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GERMAN.

MACHINES AND MACHINERY.

BY H. W. DULCKEN, PH.D.

BY EXOCH GREGOR LEA.

PAGE

PAGE

XXVIII.

25 XLII.

PAGE

458

PAGE

I.

XXIX.

61 XLIII.

VI.

482

772

II.

656

XXX.

90 XLIV.

VII.

811

522

III.

0.0

XXXI.

122

XLV.

VIII.

5.59

813

IV.

XXXII.

159 XLVI.

720

IX.

577

V.

XXXIII.

197

730

XLVII.

X.

871

619

XXXIV.

221 XLVIII.

616

XXXV.

250 XLIX.

678

MECHANICS.

XXXVI.

280

L.

710

BY H. W. LLOYD TAXXER, A.

XXXVII.

318

LI.

746

I.

32

X

318

XXXVIII.

350

LII.

774

II.

78

XI

379

XXXIX.

382

LIII.

826

III.

102

XII.

418

XL.

409

LIV.

811

IV.

110)

XIII.

XLI.

4-11

LV.

851

V.

162

XIV.

11

ANCIENT HISTORY.

VI.

201

XV,

520

BY HENRY N. INMAN.

VII.

235

XVI.

515

VIII.

262 XVII.

555

XXIV.

21 ' XXXVIII.

488

IX.

311

XXV.

551 XXXIX.

515

XXVI.

XL.

518

POLITICAL ECONOMY.

XXVII.

121

XLI.

591

XXVIII.

16) XLII.

BY ROBERT 60MERS.

615

XXIX.

191

XLIII.

652

I.

III.

154

XXX. .

217 XLIV.

681

II.

127

XXXI.

250

XLV.

711

XXXII.

311 XLVI.

743

POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY

XXXIII.

345 XLVII.

776

BY DAVID KAY, F.R.G.S.

XXXIV.

303 XLVIII.

807

XXXV.

321 XLIX.

I.

2.5

X

839

551

XXXVI.

II.

421

206

XI.

587

867

III.

XXXVII.

460

LI.

329

879

XII.

613

IV.

352

XIII.

617

MODERN HISTORY.

V.

391

XIV.

679

BY H. W. DULCKEN, PH.D.

VI.

420

XV.

708

VII.

451

XXVII.

3

XLI.

474

XVI.

741

XXVIII.

XLII.

36

XVII.

VIII.

508

495

799

XXIX.

621

76 XLIII.

510

XVIII

XXX.

105 XLIV.

569

XXXI.

129

XLV.

699

SOUND, LIGHT, AND HEAT.

XXXII.

176 XLVI.

631

BY THOMAS DUNMAN.

XXXIII.

200 XLVII.

663

I.

543

VII.

XXXIV.

732

231 XLVIII.

691

II.

575

XXXV.

VIII.

764

267 XLIX.

727

III.

606

XXXVI.

IX.

788

299

L.

759

IV.

635

XXXVII.

X.

827

332

LI.

783

V.

€68

XI.

XXXVIII.

847

356

LII.

821

VI.

699

XII.

XXXIX.

LIII.

876

406

861

XL.

439

ZOOLOGY.

LATIN.

BY G. T. BETTANY, B.SC.

BY T. H. L. LEARY, M.A., D.C.L.

I.

1

XV.

XXIX

31

XLII.

490

II.

43

XVI.

611

XXX.

51 XLIII.

526

III.

FO

XVII.

636

XXXI.

86 XLIV.

516

IV.

108 XVIII.

572

XXXII.

149

XLV.

673

V.

143

XIX.

601

XXXIII.

XLVI.

597

VI.

168

XX.

610

XXXIV.

202 XLVII.

63+

VTI.

215

XXI.

670

XXXV.

270 XLVIII.

674

VIII.

253

XXII.

704

XXXVI.

291 XLIX.

716

IX.

18+ XXIII.

737

XXXVII.

335

L.

719

X.

316 XXIV.

766

XXXVIII.

353

LI.

781

XI.

310

XXV.

796

XXXIX.

382

LII.

XII.

371 XXVI.

821

XL.

123

LII.

XIII.

412 XXVII.

803

XLI.

463

LIV.

869

XIV.

THE FRIENDLY COUNSELLOR.

How To Pass EXAMINATIONS

By Thomas Dunman

19

FRIENDS, AND How to Choose THEM

39

ON LIBERTY OF SPEECH

150

Tak VIRTUE OF PATIENCE

178

COMMON TALK

Jobn T. Young, F.G.S.

1 g

NATURALNESS AND APPECTATION

Thomas Dunman

214

ON GOING TO EXTREMES

238

MANAGEMENT MADE Easy

22

HABITS OF THRIFT

2-9

ALONE IN A GREAT Cirr :

ALL IN GOOD ORDER

359

IN A Good TEMPER

EDUCATION FOR YOUNG WOMEN

M. J. H. Gwynne Bettany

650, 734

PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS.

THE BAR

THE MEDICAL PROFESSION

428

BANKING AS A PROFESSION

By Robert Somers

477

AGRICULTURE

599

MECHANICAL OCCUPATIONS

W. J. E. Crane

C09, 612, 682

How to ENTER THE CIVIL SERVICE

John T. Young, F.G.S.

706, 738, 769

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THE

UNIVERSAL INSTRUCTOR;

OR

Self-Culture for all.

new

they occur in a regular order, and have a be

ginning and an end, which we call birth and ZOOLOGY.

death. When born, the living
creature feeds on material from Cycle of changes ;
outside, which we call food; it growth, death.

increases in size, or grows for a longer or BY G. T. BETTANY, M.A., B.Sc.

shorter space of time. Afterwards it ceases to

grow, it begins to decay, it finally dies. But INTRODUCTORY,

life is continued by certain small portions of The name given to our subject signifies the the creature becoming separate from it, and science or knowledge of animals; if we take it beginning life for themselves. So in its fullest sense, it includes every sort of there

a continuous succession of Reproduction. knowledge about animals. More commonly it living creatures kept up; the animal creation is limited, so

is constantly as to deal

being reproparticularly

duced. It is with that

not necessary kind of infor

for every ani. mation about

mal and plant animals which

thus to give places them in

rise to an orderly

ones : many arrangement,

human beings, and which

as wellas other describes

creatures, die their outside

without leav. appearances,

ing offspring; and their his

still a suffi. tory so far as

cient number it can be

leave reprelearnt by ex

sentatives beternal Obser

hind them to ration. In

(Chelydra serpentina). (Alligator Lucius). (Orpheus polyglottus.) keep up the these pages

series. we shall not attempt to include or to exclude matter by any hard boundary line;

DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN ANIMALS AND Plants.. Classification but our endeavour will be to give In common life, and before receiving any natural history, such reasoning and such facts as

special instruction, no one finds a difficulty may best conduce to an under- in distinguishing between animals and plants. standing of the animal creation. As far as Contrast the dog, cat, or horse with the oak. possible the information possessed by every one The former can run about, can see, hear, and will be appealed to, and the striking facts make sounds; the oak, on the contrary, is which occur about us every day, whether noticed quite passive as to all these things. The or unnoticed, will be enlarged upon.

animal gets and swallows food from without, It is evident that we need to begin by getting guided by sight, hearing, and taste; he can a correct idea of what is meant by an animal. attack other animals or defend himself against

Every animal of course shares their onset by means of his limbs; the oak Character of with every plant the characters living creatures.

can fulfil none of these functions. "of being alive. Each member of These facts supply us with some first-rate disthe living kingdom has a more complicated tinctions between animals and plants, and give chemical composition than anything which is us also the means of showing what characters not alive. But further than this, it is especially are not essential to animals. The noticeable that all living things are undergoing animal takes into itself solid food; Solid food. changes, whether quick

or slow, and that these the oak does not. Many small animals appear changes are unlike those of dead matter, for to feed on liquids; but it will be found that VOL. II.

1

[graphic]

SXAPPIXG TURTLE.

ALLIGATOR.

YOCKING-BIRD.

sease.

these contain minute solid particles which really form their food. For example, an oyster merely has sea - water continually passing through its nearly-closed shell ; it has the means, however, of picking out and swallowing the portions of suitable food contained in the water. This test will help us to include various creatures in the animal kingdom when we find out that their food is solid. The sponges, for instance, have currents of water entering and leaving their bodies as regularly as in the case of the oyster; and by careful examination it is proved that they feed similarly by taking in the solid food that floats in the water.

Most of the other features which we named as contrasts between the dog and the

oak would fail us somewhere or Insufficient

other in the animal kingdom. distinctions.

Many animals, including the sponges and corals, never move from their position in adult life, although the original creature which founded the organism as we

know it, was able to travel for Locomotion.

some time. And some undoubted plants are capable of locomotion.

Again, while many animals have distinct and wonderfully constructed eyes and ears,

those which do not possess them Organs of

are also very numerous. Some

plants, moreover, show a remarkable sensitiveness to touch, if not to light and sound, and so have a similarity to the highest

classes of animals. And just as Organs of

there are animals that can wound offence.

and injure their enemies, so there are plants which can sting and prick or poison those who would do them harm. Thus we may have some idea of the difficulty there is in arriving at a satisfactory division between animals and plants, although it can only be properly understood by making personal acquaintance with the creatures that occasion this trouble. Every endeavour, however, of this kind is the means of adding to our knowledge, of enlarging our ideas and instructing our higher nature, which is the valuable end of study. Let us firmly seat in our minds the broad distinction belonging to animals, that they take food into their interior, and we shall possess the best practical guide to determining what creatures should be reckoned in the animal kingdom. We may add that the food of animals is usually derived either from other animals or from plants, and then refer for fuller details to the lessons on Animal Physiology which will appear in later numbers of the UNIVERSAL INSTRUCTOR.

IDEAS OF CLASSIFICATION. The observation of every child reveals to him many different animals with strongly

marked characters, and leads him Superficial to ponder on the mystery of their differences of animals.

diversity and on the reasons for

their actions. Too often he pulls to pieces, or cuts up, as many as he can get hold of, being naturally ignorant of any rights that they may have, and purely guided by an instinctive thirst for knowledge. We can easily

renew the first rough grouping of childhood, which knows animals by their legs, their teeth, their horns, their wings, their tails. Thus we find around us animals with two pairs of limbs, by which they can walk, run, jump, or climb, such as cats, horses, dogs, frogs. Others are distinguished by the possession of but two legs, combined with a pair of wings for flight, comprehensively denoted as birds; and we suppose few have ever failed to distinguish between these and butterflies and bees, which have six tiny legs and four slender wings. Spiders, again, will form a very

Legs : wings :

locomotion : noticeable group in childhood's

shells. observation, but perhaps it is not always set among their peculiarities that they have eight legs, while beetles have only six. The earthworm is another creature that always attracts attention by its sinuous motion and the series of rings it exhibits; while the snail is made familiar to every one by the oftrepeated operation of making it “draw in its horns.” Here is a creature slowly gliding along, carrying its house on its back.

Animals living in water are all popularly denoted as “fish"; yet not all of them even breathe by means of water, and the differences between them are

Aquatic

animals. very manifest. The lobster and crab, with their long legs and claws, and their hard external covering, strike us at once as being of a different nature from the soft scaly mackerel or herring, with their peculiar flat fins. Sharply contrasted with both these are the animals that live inside shells, whether composed of one piece, as in the whelk and periwinkle, or of two portions, as in the oyster and scallop. Besides these, the inland boy or girl will have found soft-bodied worms and leeches in fresh water; while the little seaside observer has open to him richer treasures cast up by the sea-the cuttle-fish, with its numerous arms clothed with strong suckers-the starfish, with its five rough arms extended, forming most of its body-the sea-urchin, with its hard dome covered with spines—the soft mass of the jelly-fish drying up almost to nothing on the strand in the sun of a summer's day. And besides all these, the sponge and the coral are distributed almost everywhere, as the evidences of life that has been, far away.

With no aid but our natural powers of observation we can discern the striking features of these various members of the animal creation. But the micro

Life revealed scope further reveals to us a

by microscope. world of life which we could not otherwise see in fresh and salt water, and on the surface of larger animals. Fortified with magnifying lenses, we perceive some small creatures stationary in water, others capable of rapid motion; many with weapons of offence and defence. Some of these appear as complex in their nature as the largest animals, while others are so simple as to astonish us. We thus learn more and more of the variety of the animal kingdom, and the minute compass of space within which the essentials of life can go on.

As our faculties ripen, and our reading and observation enlarge, we notice differences

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