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Mr. HERRICK. The explanation is that they are the top people in the whole branch. They include the Deputy Directors. whom Mr. Dalton mentioned, as the people who perform liaison with top level officials of Government departments and agencies.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. That includes a new Executive Director, a new Assistant Director and a new Director of War Programs, does it not?
Mr. HERRICK. Those are only new titles for old jobs. The Executive Director formerly was called the Assistant Director for Policy; the Director of War Programs was formerly called Chief of the Office of Program Coordination. There is no increase in the number of positions.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. Does it involve increases in salaries?
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. What is the operation that you referred to as Government information policy liaison?
Mr. HERRICK. We have felt the need for some time for someone to make a study looking to a better method of coordinating information policies. I might say that we have been on the lookout for a man who might fill the job and we have not found him yet. We probably will have a vacancy for a while.
Mr. WiggleSWORTH. How much does the new policy involve in personnel and dollars?
Mr. HERRICK. It involves an $8,000 salary for the Deputy Director, and I presume he will have to have some secretarial assistance two people.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH, About three people all told?
BUREAU OF GRAPHICS
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. Now, your Bureau of Graphics is a new setup. What is that?
Mr. HERRICK. The Bureau of Graphics was formerly a division of the Office of Program Coordination. Its responsibilities expanded, and as part of a reorganization through which we think we improved the organization efficiency of the Branch, it was set up as an independent bureau.
The Bureau of Graphics clears and allocates a number of contributed facilities. For example, it is the channel through which Government requests go to the outdoor advertising industry, and to the transportation advertising industry--the people who put up car cards in streetcars and in busses. The outdoor advertising industry contributes 5,000 24-sheet posters per month, the commercial value of which amounts to about $1,000,000 a year. The transportation advertising industry allots to the Government, through O. W. I., 100,000 car cards per month. And it is the function of the Graphics Bureau, in cooperation with Mr. Frederick, as Director of War Programs, to allocate those 100,000 car cards per month to the various programs. That is why one month you see a nurses' recruiting program card in the busses, and the next month you see one supporting the security of war information program.
The Graphics Bureau is also the bureau which passes on all Gorernment posters and other graphic material and aids other Govern
ment agencies in securing poster space throughout the country in support of their war information programs.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. Do you produce this material yourselves?
Mr. HERRICK. No, sir; we do not. I might say in that connection that the Bureau of Graphics has enlisted the services of an art pool, which includes the top artists of the country-men like Norman Rockwell, James Montgomery Flagg, Walt Disney, and others--and through this arrangement, when a Government department wants a poster done, instead of having to buy from a man who can command anywhere from $1,000 to $5,000 for a painting, a painting is secured from a member of the pool for an agreed-upon $300. The saving through the use of the art pool amounts to about $100,000 a year to the Government.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. You mean we pay the people who prepare the material?
Mr. HERRICK. The interested agency pays the artist. He makes the drawing for a maximum of $300.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. What do you mean by the "interested agency”?
Mr. HERRICK. Let us say the War Shipping Administration wants to put on a merchant-marine recruiting program. They come to our Graphics Bureau and tell them what they want. The Graphics Bureau goes to the art pool; the art pool furnishes the artist; the artist provides the painting. Probably you have seen the painting of the sailor with his hand on the spokes of the ship's wheel. That cost $300 instead of the $1,200 that it would have cost otherwise.
Mr. WiggLESWORTH. Are those new functions or old functions, under a bureau with a new title?
Mr. HERRICK. I would say they are old functions, although they have been expanded in the last year or so.
Mr. DALTON. It is just a tightening up of the organization.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. Can you give us a break-down for the record showing just what has gone out by category amount and cost during the past fiscal year? Mr. HERRICK. Yes, sir. (The information requested is as follows:)
The Office of War Information produces no posters of its own; the following is a list of posters, art work for which was purchased by Office of War Information's Bureau of Graphics for the intrrested agencies and for which Office of War Inforn ation was reimbursed. As we previously explained at the committee hearing, $300 is the maximum price paid for any single painting, though the average commercial value of these works would be approximately $1,500 each. (Since each agency places its printing orders direct, Office of War Information does not have cost figures available for these posters.)
Mine America's Coal.
Norman Rockwell. War Manpower Commission Watch It, Folks (car card)
Herbert Bohnert... Price Administration.
Douglass Crockwell ----do
Clarence Hornung. Price Administration.
Victor Keppler ----
Federal Security Agency Save Waste Paper..
War Production Board.. Forest fire bear -
Albert Staehle.. Agriculture...... Eat the Plentiful Foods (bilboard pos George Brehm.
..do ter). Farm poster ---
Treasury.... Won't You Give My Boy a Chance to Jerome Rozen.
Defense Transportation.. Get Home?
50,000 75, 400
2,700 1,800 30, 400 625, 000 100,000 190,000
30,000 322, 000
Give 'Em the Old 1-2
Fred Cooper Defense Transportation. Logging recruitment poster..
Lyman Anderson. War Manpower Commission. Home for the Holida ys (billboard poster).. Peter Helck
Defense Transportation. Navy safety poster.
Luther Horner. Navy Department Do..
do.. Three fire and safety posters.
Muni Lieblein. National Housing Agency Let's Finish the Job.
Martha Sawyers. Maritime Commission. Use V-Mail To Be Sure (billboard pos. Hayden Hayden... War Department.
ter). Fence Off Your Seedlings..
Herbert Stoops.. Agriculture. Cut Low Stumps
Adolph Treidler Thin Your Crowded Trees
.do. Need Marketing Advice?
Earle B. Winslow
do. Proper Harvesting Pays
do. Cut Wolf Trees for Fuel.
.do. Know Your Timber.
do Agriculture census poster.
Commerce Safety poster
Muni Lieblein. Agriculture
Fred Ludekins. Arny-Navy-Federal Bureau of
Herbert Stoops. Agriculture..
Lejaren Hiller War Department. Photographs to be used in Maritime Cecil Baumgarten. - Maritime Commission
recruiting booklet. V-mail symbol...
William Metzig. War Department. Be With Him at Mail Call.
do Fat Salvage (car card)
Charles E. Howell Navy Department.
Muni Lieblein. Agriculture. Fill It.
do Could This Be You..
Gluyas Williams. Defense Transportation The War's Not Over (car card)
Herbert M. Stoops. - War-Navy-Treasury. The Jap's in the Fight (billboard poster) Fred Ludekins.
do.. Me Travel?
do Order Coal Now
Michael H. Arens. Interior-Solid Fuels.. Brownout poster.
Arthur Palmer War Production Board or Course I Can
Richard Williams. Agriculture... Cadet nurse poster.
Federal security poster Veterans' nurse.
Douglass Crockwell. Veterans' Administration
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. For the Bureau of Graphics, you are asking 16 people at $62,212. That is an average of almost $4,000 apiece. What is the explanation of that?
Mr. Herrick. Well, we have a Chief of that Bureau at $8,000; an Assistant Chief at $6,500; three $5,600 people; four at $4,600; and the rest at lesser grades.
Mr. Hulten. The average salary is $3,650.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. Sixteen people at $62,212 averages just und $4,000.
Mr. HULTEN. There is probably a small amount for temporary employees in there.
NEWS AND FOREIGN NEWS BUREAU
Mr. Wigglesworth. For your News Bureau you ask 47 people si $ 153,000-plus, and for your Foreign News Bureau, 16 people, 21 $68,160. That is an average of $4,250 in the Foreign News Buresu What is the explanation of that?
Mr. HERRICK. In the Foreign News Bureau we have a bureau chief at $8,000; an assistant bureau chief at $6,500. Then, because we operate on a 24-hour-a-day, seven-day-a-week basis, we have had to have four $5,600 chiefs of the news desk.
I might say that the Foreign News Bureau is one of the bureaus that will be rather sharply cut. Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. What does that bureau do? I am not clear.
Mr. HERRICK. The Bureau receives from various official sources, the chief of which is the Federal Communications Commission, through their monitoring service, monitored news, principally from enemy and enemy-occupied countries. They receive on an average of about 285,000 words a day.
Using a straight news technique, they pick out stories which they think are newsworthy and send to a group of newspapers, all the major radio networks, and all the press associations a file of news which the newspapers and radio stations would not ordinarily get otherwise; because, as I say, it is derived from large-scale monitoring of enemy and enemy-controlled radio, and other foreign broadcasts.
Mr. DALTON. That file, I might say, is carried over a teletype circuit to those clients who want it, at their expense; they pay for the ticker wire charge. It is a wire service which they want, and have requested of us. . It does not duplicate, because the larger foreign news services, the A. P., the U. P., and the I. N. S., often cannot get what is going on in these countries themselves.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. That is what I was going to ask--what can they get that the established news services cannot get?
Mr. HERRICK. Up to the present time nearly all of the news, practically 95 percent of all the news of Japanese origin that you see in the press, has been sent out on the wires of the Foreign News Bureau. It is true that the United Press has a small monitoring station on the west coast, but all they are able to pick up is short wave in English. We are able, through the F. C. C., to pick up Japanese domestic broadcasts in Japanese and other Asiatic languages, as well as English-language transmissions.
I have here some recent copies of newspapers. Here, printed in the New York Herald Tribune is the story “Hitler Death Annnouncement,” which was sent out over the German radio, and here is
Admiral Doenitz' Order of the Day." These stories came via our Foreign News Bureau.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. Would not the Associated Press and the other news services get that story?
Mr. HERRICK. No, sir; they did not get that in text form. The Associated Press, for example, sent out on its wires the texts it received from the Foreign News Bureau.
Mr. Davis. They get some of those things, but the coverage here given is far wider than if it were obtained by any of the private monitoring services, such as that which the A. P. conducts in London, the U. P. in London, New York, and on the west coast, and the Columbia Broadcasting System in New York. You get an enormously greater volume made available from the Federal monitoring service; also you have the great advantage that you are able to check what the enemy is saying to us in English by short wave radio with what he is telling his own people at home on the same subject, which very often is a materially different story.
There is no question but that this service leads to a very much larger flow of news than there could possibly be without it.
Mr. HERRICK. I might say also that several of the communiques you read in the daily paper come solely from the. Foreign News Bureau—from spots that are hard to monitor, like Yugoslavia, China, Czechoslovakia, and Moscow.
Mr. DALTON. There is no other monitoring service, U. P. or the others, that monitors foreign-language news on such an extensive scale.
Mr. HERRICK. At the present time the Bureau bas 27 employees, Now that the shooting war in Europe has stopped and the news correspondents are expected to have free access to hitherto closed countries, we hope to eliminate the Bureau's European file and confine our file to Pacific news, thus enabling a reduction in personnel of 11 positions.
Mr. Davis. But we have to keep a first-class crew of men, because this is a job that had better not be done at all than to be done wrong. It depends on the news judgment of the man in charge of the Bureau at each hour of the day or night.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. For your Book and Magazine Bureau, you are asking 10 people at $38,000. That is a $3,800 average. What is the explanation there?
Mr. HERRICK. There is a chief at $8,000; an assistant chief at $6,500; one magazine specialist at $4,600; another at $3,800; and the New York representative of the Bureau is a $5,600 employee.
Mr. WIGGLESWORTH. What does that Bureau do?
Mr. HERRICK. The Book and Magazine Bureau serves on the one hand the various Government agencies and, on the other, the 572 magazines which are published in this country. Naturally, magazines share with newspapers the privileges of a free press. There is no way you can get a program-related story into magzzines other than by two appeals-one, to the patriotic cooperation of the editor; and, two, to show him that a certain topic is going to be of interest at the time the magazine is published. As you know, the magazines. particularly in this day of manpower shortage and paper shortage and all the other difficulties, have to be made up a good many weeks in some cases months, before their date of publication. It is very helpful to the magazines to have somebody within the Government, as the Book and Magazine Bureau is, who knows what is coming up and what will be of topical interest to the magazines on their dates of publication.
Mr. DALTON. I might mention in passing that during this past year we brought down some of the top magazine editors and writers of the country who met with General Marshall, Admiral King, and General Arnold, who gave them off the record a complete background for their guidance, and a great deal of good came from that. They really gave them the story of the war, objectives, status, and all.
Mr. HERRICK. We do not claim the entire credit for it, but in 1943 the fact is there were 3,213 war-related articles in American magazines; whereas, in 1944, the number had increased to 4,124.