of this war or we shall have failed in what we're fighting for—in what our men, like you, are fighting for.
John (tender, simple, strong). This is very like you, Joan.
JOAN. We, in this country, aren't fighting for territory. We're fighting for peace in the world; for a world where war won't come to our country. We're fighting with the United Nations-for that end. (Clear, definite.) To defeat the enemy first-then work together to insure world peace.
John. That was President Roosevelt's goal--the great ideal for which he worked. As you say, we must not fail him and so many others who have died for their country.
JOAN. And people like me, John-the millions and millions of us at homewe've each got to read and think and try to understand what we must do to preserve peace after the war-what the meeting in San Francisco should mean for example.
John. World peace after the war.
JOAN. Oh, there will be differences among the United Nations on this point or that. It won't be easy. But we'll manage! Why, how can you have 45 nations in the United Nations and never have a disagreement?
John. To me, this thing is rather like a marriage--or being in love. Joan. In what way? John. You have your disagreements, but what do they mean in the end? You're so lucky to have each other.
Joan (thinking of her and Truman's problems). Oh, John, there's a world of wisdom in what you said. (Note of hope and joy.) In fact, you've said more than you know-not only in the course of world peace, but my peace. Program: Design For Listening. Sponsor: Sustainining. Network: National Broadcasting Co. Date: March 29, 1945.
ANNOUNCER. We have heard it said, “In time of peace prepare for war.” And the opposite of this is true too: in time of war, let us prepare for peace so that there shall be no more war. This, in fact, is what our Government is now doing-in working to prevent futrue wars which, in a world grown smaller and more complex, will be sure to engulf us, if we let them so much as begin. Thus, we can be sure of peace only in a world, mind you, a world, of peace. And so we can see that world peace depends on world cooperation. The other nations of the world must work for peace; we of the United States of America must work for peace. Peace is the business, the concern, and the duty of every citizen who hopes to live a normal, uninterrupted life. It is the concern of every man and woman who seeks to pass on a good world to the generations to come. The United Nations have proved themselves great in war. They are now faced with the prospect of making and maintaining peace. This, too, can come to pass. Preliminary work is already under way. Both major political parties are committed to some form of world organization. But each of us must do our part. We must study the peace plans and discuss them. We must
have the will for peace. We must make peace succeed.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. Is it, in your opinion, a proper use of appropriated funds to attempt to influence Congress through public opinion before a policy is in fact determined upon?
Mr. Davis. There are two questions there. One is a question of : regular campaign on a program conducted by this office or any other; the other is our duty, as the coordinating agency for relations between the Federal Departments and the radio industry. If an official of a department wants to speak on something related to his own department alone, our general counsel is of the opinion that when material is provided by a department itself exclusively on one of those topics, the responsibility for determining whether it is a legitimate Government utterance lies with the department concerned. Accordingly, our responsibility would seem to be, in that case, under the Executive order, to serve as the contact point between the Government and the radio industry.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. And your function, as you interpret it, extends to nonwar activities as well as war activities?
Mr. Davis. The definition in the Executive order is the status and progress of the war effort and the war policies, activities, and aims of the Government. Unquestionably one of the war aims of the Government is some international organization which it is hoped may lead to a durable peace. So I think that is clearly within our commission. Furthermore, it has been called to my attention that section 4 (d) of the Executive order directs us to review, clear, and approve all proposed radio and motion-picture programs sponsored by the Federal departments and agencies.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. You have in mind, I assume, the law which makes it an offense punishable by removal from office, fine, and imprisonment for any employee of the Federal Government to use appropriated funds through advertisement, printed or written matter, directly or indirectly to influence a Member of Congress to favor or oppose, by vote or otherwise, directly or indirectly, any legislation or appropriation whether before or after introduction of any bill or resolution?
MOTION PICTURE BUREAU Mr. WIGGLES WORTH. What is your function under the Motion Picture Bureau?
Mr. HERRICK. I do not need to quote that part of Executive Order No. 9182 again, but it applies to motion pictures produced by Federal departments and agencies, as well as to the radio.
The Motion Picture Bureau of the Domestic Branch acts as a channel of distribution and point of contact with the motion-picture industry for the Government. Through the War Activities Committee of the motion-picture industry, the Government is offered two short subjects. one or two reels in length, and two news-reel subjects of 75 feet in length every month. These pictures illustrate some important Government information program. The Bureau also handles the distribution of 16-millimeter films produced by Government departments and agencies.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. You do not produce any film?
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. Does your stamp of approval go on the picture when it appears on the screen?
Mr. HERRICK. We have seen the picture in script form and in finished form.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. I mean when it appears on the screen, does it say “Approved by O. W. 1."'?
Mr. Mills. No, sir; it carries in the title the phrase: “Released through the facilities of the Office of War Information."
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. That is probably the explanation. I had a letter the other day from an angry gentleman who says:
I wandered into a news-reel theater today and was surprised to note the type of thing that Office of War Information is putting out as a "public service.” This film dealt with (a) a business carried on by a woman training canaries, (b) a collector of finger rings and some of his unique specimens, and (c) pictures dealing with a Texas gentleman, aged 103.
I wish someone would tell me what these have to do with the war effort, information on which, I had supposed, is the province and duty of the Office of War Information. Even if they made a profit on the film isn't this a matter for private enterprise and not the United States Government? Surely we have better ways of spending our money these days.
Mr. Mills. It is possible that gentleman went into a news-reel theater as a Government picture was ending, and he may have associated the words "Office of War Information” on that film with the following commercial news reel which included those special items he mentioned. I am positive this Office has never put out any such information, or sponsored it in any way.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. And the only reels you pass upon are war reels?
Mr. Mills. That is right.
On the matter of pictures which your constituent inquired about, we would be very glad to inform him of the facts, unless you would prefer to do so yourself.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. I will write him. I have already written him, but I will pass the good word on to him.
SUMMARY OF ESTIMATES FOR 0. W. I.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. I am not sure whether we have here a comprehensive table of your “Other obligations.” If we have not got it, I wish you would give us for the record an over-all break-down, by customary budget category, for fiscal years 1945 and 1946, first for the Overseas Branch and, second, for the Domestic Branch.
Mr. HERRICK. All right, sir. -
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. No; just the two categories, one overseas and the other domestic, broken down by travel, transportation of things, communications, and so forth.
Mr. HULTEN. We will supply a table giving that information.
$1,627, 805 $22, 028, 861 $16, 725, 176 $1, 462, 045
38, 447 1, 587, 556 1, 182, 001 57, 232
2, 719, 202 2, 118, 699 14, 731
1, 914, 845 3, 165, 831 48, 284, 077 37, 277, 169 1, 844, 826