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sions, and which has acquired a more and more definite meaning, until, to-day, nearly every word it contains has been interpreted by the courts. It is this desire to have a definite and interpreted contract as the basis of marine-insurance transactions which has been largely responsible for the fact that numerous features of Lloyd’s policy have been incorporated and retained in American policies to this day. Many important changes have been introduced into American policies as compared with the Lloyd’s form, yet in some important particulars, like the enumeration of the perils against which insurance is taken, the influence of Lloyd’s is still clearly apparent.

FORM OF APPLICATION FOR MARINE INSURANCE COASTWISE APPLICATION

Insurance is wanted by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Company, of - - - - - - - - - - - - - - , for account of whom it may concern, loss, if any, payable in funds current in the United States or in the city of New York to the said company or order. It is understood and agreed that this insurance is to cover the liability assumed by the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... Company with respect to merchandise transported by it which the assured or any of their agents or any of their railroad or other connections may have agreed or may agree, whether by written agreements, arrangements, or understandings, or otherwise, with owners, shippers, consignees, or others interested in or connected with said merchandise, to insure touching the adventures and perils specified in the body of the policy. To attach from the time that the merchandise is receipted for or in the custody of the assured company and to continue until the delivery of the merchandise to consignees or connecting carriers, including lighterage and transshipment, but neither at the port of loading nor port of destination is the risk of fire to exceed five days before loading or after discharge. Each shipment or interest and/or each kind of goods therein, subject to separate particular average as if separately insured. It is also understood and agreed that the liability of the assured

as common carriers, as to interests insured hereunder, is covered in conformity with the printed conditions of this policy. Goods on deck warranted by the assured free from loss by wet, leakage, breakage, or exposure. Proof of loss to be authenticated by the agent of the company, if there be one, at the place such proofs are taken. Warranted by the assured free from claim on account of capture, seizure, detention, or destruction, by or arising from hostile forces, civil commotions, riots, or by the acts of officers or other persons acting in the name of belligerents, or in pursuing warlike operations whether before or after declaration of war.

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CHAPTER XXV

THE NATURE OF THE RISK ASSUMED AND THE PERILS INSURED AGAINST

THE general description of the subject matter insured and the character and duration of the voyage are usually set forth in the opening words of the policy. No uniform wording has been adopted by all the companies in this respect, yet as representative of the conditions usually provided, the following form is given as typical of American vessel policies:

BY THE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance Company .......... - - - - - - - - , on account of ........................, in case of loss, to be paid to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Do.. make insurance, and Cause . . to be insured, lost or not lost, at and from the . . . . . . . . day of . . . . . . . . , 191..., at noon, until the . . . . . . . . day of . . . . . . . . y 191..., noon. If on a passage at the expiration of the term, with liberty to renew the policy, for one, two, or three months, at the same rate of premium, if application be made to the company on or before the expiration of the first term. The risk, however, is to terminate at any port at which she may first arrive during the said extended time, on her being moored therein twenty four hours in good safety; a pro rata premium to be returned for each entire month not entered of the extended time, there being no loss or other claims made. (Then may follow certain warranties and agreements.)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - upon the body, tackle, apparel, and other furniture of the good ...... called the . . . . . . . . whereof is master for this present voyage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , or whoever else shall go for master in the said vessel, or by whatever other name, or names, the said vessel, or the master thereof, is or shall be named or called.

And it shall and may be lawful for the said vessel in her voyage to proceed and sail to, touch, and stay at any ports or places,

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